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Shaping markets through competition and economic regulation is at the heart of addressing the development challenges facing countries in southern Africa. The contributors to Competition Law And Economic Regulation: Addressing Market Power In Southern Africa critically assess the efficacy of the competition and economic regulation frameworks, including the impact of a number of the regional competition authorities in a range of sectors throughout southern Africa.
Featuring academics as well as practitioners in the field, the book addresses issues common to southern African countries, where markets are small and concentrated, with particularly high barriers to entry, and where the resources to enforce legislation against anti-competitive conduct are limited. What is needed, the contributors argue, is an understanding of competition and regional integration as part of an inclusive growth agenda for Africa. By examining competition and regulation in a single framework, and viewing this within the southern African experience, this volume adds new perspectives to the global competition literature.
It is an essential reference tool and will be of great interest to policymakers and regulators, as well as the rapidly growing ecosystem of legal practitioners and economists engaged in the field.
One of the major shortcomings of the current drug discovery and development process is the inability to bridge the gap between early stage discoveries and pre-clinical research in order to advance innovations beyond the discovery phase. This book examines a drug discovery and development model, where the respective expertise of academia and industry are brought together to take promising discoveries through to proof of concept, providing a means to de-risk the drug discovery and development process. Expert author Helen Yu explores integrated drug discovery by analyzing the intersection of intellectual property law and competition law and discusses the role of stakeholders in the efficient translation and commercialization of publically funded research. Considering the transactional risks associated with drug discovery and development, this book advocates for a greater emphasis on contractual freedom and economic efficiency when assessing collaborative partnerships between industry and public research organizations. This standout book bridges the gap between theoretical research and legal practice by providing a research-based applied perspective on university-industry collaborations in drug discovery and development. Achieving Proof of Concept in Drug Discovery and Development has an international appeal, especially in countries actively involved in drug discovery and development. Organizations and associations will also benefit from a research-based applied perspective that advocates for a more nuanced application of the law to the pharmaceutical industry.
To what extent should competition agencies act as market regulators? Competition Law as Regulation provides numerous insights from competition scholars on new trends at the interface of competition law and sector-specific regulation. By relying on the experiences of a considerable number of different jurisdictions, and applying a comparative approach to the topic, this book constitutes an important addition to international research on the interface of competition and regulation. It addresses the fundamental issues of the subject, and contributes to legal theory and practice. Topics discussed include foundations of the complex relationship of competition law and regulation, new forms of advocacy powers of competition agencies, competition law enforcement in regulated industries in general, information and telecommunications markets, and competition law as regulation in IP-related markets. Scholars in the two fields of law and economics will find the research aspects of the book to be of interest. Officials in competition and regulatory agencies will benefit from the practical relevance of the book.
How substantive competition rules are enforced plays a crucial role in achieving their goals. This thoughtful book examines procedural issues that have arisen from the increased enforcement of competition law worldwide. Such issues are reviewed by expert contributors in Europe and around the globe. Special attention is paid to certain rights including the right to be heard, the right to defence, the right to protection of business secrets and the right to judicial review. The overarching structure of the book proposes an agenda for the solution of procedural fairness within competition proceedings for the future. This astute work will be a useful point of reference for scholars, practitioners and policy makers alike, who will benefit from the critical insight into how best to attain procedural fairness in the enforcement of competition law.
Innovation, Competition and Collaboration explores intellectual property (IP) in an era of fast-paced innovation, where private contractual arrangements for shared use of IP are seen to enhance competitive advantage. This timely book examines emerging innovation models and offers a forward-thinking, globalized perspective on critical developments in IP law. As innovation processes become increasingly collaborative, new relationships among players in the innovation space emerge. These developments demand new legal structures that allow horizontally integrated, open and shared use of IP. In this book, expert contributors review fundamental issues surrounding the collaborative use of IP and discuss emerging trends. The topics discussed include: the interpretation of FRAND terms in the context of standard essential patents; secondary liability of technology providers; contractual arrangements in trademark law, and the treatment of IP issues in specific emerging industries. Academics and practitioners alike will find this compelling discussion both informative and pragmatic, benefiting from the insight into how and why, in this modern innovation environment, competitive advantage is not premised solely on IP exclusivity.
