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The inspiration for this book was a Summer School on State, Governance and Development presented by distinguished academics from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Written by young African scholars, the chapters here focus on state, governance and development in Africa as seen from the authors’ vantage points and positions in different sectors of society.
The book opens with three forewords by eminent African scholars including Ben Turok, Johan Burger and Mohamed Halfani. The chapters that follow examine rent-seeking, patronage, neopatrimonialism and bad governance. They engage with statehood, state-building and statecraft and challenge the mainstream opinions of donors, funders, development banks, international non-governmental organisations and development organisations. They include the role of China in Africa, Kenya’s changing demographics, state accountability in South Africa’s dominant party system, Somalia’s prospects for state-building, urban development and routine violence, and resource mobilisation.
At a time in which core institutions are being tested -- the market, the rule of law, democracy, civil society and representative democracy – this book offers a much-needed multi- and inter-disciplinary perspective, and a different narrative on what is unfolding, while also exposing dynamics that are often overlooked.
Community development both a collective effort and an achievement driven by individual facilitators with the aim of lifting a community out of poverty. The sixth edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty continues to be a definitive guide for community development workers, students and practitioners alike. The book contextualises poverty and explains the process of community development. It pays attention to the development environment and explains concepts such as asset-based community development and the social enterprise sector. In addition to context and process, the book details the skills required by a community development worker to function in the field. It also explains how to empower the development worker to train others in order to build capacity in the community and work towards breaking the cycle of poverty. This edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty is strengthened by the inclusion of extensive support material. More practical case studies, specifically relevant to the South African environment, have been added and questions on the case studies are included in the book.
In South Africa, two unmistakable features describe post-Apartheid politics. The first is the formal framework of liberal democracy, including regular elections, multiple political parties and a range of progressive social rights. The second is the politics of the ‘extraordinary’, which includes a political discourse that relies on threats and the use of violence, the crude re-racialization of numerous conflicts, and protests over various popular grievances. In this highly original work, Thiven Reddy shows how conventional approaches to understanding democratization have failed to capture the complexities of South Africa’s post-Apartheid transition. Rather, as a product of imperial expansion, the South African state, capitalism and citizen identities have been uniquely shaped by a particular mode of domination, namely settler colonialism. South Africa, Settler Colonialism and the Failures of Liberal Democracy is an important work that sheds light on the nature of modernity, democracy and the complex politics of contemporary South Africa.
In Another Country: Everyday Social Restitution, author Sharlene Swartz introduces the concept of `social restitution' - understood as the actions and attitudes that everyday people can undertake in dialogue with each other to `make things good' since `making things right' is impossible. In setting out an understanding of and an agenda for social restitution, she offers four ideas based on engaged reflection with sixty ordinary South Africans of all ages, colours and classes. First, injustice damages all our humanity and continues over time, and must be understood before we can simply move forward. Second, that a broad understanding of restitution is a helpful tool to bring about change, and that we need new language beyond the labels of victim and perpetrator to talk about our role in the past (such as beneficiary, resister, ostrich, architect or implementer). Third, that restitution should aim at restoring dignity, opportunity, belonging and memory, and so should include not only symbolic but also practical and financial acts. Fourth, that there is something for everyone to do - individuals and communities, alongside government and institutional efforts, and the best way to decide on what action should be taken is to decide together, in dialogue, across previous divides. This book offers stories, ideas and strong theories for how South Africa can be Another Country in our lifetime.
Across Africa the narrative of "Africa rising" has taken root in a burgeoning middle class. Ambitious and increasingly affluent, this group symbolizes the values and hopes of the new Africa, and they are regarded as important agents of both economic development and democratic change. This narrative, however, obscures the complex and often ambiguous role that this group actually plays in African societies.
