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Bridging the gap between the well-known technological description of gasification and the underlying theoretical understanding, this book covers the latest numerical and semi-empirical models describing interphase phenomena in high-temperature conversion processes. Consequently, it focuses on the description of gas-particle reaction systems by state-of-the-art computational models in an integrated, unified form. Special attention is paid to understanding and modeling the interaction between individual coal particles and a surrounding hot gas, including heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions inside the particle on the particle interface and near the interface between the solid and gas phases. While serving the needs of engineers involved in industrial research, development and design in the field of gasification technologies, this book's in-depth coverage makes it equally ideal for young and established researchers in the fields of thermal sciences and chemical engineering with a focus on heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions.
The book supports operators and engineers of any experience level in how to quantitatively model key refinery reaction and fractionation processes. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the basics of dealing with the thermodynamics and physical property predictions of hydrocarbon components in the context of process modeling. Chapters 2 and 3 use the key concepts of fractionation lumps and physical properties to develop detailed models and workflows for atmospheric (CDU) and vacuum (VDU) distillation units. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 are largely self-contained that discuss modeling FCC, catalytic reforming and hydroprocessing units.
The ongoing discussion about reaching the "peak-oil point" (maximal delivery rate with conventional methods) emphasizes a fundamental change of the frame conditions of oil-based basic products. The alternative with the largest potential is the use of coal. Coal gasification is the production of coal gas (a mixture of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from coal adding agents like steam/water and oxygen, which can be used in a number of industrial processes (e.g. hydroformulation and Fischer-Tropsch process). Many different kinds of coal do naturally occur, and due to shrinking natural resources, there has been a substantial gain of interest in poor, ash-rich coal. Beside the quality of coal, there is a number of other parameters influencing the efficiency of coal gasification, such as temperature, pressure, and reactor type. Although several books dealing with the subject of gasification have recently been published, few are strictly focussed on coal as feedstock. This monograph provides the reader with the necessary chemical background on coal gasification. Several types of coal (baseline coal and ash-rich coal) are compared systematically, pointing out the technological efforts achieved so far to overcome this challenge. Using a new, innovative order scheme to evaluate the gasification process at a glance (the ternary diagram), the complex network of chemistry, engineering, and economic needs can be overviewed in a highly efficient way. This book is a must-have for Chemical and Process Engineers, Engineering Students, as well as Scientists in the Chemical Industry.
This book is an introduction to oil and gas designed to be both accessible to absolute beginners who know nothing about the subject, and at the same time interesting to people who work in one area (such as drilling or seismic exploration) and would like to know about other areas (such as production offshore, or how oil and gas were formed, or what can go wrong).It begins by discussing oil and gas in the broader context of human society, and goes on to examine what they consist of, how and where they were formed, how we find them, how we drill for them and how we measure them. It describes production onshore and offshore, and examines in detail some instructive mishaps, including some that are well known, such as Deepwater Horizon and Piper Alpha, and other lesser known incidents. It looks at recent developments, such as shale oil, and concludes with some speculation about the future. It includes many references for readers who would like to read further. Mathematical content is minimal.
This essential handbook and ready reference offers a detailed
overview of the existing and currently researched technologies
available for the control of mercury in coal-derived gas streams
and that are viable for meeting the strict standards set by
environmental protection agencies.
In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline, and electric cars all competed to become the dominant automotive technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and internal combustion had won. Was the electric car ever a viable competitor? What characteristics of late nineteenth-century American society led to the choice of internal combustion over its steam and electric competitors? And might not other factors, under slightly differing initial conditions, have led to the adoption of one of the other motive powers as the technological standard for the American automobile? David A. Kirsch examines the relationship of technology, society, and environment to choice, policy, and outcome in the history of American transportation. He takes the history of the Electric Vehicle Company as a starting point for a vision of an ""alternative" automotive system in which gasoline and electric vehicles would have each been used to supply different kinds of transport services. Kirsch examines both the support-and lack thereof-for electric vehicles by the electric utility industry. Turning to the history of the electric truck, he explores the demise of the idea that different forms of transportation technology might coexist, each in its own distinct sphere of service. A main argument throughout Kirsch's book is that technological superiority cannot be determined devoid of social context. In the case of the automobile, technological superiority ultimately was located in the hearts and minds of engineers, consumers and drivers; it was not programmed inexorably into the chemical bonds of a gallon of refined petroleum. Finally, Kirsch connects the historic choice of internal combustion over electricity to current debates about the social and environmental impacts of the automobile, the introduction of new hybrid vehicles, and the continuing evolution of the American transportation system.