With courts and arbitrators functioning daily as front line decision-makers applying EU competition law, this book reflects on a variety of issues related to the litigation and arbitration of cases in this field. It provides expert analysis from perspectives of substance, procedure, fundamental rights, as well as inter-institutional dialogue and coherence. Featuring a range of scholarly contributions, the essays address topics including the 2014 EU `Damages Directive', now in force and being implemented; the EU's tepid reception of the `collective redress' concept; a range of issues concerning state aid law; the arbitrability of competition law issues, as well as many other matters related to arbitration in this context such as judicial review of arbitral awards from a competition law perspective, and the interplay between arbitral proceedings and competition agency investigations. With its wide coverage, this book serves as a valuable resource for any reader working on EU competition law, whether for the purpose of teaching or studying the law, or of practising in this field as a lawyer, public official, judge or arbitrator.
Private Enforcement of Antitrust Law in the United States is a comprehensive Handbook, providing a detailed, step-by-step examination of the private enforcement process, as illuminated by many of the country's leading practitioners, experts, and scholars. Written primarily from the viewpoint of the complainant, the Handbook goes well beyond a detailed cataloguing of the substantive and procedural considerations associated with individual and class action antitrust lawsuits by private individuals and businesses. It is a collection of thoughtful essays that delves deeply into practical and strategic considerations attending the decision-making of private practitioners. This eminently readable and authoritative Handbook will prove to be an invaluable resource for anyone associated with the antitrust enterprise, including both inexperienced and seasoned practitioners, law professors and students, testifying and consulting economists, and government officials involved in overlapping public/private actions and remedies.
Collusion occurs when firms in a market coordinate their behavior for the purpose of producing a supracompetitive outcome. The literature on the theory of collusion is deep and broad but most of that work does not take account of the possible illegality of collusion. Recently, there has been a growing body of research that explicitly focuses on collusion that runs afoul of competition law and thereby makes firms potentially liable for penalties. This book, by an expert on the subject, reviews the theoretical research on unlawful collusion, with a focus on two issues: the impact of competition law and enforcement on whether, how long, and how much firms collude; and the optimal design of competition law and enforcement.The book begins by discussing general issues that arise when models of collusion take into account competition law and enforcement. It goes on to consider game-theoretic models that encompass the probability of detection and penalties incurred when convicted, and examines how these policy instruments affect the frequency of cartels, cartel duration, cartel participation, and collusive prices. The book then considers the design of competition law and enforcement, examining such topics as the formula for penalties and leniency programs. The book concludes with suggested future lines of inquiry into illegal collusion.
Competition Damages Actions in the EU offers a clear and concise analysis of the latest legislation and case law, at both EU and national level, in the field of damages actions for breach of EU competition law. This second edition features contributions from practising lawyers in more than ten jurisdictions, as well as offering a thorough analysis of Directive 2014/104. The author explores all aspects of the subject, including substantive problems, such as indirect purchaser standing and passing-on. He examines evidentiary issues, such as access to documents, particularly in the context of leniency programmes, and the probative value of competition authority decisions. Key features of the second edition include: * First major substantive volume looking at actions for damages under EU competition law since the Commission's proposal, with a thorough review of the Damages Directive of 2014 * Updates on national developments from key jurisdictions * Comprehensive yet accessible text from an experiential viewpoint * Investigation into the concept of collective action as a politically sensitive phenomenon * Key section on the quantification of damages in the context of competition law infringements, written by specialist economists. This thorough exposition will be an invaluable resource for practitioners at all levels - from lawyers in private practice, to judges and competition enforcement officials. Being the first to offer a detailed analysis of damages in the context of the new legislation, this book will also appeal to scholars and students of EU competition law.