The Rise Of Africa's Middle Class brings together a diverse range of economists, political scientists, and development experts to provide a much needed corrective, overturning the received wisdom within development circles and providing a fresh new perspective on social transformations in contemporary Africa. Featuring a wide array of case studies from across sub-Saharan Africa and covering highly topical issues, including black middle-class support for the ANC in South Africa and anti-government activism in Nigeria, this collection of essays is a timely, on-the-ground look at the realities behind the idea of Africa rising.
This collection draws on a range of methodologies and approaches to explore the similarities, differences and overlaps between the contemporary debates on international development and humanitarian intervention and the historical artefacts and strategies of Empire. The parallels between the language of nineteenth-century liberal imperialism and the humanitarian interventionism of the post-Cold War era are striking. The American military, both in Somalia in the early 1990s and in the aftermath of the Iraq invasion, used ethno-graphic information compiled by British colonial administrators. Are these interconnections accidental curiosities or more elemental? The contributors to this book articulate the belief that these comparisons are analytically revealing. From the language of moral necessity and conviction, the design of specific aid packages, the devised forms of intervention and governmentality, through to the life-style, design and location of NGO encampments, the authors seek to account for the numerous and often striking parallels between contemporary international security, development and humanitarian intervention, and the logic of Empire. This book will be of great interest to all those concerned with understanding the historical antecedents and wider implications of today's emergent liberal interventionism, and the various logics of international development.
Land is a significant and controversial topic in South Africa. Addressing the land claims of those dispossessed in the past has proved to be a demanding, multidimensional process. In many respects the land restitution programme that was launched as part of the county's transition to democracy in 1994 has failed to meet expectations, with ordinary citizens, policymakers, and analysts questioning not only its progress but also its outcomes and parameters. Land, memory, reconstruction, and justice brings together a wealth of topical material and case studies by leading experts in the field who present a rich mix of perspectives from politics, sociology, geography, social anthropology, law, history and agricultural economics. The collection addresses both the material and the symbolic dimensions of land claims, in rural and urban contexts, and explores the complex intersection of issues confronting the restitution programme, from the promotion of livelihoods to questions of rights, identity and transitional justice. This valuable contribution is undoubtedly the most comprehensive treatment to date of South Africa's post-apartheid land claims process and will be essential reading for scholars and students of land reform for years to come.
The 1940s was a turbulent period in the history of South Africa. It opened with parliament's bitterly contested decision to enter the war; was rocked by political turmoil; and ended with a bang, as well as a whimper, as the National party captured political power in 1948. Most see it as a decade that led inexorably towards apartheid but the coming of Afrikaner nationalism was only one of several competing visions of the future. The decade was in fact marked by a general sense of expectancy and optimism that the end of the war would usher in a brave new world. New worlds of possibilities were envisioned on all sides. Reform, social and political, was in the air. But in the end it turned out to be a Prague spring, and the kinds of reforms that many envisaged were dealt a death blow, only to be resurrected 40 years later with the demise of Afrikaner nationalism. These worlds of possibilities are explored more fully in this volume.
The world economy is expanding rapidly despite chronic economic crises. Yet the majority of the world's population live in poverty. Why are wealth and poverty two sides of the coin of capitalist development? What can be done to overcome this destructive dynamic? In this hard-hitting analysis Benjamin Selwyn shows how capitalism generates widespread poverty, gender discrimination and environmental destruction. He debunks the World Bank's dollar-a-day methodology for calculating poverty, arguing that the proliferation of global supply chains is based on the labour of impoverished women workers and environmental ruin. Development theories from neoliberal to statist and Marxist are revealed as justifying and promoting labouring class exploitation despite their pro-poor rhetoric. Selwyn also offers an alternative in the form of labour-led development, which shows how collective actions by labouring classes whether South African shack-dwellers and miners, East Asian and Indian Industrial workers, or Latin American landless labourers and unemployed workers can and do generate new forms of human development. This labour-led struggle for development can empower even the poorest nations to overcome many of the obstacles that block their way to more prosperous and equitable lives.