Petroleum Production Engineering, Second Edition, updates both the new and veteran engineer on how to employ day-to-day production fundamentals to solve real-world challenges with modern technology. Enhanced to include equations and references with today's more complex systems, such as working with horizontal wells, workovers, and an entire new section of chapters dedicated to flow assurance, this go-to reference remains the most all-inclusive source for answering all upstream and midstream production issues. Completely updated with five sections covering the entire production spectrum, including well productivity, equipment and facilities, well stimulation and workover, artificial lift methods, and flow assurance, this updated edition continues to deliver the most practical applied production techniques, answers, and methods for today's production engineer and manager. In addition, updated Excel spreadsheets that cover the most critical production equations from the book are included for download.
Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved. The book concentrates in particular on the absorption desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explained and the traditional mass transfer model mechanisms are presented together with mass transfer correlations. This is followed by the central point of the text in which mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction, highlighting the associated possibilities and problems. Experimental techniques, data analysis and modelling are covered, and the book concludes with a discussion on various process elements which are important in the absorption desorption process, but are often neglected in its treatment. These include heat exchange, solution management, process flowsheet variations, choice of materials and degradation of absorbents. The text is rounded off with an overview of the current state of research in this field and a discussion of real-world applications. This book is a practical introduction to gas treating for practicing process engineers and chemical engineers working on purification technologies and gas treatment, in particular, those working on CO2 abatement processes, as well as post-graduate students in process engineering, chemical engineering and chemistry.
Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover, All the Formulas You Need to Solve Drilling and Production Problems, Fourth Edition provides a convenient reference for oil field workers who do not use formulas and calculations on a regular basis, aiming to help reduce the volume of materials they must carry to the rig floor or job site. Starting with a review of basic equations, calculations, and featuring many examples, this handy reference offers a quick look-up of topics such as drilling fluids, pressure control, engineering calculations, and air and gas calculations. The formulas and calculations are provided in either English field units or in metric units. This edition includes additional coverage on cementing, subsea considerations, well hydraulics, especially calculating for hydraulic fracturing methods, and drill string design limitations. This practical guide continues to save time and money for the oil field worker or manager, with an easy layout and organization to help confidently conduct operations and evaluate the performance of wells on-the-go.
Petroleum refining is one of the most important yet challenging industries, and continues to be a major contributor in the production of transportation fuels and chemicals. Current economic, regulatory and environmental concerns place significant pressure on refiners to upgrade and optimize the refining process. At the same time, new product demands are urging refiners to explore alternative processing units and feedstocks.
This textbook represents a pioneering and comprehensive introduction to this complex subject, using many of the tools and techniques currently employed in modern refinery process simulation.
Adopting a systematic and practical approach, the authors include the theory, case studies and hands-on workshops, explaining how to work with real data. As a result, senior-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as industrial engineers learn how to develop and use the latest computer models for the predictive modeling and optimization of integrated refinery processes.
Additional material is available online providing relevant spreadsheets and simulation files for all the models and examples presented in the book.
Isotopes provide important information on many geological processes, with key relevance to the mining and petroleum industries, yet the techniques to obtain, process and interpret the data can be complex to master. This accessible book provides broad coverage of radiogenic isotopes in geochronology and geochemistry, explaining the basic principles and state-of-the-art techniques used to study them, with an emphasis on industry applications. The major isotopic systems are fully summarised with relation to real-world applications, enabling readers to decide which technique is most relevant for the problem they want to solve, and then to rigorously evaluate existing data, or recalculate and reassess datasets to avoid duplication of effort. A comprehensive glossary clarifies the numerous acronyms used in the field. Written at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, the book also includes detail which allows more experienced practitioners to maximise the potential value of isotopic datasets.
Introduction to Petroleum Biotechnology introduces the petroleum engineer to biotechnology, bringing together the various biotechnology methods that are applied to recovery, refining and remediation in the uses of petroleum and petroleum products. A significant amount of petroleum is undiscoverable in reservoirs today using conventional and secondary methods. This reference explains how microbial enhanced oil recovery is aiding to produce more economical and environmentally-friendly metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. Meanwhile, in the downstream side of the industry, petroleum refining operators are facing the highest levels of environmental regulations while struggling to process more of the heavier crude oils since conventional physical and chemical refining techniques may not be applicable to heavier crudes. This reference proposes to the engineer and refining manager the concepts of bio-refining applications to not only render heavier crudes as lighter crudes through microbial degradation, but also through biodenitrogenation, biodemetallization and biodesulfurization, making more petroleum derivatives purified and upgraded without the release of more pollutants. Equipped for both upstream and downstream to learn the basics, this book is a necessary primer for today's petroleum engineer.
In recent years carbon dioxide has played an increasingly important role in biomass processing. This book presents the state-of-the-art of a range of diverse approaches for the use of carbon dioxide in biomass valorisation. The book explores cutting-edge research and important advances in green high-pressure technologies. It gives an overview of the most relevant and promising applications of high-pressure CO2-based technologies in biomass processing from the perspective of the biorefinery concept. Demonstrating the interdisciplinary aspects of high-pressure technologies from biology, chemistry and biochemical engineering areas, this book brings researchers and industrialists up to date with the latest advances in this field, including novel technologies for energy; biochemicals and materials production; and green chemical engineering processes.