Dealing with rights and developments at the margin of classic intellectual property, this fascinating book explores emerging types of regulations and how existing IP regimes inform and influence the judicial and legislative creation of "substitute" IP rights. The editors have carefully structured the book to ensure that there is a thorough analysis of how commercial values arising at the margins of classic IP rights are regulated. As new regimes of regulations emerge, the question of how existing IP regimes inform and influence the judicial and legislative creation of "substitute" intellectual property rights is explored. By doing this, the contributors interrogate the very boundaries that constitute what IP rights traditionally protect and cover. Should all investments in anything intangible and "intellectual" - such as product shapes, personality, data and organization of an event - be protected as property? Should there be qualitative differences among the types of investments and achievements? These are just some of the interesting questions addressed in this important new book. Academics, policymakers, lawyers and many others concerned with IP rights, will benefit from the extensive and thoughtful discussion presented in this work.
Laws prohibiting unilateral anticompetitive conduct have been the subject of vigorous international debate for decades, as policymakers, antitrust scholars and agencies continue to disagree over how best to regulate the market conduct of a single firm with substantial market power. Katharine Kemp describes the controversy over Australia's misuse of market power laws in recent years, which mirrored the international debate in this sphere, and culminated in the fundamental reform of the misuse of market power prohibition under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) in 2017. Misuse of Market Power: Rationale and Reform explains Australia's new misuse of market power law, which adopts an 'effects-based test' for unilateral conduct, and makes a comparative analysis between Australian tests for unilateral anticompetitive conduct and tests from the US and the EU. This text also illuminates the frequently mentioned, but little understood, concept of 'purpose' and its role in framing unilateral conduct standards.
This clear and concise textbook presents EU competition law in political, economic and comparative context. It combines excerpts from key EU rulings with discussions of enforcement policy issues and comparisons with US antitrust cases. Untangling the complex set of factors driving individual outcomes, it is the perfect companion for any student or practitioner in the field. Successive chapters explore the tools used by competition authorities in Europe: to punish cartels that fix prices or divide markets; assess cooperative agreements between rival firms and supplier-customer relationships; to establish a dominant position and find abuses; and review the competitive effects of mergers and acquisitions. The book also explains how authorities determine when business restraints infringe on the principles governing the EU internal market, and when Member States contravene the rules protecting the European competition system including by means of subsidies known as State aids. More than a reference tool, this innovative book provides a rounded account of the various dimensions of EU competition law, of its place at the heart of the EU market integration project and of its relevance for the enforcement of antitrust principles worldwide. Key features: * provides a clear, concise and up-to-date presentation of the law * includes important excerpts from all seminal competition decisions and judgements of the European Commission and the EU Courts * explains the critical nuances of cases by means of contextual notes and questions * integrates law, economics and other policies, providing a holistic sense of competition law and its place in the European system * compares EU competition law with US antitrust law, analysing the root of their differences and enabling the reader to derive comparative insights * supports general and advanced EU and international competition law courses.
Offering a concise and critical comparison of EU competition law and US antitrust law from an economic perspective, this is the ideal textbook for international and interdisciplinary courses combining law and economic approaches. The book provides thorough coverage including the definition of market power, the use of horizontal and vertical restrictions, mergers and the unilateral conduct of dominant firms. It also includes discussion of problems relating to the enforcement of legal prohibitions, which will be of particular interest to practitioners and regulators. With analysis of leading cases of EU competition law, US antitrust law and insightful case studies of competition laws in BRIC countries, this book succinctly highlights the key information and goes further to discuss the many issues relating to the use of economic analysis. Key Features: * uses economic insights to help students understand the context in which the rules of competition law are applied * systematically compares EU competition law and US antitrust law, with discussion of leading cases, in order to understand how the underlying principles work in practice * clear presentation, including boxes highlighting key case studies, ensures information on the competition laws of various BRIC countries is easily accessible * the comparative approach and use of international case studies make this an ideal textbook for students in any jurisdiction.
Technical standards are ubiquitous in the modern networked economy. They allow products made and sold by different vendors to interoperate with little to no consumer effort and enable new market entrants to innovate on top of established technology platforms. This groundbreaking volume, edited by Jorge L. Contreras, assesses and analyzes the legal aspects of technical standards and standardization. Bringing together more than thirty leading international scholars, advocates, and policymakers, it focuses on two of the most contentious and critical areas pertaining to standards today in key jurisdictions around the world: antitrust/competition law and patent law. (A subsequent volume will focus on international trade, copyright, and administrative law.) This comprehensive, detailed examination sheds new light on the standards that shape the global technology marketplace and will serve as an indispensable tool for scholars, practitioners, judges, and policymakers everywhere.