Cahora Bassa Dam on the Zambezi River, built in the early 1970s during the final years of Portuguese rule, was the last major infrastructure project constructed in Africa during the turbulent era of decolonization. Engineers and hydrologists praised the dam for its technical complexity and the skills required to construct what was then the world's fifth-largest mega-dam. Portuguese colonial officials cited benefits they expected from the dam, but reality proved a different story. This in-depth study of the region examines the dominant developmentalist narrative that has surrounded the dam, chronicles the continual violence that has accompanied its existence, and gives voice to previously unheard narratives of forced labour, displacement, and historical and contemporary life in the dam's shadow.
Nearly all the discussions to date about BRICS have been uncritical. Many well-known analysts have greeted it with outright enthusiasm, on the mistaken perception that it represents a new power bloc that will democratise the world order or offer an emerging economic market for financial investors. A recent New York Times editorial claimed, for instance, that the BRICS countries “aimed at challenging the American-led global economic order”, while the Mail & Guardian pronounced, “South Africa is the nation that stands to benefit the most”. This volume aims to fill a gap in studies of BRICS. It offers a critical analysis of the rise of the BRICS countries’ economies within the framework of a global capitalism that is increasingly predatory, exclusionary and unequal, no more so than in the BRICS countries themselves. The authors reflect upon the rise of a Global South (and East), which is sometimes cooperative with and sometimes antagonistic to the traditional powers of the US, Europe and Japan. Most importantly, BRICS’s rise occurs in the context of the expansion of capitalism in the 21st century, and also in the midst of world capitalism’s worst crisis since the 1930s. The point of this analysis is, firstly, to promote debate between social movements, organised labour and other activists in the struggle for social justice and for alternatives to the current international capitalist order. BRICS is a new area of concern for many. The second goal is to generate critical debate on contemporary themes and theoretical discussions. The book will be required reading for those who wish to have an alternative perspective on this Global south partnership.
Why have the countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) struggled to establish a viable security regime? Why has SADC been unable to engage in successful peacemaking? And why has it defied the optimistic prognosis in the early 1990s that it would build a security community in Southern Africa? Exploring the formation, evolution and effectiveness of the regional security arrangements, Nathan examines a number of vital and troubling questions: He argues that the answers to these questions lie in the absence of common values among member states, the weakness of these states and their unwillingness to surrender sovereignty to the regional organisation. Paradoxically, the challenge of building a co-operative security regime lies more at the national level than at the regional level. The author's perspective is based on a unique mix of insider access, analytical rigour and accessible theory.
Most of what is written about Africa is framed in terms that have been out of date for years. Too often it is seen as heading for either disaster or salvation; the realities are more subtle, more complicated than this binary opposition suggests. The continent has over the last century experienced the fastest population growth in the entire history of our planet. This brings pressures environmental and human, but it also changes the logic of Africa's economics. It suggests reasons for hope. Thanks to mobile phones, African retail markets are now becoming integrated; in South Africa, Nigeria and elsewhere, banking is penetrating society; foreign direct investment is higher than ever before. And Africa has 80 per cent of the world's empty agricultural land, which foreigners covet. Season of Rains explains how one billion Africans are changing their continent and changing the world. Stephen Ellis dissects how the postcolonial legacy has been overcome, how Africans are seizing the commercial and political initiative, and why this matters. In a series of short, persuasively written chapters, Ellis surveys the continent today, offering the reader an indispensable guide to how money, power, religion and indigenous development will shape Africa's coming generations.
Existing data on income and growth in sub-Saharan African countries are unreliable, even seriously misleading. The author provides the first systematic analysis of the level, direction and causes of the errors, looking at a range of African countries, from Benin to Zambia, including South Africa. He then describes why these errors matter. What seem like dry numbers actually have a huge impact on the welfare of these developing countries. Economic growth rate estimates and per-capita income statistics are vital for local governments and for economic aid. Jerven's research suggests that data supplied by national records and statistical offices substantially misstate the actual situation. As a result, scarce economic aid is misapplied, policymakers' attempts to improve their citizens' lives are frustrated, and donors have no accurate sense of the impact of their aid. Jerven explains what can and should be done to improve the guidelines for both the production and use of statistics.