Simultaneous Multi-Pollutants Removal in Flue Gas by Ozone mainly introduces the multi-pollution control technology in flue gas by ozone oxidation. Based on the authors' recent research works, the book will provide readers with the updated fundamental research findings, comprised of the detail kinetic mechanisms between ozone and gas components in flue gas integrated with experimental and kinetic modeling work. The demonstration case of the multi-pollutant removal technology by ozone is also presented. The book is suitable for the researchers working in the areas of energy and environmental protection, and pollutant control technology. Zhihua Wang is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Kefa Cen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the director of Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Zhejiang University; Junhu Zhou is a Qiushi Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Jianren Fan is the Cheung Kong Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region includes 29 papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region. Petroleum geochemistry has played a crucial role in determining effective source rocks, classifying petroleum systems and delineating the geneses of conventional and unconventional oils and gases. By reference to petroleum geochemistry, the dynamic process of petroleum accumulations can be traced, which helps determining the prospecting target areas and reducing the exploration risk. Petroleum exploration is also enhanced by basin modeling and petroleum system classification, through the application of geochemical data. There has been significant progress in petroleum exploration due to the application of molecular geochemistry and biomarkers. Advances in this area include the identification and application of age-indicating biomarkers, the application of diamondoids in appraising the cracking level of crude oils, and the application of the compound-specific isotope analysis of biomarkers and the compound-specific isotope analysis of diamondoids (CSIAB and CSIAD) in oil-source correlation and quantitative identification of source-commingled oils. In reconstructing the history of oil and gas accumulations, three other techniques are of note: the dynamics of hydrocarbon generation, the dynamics of carbon isotopic fractionation and the analysis of liquid historical recordings (inclusions). Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region is an invaluable source of information for oil and gas explorers, petroleum geochemists and students of petroleum geochemistry. Researchers in petroleum companies and institutes will also find this publication useful.
Many oil refineries employ hydroprocessing for removing sulfur and other impurities from petroleum feedstocks. Capable of handling heavier feedstocks than other refining techniques, hydroprocessing enables refineries to produce higher quality products from unconventional - and formerly wasted - sources. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua illustrates how to obtain maximum yields of high-value products from heavy oils and residue using hydroprocessing technologies.
While most resources on hydroprocessing concentrate ongas oil and lower boiling products, this book details the chemistry involved and the process modifications required for the hydroprocessing of heavy crude oils and residua. Emphasizing the use of effective catalysts to ensure cleaner and more efficient industrial fuel processes, the book presents key principles of heterogeneous catalyst preparation, catalyst loading, and reactor systems. It explains how to evaluate and account for catalysts, reactor type, process variables, feedstock type, and feedstock composition in the design of hydroprocessing operations. The text concludes with examples of commercial processes and discusses methods of hydrogen production.
To meet the growing demand for transportation fuels and fuel oil, modern oil refineries must find ways to produce high quality fuel products from increasingly heavy feedstocks. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua contains the fundamental concepts, technologies, and process modifications refineries need to adapt current hydroprocessing technologies for processing heavier feedstocks.
In contrast to traditional combustion, gasification technologies offer the potential for converting coal and low or negative-value feedstocks, such as petroleum coke and various waste materials into usable energy sources or chemicals. With a growing number of companies operating and marketing systems based on gasification concepts worldwide, this book combines the latest information and real-world experience in developing gasification technologies.
Gasification Technologies: A Primer for Engineers and Scientists discusses gasification techniques and the benefits of each technology, including gas clean-up technologies and those used in hybrid systems and fuel cells. It also accounts for the primary products that are recovered and explains how these products are purified and can be used as fuel or for applications in petrochemical processes. The book describes the conditions in which optimal value intermediate products can be recovered, focusing on key factors such as oxygen or air blown reactor, operating temperature, internal and external heating, and reactor design. The authors also establish how gasification can help meet renewable energy targets, address concerns about global warming, and contribute to a better carbon management or achieving Kyoto Protocol commitments.
Gasification Technologies provide a multidimensional and well-rounded examination of current technology, research, applications, and development challenges for the commercialization of this increasingly popular technology.
"Crude Oil Chemistry "is foremost a scientifically exact guide to the full family of classical and modern analytical and process technologies in petroleum refining. In widening its vision also to incorporate a geological history of petroleum formation, present-day geopolitical and economic issues, and approaches to redress and improve the delicate ties between the petroleum industry and the environment, this reference succeeds as a total representation of the factors going into the chemistry of crude oil and their outward bound ramifications. The book thoroughly evaluates the chemistry and processing of low API gravity high-sulfur heavy crude oil increasingly relied on in the industry.
This work highlights contemporary approaches to resource utilization and provides comprehensive coverage of technological advances in residuum conversion. It illustrates state-of-the-art engineering methods for the refinement of heavy oils, bitumen, and other high-sulphur feedstocks.
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