Merger control has emerged as a growing area of competition law within the last decade. Merger operations can impact on a number of jurisdictions and may require regulatory notification and approval in more than one. Merger Control Worldwide provides practitioners and policy-makers with a clear point of reference that will prove invaluable when making decisions and delivering sound and accurate advice in merger cases. The chapters set out the details of every jurisdiction where a mechanism for merger control is in place and make use of flowcharts and diagrams to provide a concise and practical account of the relevant law in each jurisdiction.
The essential guide to EU competition law for students in one volume; extracts from key cases, academic works, and legislation are paired with incisive critique and commentary from two leading experts in the field. In this fast-paced subject area, Alison Jones and Brenda Sufrin carefully highlight the most important cases, legislation, and developments to allow students to navigate the breadth of legislation and case law. With their clear explanations and commentary, the authors provide invaluable support to students as they approach this complex and highly technical area of law. Extracts provide opportunities for students to understand the law in practice, and to see its relevance to business. Indispensable for undergraduate and postgraduate students alike, this is the standalone guide to the competition law of the EU. The text is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre containing: -An additional chapter on State Aid -An interactive map and timeline of the EU -Web links -Updates in the law
One of the fundamental challenges currently facing the EU is that of reconciling its economic and environmental policies. Nevertheless, the role of environmental protection in EU competition law and policy has often been overlooked. Recent years have witnessed a shift in environmental regulation from reliance on command and control to an increased use of market-based environmental policy instruments such as environmental taxes, green subsidies, emissions trading and the encouragement of voluntary corporate green initiatives. By bringing the market into environmental policy, such instruments raise a host of issues that competition law must address. This interdisciplinary treatment of the interaction between these key EU policy areas challenges the view that EU competition policy is a special case, insulated from environmental concerns by the overriding efficiency imperative, and puts forward practical proposals for achieving genuine integration.
The Political Economy of Competition Law in China provides a unique perspective of China's competition law that is situated within its legal, institutional, economic, and political contexts. Adopting a framework that focuses on key stakeholders and the relevant governance and policy environment, and drawing upon stakeholder interviews, case studies, and doctrinal analysis, this book examines China's anti-monopoly law in the context of the political economy from which it emerged and in which it is now enforced. It explains the legal and economic reasoning used by Chinese competition authorities in interpreting and applying the anti-monopoly law, and offers valuable and novel insights into the processes and dynamics of law- and decision-making under that law. This book will interest scholars of competition law and professionals advising clients that operate in China, as well as scholars of Chinese law, Asian law, comparative law, and political and social science.
Increasingly, EU market regulation measures have been introduced in the pursuit of economic justice and welfare. This book illustrates how regulation can help to prevent the abuse of dominance, in particular the abuse of public capital by the state. Comprehensive and interdisciplinary, this book presents the theory of regulation in a highly accessible manner. It explains that whilst the state's ability to make major investments, compete with the private sector and target subsidies may be necessary in supporting infrastructure, the wasteful allocation of public monies can also do immense harm by crowding out private investments, distorting private incentives, and helping to foreclose markets. Against this background, Christian Koenig and Bernhard von Wendland discuss the strengths and weaknesses of EU regulation in the area of competition in the Internal Market, considering both private and public economic activities and market interventions and providing further analysis in light of global competitive pressures. Contemporary and practical, this book will appeal to academics, students and practitioners interested in regulation both in and outside of the EU. Decision-makers, lawmakers and politicians will also benefit from its strong focus on better law making and regulation in order to promote social welfare.
Succinct and concise, this textbook covers all the procedural and substantive aspects of EU competition law. It explores primary and secondary law through the prism of ECJ case law. Abuse of a dominant position and merger control are discussed and a separate chapter on cartels ensures the student receives the broadest possible perspective on the subject. In addition, the book's consistent structure aids understanding: section summaries underline key principles, questions reinforce learning and essay discussion topics encourage further exploration. By setting out the economic principles which underpin the subject, the author allows the student to engage with the complexity of competition law with confidence. Integrated examples and an uncluttered writing style make this required reading for all students of the subject.