Calderisi shows that Africa has steadily lost markets by its own mismanagement; that corrupt, dictatorial regimes have hobbled agriculture, enterprise and foreign investment; that African family values and fatalism are more destructive than tribalism; and that African leaders prey intentionally on Western guilt. Calderisi exposes the shortcomings and indulgences of foreign aid and debt relief, and proposes his own radical solutions. Drawing on many years of first hand experience, "The Trouble with Africa" highlights issues which have been ignored by Africa's leaders but have long worried ordinary Africans, diplomats, academics, business leaders, aid workers, volunteers and missionaries. It ripples with stories which only someone who has talked directly to African farmers - and heads of state - could recount.
In this title, the editors draw together key articles by leading scholars which investigate the significance and role of remittances in economic and social development. They examine topics including reflections on methodology, the motives and determinants of remittances, their socio-economic impacts (especially at the household level), the role of community organisations and social remittances, and the broad social and cultural impacts of remittances. Special attention is given to small island and Central Asian states, where remittances are of particular significance. The collection traces the recent historical evolution of remittances and concludes with an examination of policy implications in both sending and receiving countries. With an original and comprehensive introduction by the editors this book will be of great interest and value to both scholars and policy makers, especially at a time when remittances are widely recognised as increasingly important for development in many countries.
This book is a compendium of knowledge, experience and insight on agriculture, biotechnology and development. Beginning with an account of GM crop adoptions and attitudes towards them, the book assesses numerous crucial processes, concluding with detailed insights into GM products. Drawing on expert perspectives of leading authors from 57 different institutions in 16 countries, it provides a unique, global overview of agbiotech following 20 years of adoption. Many consider GM crops the most rapid agricultural innovation adopted in the history of agriculture. This book provides insights as to why the adoption has occurred globally at such a rapid rate. This is a rich and varied collection of research, which will appeal to scholars, academics and practitioners worldwide. An invaluable resource, this book will be a first point of reference to anyone with an interest in agbiotech and studies into agriculture, biotechnology and development.
Global Public Health Vigilance is the first sociological book to investigate recent changes in how global public health authorities imagine and respond to international threats to human health. This book explores a remarkable period of conceptual innovation during which infectious disease, historically the focus of international disease control, was displaced by "international public health emergencies," a concept that brought new responsibilities to public health authorities, helping to shape a new project of global public health security. Drawing on research conducted at the World Health Organization, this book analyzes the formation of a new social apparatus, global public health vigilance, for detecting, responding to and containing international public health emergencies. Between 1995 and 2005 a new form of global health surveillance was invented, international communicable disease control was securitized, and international health law was fundamentally revised. This timely volume raises critical questions about the institutional effects of the concept of emerging infectious diseases, the role of the news media in global health surveillance, the impact of changes in international health law on public health reasoning and practice, and the reconstitution of the World Health Organization as a power beyond national sovereignty and global governance. It initiates a new research agenda for social science research on public health.
During the last ten years the enormous global loss of biodiversity has received remarkable attention. Among the numerous approaches undertaken to stop or lessen this process, access and benefit-sharing (ABS), a market-based approach, has emerged as among the most prominent. In theory, ABS turns biodiversity and genetic resources from an open access good to a private good and creates a market for genetic resources. It internalizes the resources' positive externalities by pricing the commercial values for research and development and makes users pay for it. Users' benefits are shared with the resource holders and set incentives for the sustainable use and the conservation of biodiversity. Carmen Richerzhagen, however, finds that in practice there are significant questions about the effectiveness of the approach in the protection of biodiversity and about the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the commercialization. Utilizing the empirical findings of three case studies of biodiversity-providing countries - Costa Rica, the Philippines and Ethiopia - and one case study of a community of user countries, the European Union (EU), Richerzhagen examines the effectiveness of ABS through the realization of its own objectives.