Comparative Competition Law examines the key global issues facing competition law and policy. This volume's specially commissioned chapters by leading writers from the United States, Europe, Asia, South America, and Australia provide a synthesis of how these current issues are addressed by drawing on the approaches taken in different jurisdictions around the world. Expert contributors examine the regulation of core competitive conduct by comparing substantive law approaches in the US and the EU. The book then explores issues of enforcement - such as the regulator's powers, whether to criminalize anti-competitive conduct, the degree to which private enforcement ought to be encouraged, and the extraterritorial scope of domestic laws. Finally, the book discusses how competition law is being implemented in a variety of countries, including Japan, China, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia. This scholarly analysis of the key substantive, procedural, and remedial challenges facing global competition law policymakers offers a comparative framework to facilitate a better understanding of relevant policies. This collection of global perspectives will be of great interest to scholars and students of competition law, microeconomics, and regulatory studies. Competition law regulators, policy makers, and law practitioners will also find this book an invaluable resource.
How does EU internal market law, in particular the rules on free movement and competition, apply to private regulation? What issues arise if a bar association were to regulate advertising; when a voluntary product standard impedes trade; or when a sporting body restricts the cross-border transfer of a football player? Covering the EU's free movement and competition rules from a general and sector-specific angle, focusing specifically on the legal profession, standard-setting, and sports, this book is the first systematic study of EU economic law in areas where private regulation is both important and legally controversial. Mislav Mataija discusses how the interpretation of both free movement and competition rule adapts to the rise of private regulation, and examines the diminishing relevance of the public/private distinction. As private regulators take on increasingly important tasks, the legal scrutiny over their measures becomes broader and moves towards what Mataija describes as 'regulatory autonomy.' This approach broadly disciplines, but also recognizes the legitimacy of private regulators; granting them an explicit margin of discretion and focusing on governance and process considerations rather than on their impact on trade and competition. The book also demonstrates how the application of EU internal market law fits in the context of strategic attempts by the EU institutions to negotiate substantive reforms in areas where private regulation is pervasive. Surveying recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the practice of the European Commission, Mataija demonstrates how EU internal market law is used as a control mechanism over private regulators.
Theoretical discussions among competition lawyers and economists on the approach to Resale resale Price price Maintenance maintenance (RPM) and Vertical vertical Territorial territorial Restrictions restrictions (VTR) have often caused controversy. However, commentators agree that there is a lack of comprehensive study surrounding the topic. This book explores these two forms of anticompetitive conduct from legal, historical, economical, and theoretical points of view, focusing on the EU and US experiences. The author expertly goes beyond the current legal practice to explain, among other things, what approach should apply to RPM and VTR, and why RPM and VTR are introduced in situations where procompetitive theories would not make economic sense, or do not apply in practice. The book takes account of economic values, such as efficiency and welfare, as well as other values, such as freedom, fairness and free competition. Scholars and students of law will find the book's depth of legal, economic and historical analysis to be a rich contribution to the scholarship. This book will also be of use to EU and US practitioners, and enforcers dealing with RPM and VTR cases.
The fundamental goal of competition law is to support productivity and innovativeness; in fact, the short-term effect of enforcement actions is often a reduction in product prices. This comprehensive book reports the findings of consumer market studies into a range of goods and services in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. These country case studies demonstrate the important role that competition authorities can have in assessing the nature of markets and making recommendations to policymakers to improve them. When competition is weak or compromised, extra costs are imposed on consumers. The authors investigate this issue for a wide range of key markets serving consumers individually or collectively, looking also at the hinterland of the distribution chain behind retail sales. They find a pervasive lack of competition in those markets, which not only softens a firms' incentive to improve the efficiency of their operations and the quality of their products, but also reduces the standard of living of consumers, including poor and vulnerable groups. This book concludes by noting the follow-up actions taken in each country in response to the research recommendations. Graduate students of economics, political science and law will find this book invaluable for its practical case studies, and analysts will find much of interest in the nuanced analysis of markets, policy interventions and reform options. Eminently practical, Competition Policies and Consumer Welfare is an ideal resource for competition practitioners and policymakers seeking to improve current competition regimes.
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