Social inequality is a worldwide phenomenon. Globalization has exacerbated and alleviated inequality over the past twenty-five years. This volume offers analytical and comparative insights from current case studies of social inequality in more than ten countries within all the major regions of the world. Contributors provide an assessment of the overall social globalization phenomenon in the global world as well as an outlook of transformations of global social inequality in the future. This book will be a timely addition for students and scholars of globalization studies, social inequality, sociology, and cultural and social anthropology.
Across the world, unpaid care work - unpaid housework, care of persons, and "volunteer" work - is done predominantly by women. This book presents and compares unpaid care work patterns in seven different countries. It analyzes data drawn from large-scale time use surveys carried out under the auspices of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). With its in-depth concentration on time use patterns in developing nations, this book will offer many new insights for scholars of gender and care.
The Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States brings together contributions from a multidisciplinary group of internationally renowned scholars on such important issues as the causes of violent conflicts and state fragility, the challenges of conflict resolution and mediation, and the obstacles to post-conflict reconstruction and durable peace-building. While other companion volumes exist, this detailed and comprehensive book brings together an unrivalled range of disciplinary perspectives, including development economists, quantitative and qualitative political scientists, and sociologists. Topical chapters include: Post-Conflict and State Fragility, Ethnicity, Human Security, Poverty and Conflict, Economic Dimensions of Civil War, Climate Change and Armed Conflict, Rebel Recruitment, Education and Violent Conflict, Obstacles to Peace Settlements and many others. With detailed and comprehensive coverage, this Handbook will appeal to postgraduate and undergraduate students, policymakers, researchers and academics in conflict and peace studies, international relations, international politics and security studies.
On the eve of the most significant trade agreement in recent Mexico-U.S. history, Judith Adler Hellman, a leading authority on Mexican politics, went into the homes and workplaces of a variety of Mexicans, from rich industrialists to poor street vendors. In bringing us their stories, Hellman puts a human face on the political and economic transformation currently under way in this rapidly changing country, and puts in context the rage and frustration that is feeding the current rebellion in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The Mexicans interviewed in this remarkable book share their views on an array of subjects, including pollution, the political elite, corruption, economics, and the migrant experience in the United States. Some seek collective solutions to the challenges they face; others, for a variety of interesting reasons, have no involvement with any group beyond their immediate or extended family, and rely for their well-being only on themselves and their kin.
Here we meet a small subsistence farmer, eager to break into the more profitable gourmet fruit and vegetable export market; a very wealthy family pondering how best to position its company to profit from NAFTA; and a former housewife turned union organizer, who must figure out what to do with her life savings: underwrite her son's migration to the United States, put down a payment on a new house with running water, or buy an industrial sewing machine with which to start her own business.
These personal portraits, combined with Hellman's concise and
engaging presentation of recent Mexican economic and political
history, make this essential reading for those concerned about
Mexico and the growing global economy.
A lively investigation of the Catholic Church and its controversial social mission in the developing world With 1.2 billion members, the Catholic Church is the world's largest organization and perhaps its most controversial. The Church's obstinacy on matters like clerical celibacy, the role of women, birth control, and the child abuse scandal has alienated many Catholics, especially in the West. Yet in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the Church is highly esteemed for its support of education, health, and social justice. In this deeply informed book, Robert Calderisi unravels the paradoxes of the Catholic Church's role in the developing world over the past 60 years. Has the Catholic Church on balance been a force for good? Calderisi weighs the Church's various missteps and poor decisions against its positive contributions, looking back as far as the Spanish Conquest in Latin America and the arrival of missionaries in Africa and Asia. He also looks forward, highlighting difficult issues that threaten to disrupt the Church's future social role. The author's answer to the question he poses will fascinate Catholic and non-Catholic readers alike, providing a wealth of insights into international affairs, development economics, humanitarian concerns, history, and theology.
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