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Social psychology is about the people who populate our everyday lives, and how they affect our 'personal universe', defining who we are, and shaping our behaviour, beliefs, attitudes, and ideology. In an age where we've mapped the human genome and explored much of the physical world, the study of people's behaviour is one of the most exciting frontiers of scientific endeavor. In this Very Short Introduction Richard Crisp tells the story of social psychology, its history, concepts and major theories. Discussing the classic studies that have defined the discipline, Crisp introduces social psychology's key thinkers, and shows how their personal histories spurred them to understand what connects people to people, and the societies in which we live. Taking us from the first ideas of the discipline to its most cutting edge developments, Crisp demonstrates how social psychology remains profoundly relevant to everyday life. From attitudes to attraction, prejudice to persuasion, health to happiness - social psychology provides insights that can change the world, and help us tackle the defining problems of the 21st century. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
A provocative history of violence--from the "New York Times" bestselling author of "The Stuff of Thought" and "The Blank Slate"
Believe it or not, today we may be living in the most peaceful moment in our species' existence. In his gripping and controversial new work, "New York Times" bestselling author Steven Pinker shows that despite the ceaseless news about war, crime, and terrorism, violence has actually been in decline over long stretches of history. Exploding myths about humankind's inherent violence and the curse of modernity, this ambitious book continues Pinker's exploration of the essence of human nature, mixing psychology and history to provide a remarkable picture of an increasingly enlightened world.
The Olympics. X-Factor. The Rich List. The Nobel Prize.Everywhere you look: competition - for fame, money, attention, status. Being top seems to be everything - but what is it costing all of us? We depend on competition and expect it to identify the best, make complicated decisions easy and to motivate the lazy and inspire the dreamers. But, as Margaret Heffernan shows in this eye-opening look at competition, competition regularly produces just what we don't want: rising levels of fraud, cheating, stress, inequality and political stalemate. Siblings won't speak to each other. Children burn out at school. Doping proliferates among athletes. Auditors and fund managers go to jail for insider trading. Winners seem to take all while the desire to win consumes all, inciting panic and despair. We now know that competition often doesn't work, that the best do not always rise to the top and the so-called efficiency of competition creates a great deal of waste. So what are our alternatives? What are the skills needed for creative collaboration and how do we hone them? Talking to scientists, musicians, athletes, entrepreneurs and executives, in the follow-up to her bestselling Wilful Blindness, Margaret Heffernan has discovered that, around the world, individuals and organizations are finding creative, cooperative ways to work that don't pit people against each other but support them in their desire to work together. While the rest of the world remains mired in pitiless sniping, racing to the bottom, the future belongs to the people and companies who have learned that they are greater working together than against one another. Some call that soft but it's harder than anything they've done before. They are the real winners, sharing a bigger prize.
A groundbreaking look at why our interactions with others hold the
key to success
This book provides an argumentation model for means end-reasoning, a distinctive type of reasoning used for problem-solving and decision-making. Means end-reasoning is modelled as goal-directed argumentation from an agent's goals and known circumstances, and from an action selected as a means, to a decision to carry out the action. Goal-based Reasoning for Argumentation provides an argumentation model of this kind of reasoning showing how it is employed in settings of intelligent deliberation where agents try to collectively arrive at a conclusion on what they should do to move forward in a set of circumstances. The book explains how this argumentation model can help build more realistic computational systems of deliberation and decision-making, and shows how such systems can be applied to solve problems posed by goal-based reasoning in numerous fields, from social psychology and sociology, to law, political science, anthropology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems, and robotics.
A central bond, a cherished value, a unique relationship, a
profound human need, a type of love. What is the nature of
friendship, and what is its significance in our lives? How has
friendship changed since the ancient Greeks began to analyze it,
and how has modern technology altered its very definition? In this
fascinating exploration of friendship through the ages, one of the
most thought-provoking philosophers of our time tracks historical
ideas of friendship, gathers a diversity of friendship stories from
the annals of myth and literature, and provides unexpected insights
into our friends, ourselves, and the role of friendships in an
ethical life. A. C. Grayling roves the rich traditions of
friendship in literature, culture, art, and philosophy, bringing
into his discussion familiar pairs as well as unfamiliar--Achilles
and Patroclus, David and Jonathan, Coleridge and Wordsworth, Huck
Finn and Jim. Grayling lays out major philosophical interpretations
of friendship, then offers his own take, drawing on personal
experiences and an acute awareness of vast cultural shifts that
have occurred. With penetrating insight he addresses internet-based
friendship, contemporary mixed gender friendships, how friendships
may supersede family relationships, one's duty within friendship,
the idea of friendship to humanity, and many other topics of
A unique and creative textbook that introduces the 'discursive
turn' to a new generation of students, "Social Psychology and
Discourse" summarizes and evaluates the current state-of-the-art in
social psychology. Using the explanatory framework found in typical
texts, it provides unparallel coverage on Discourse Analytic
Psychology in a format that is immediately familiar to
Social sequence analysis includes a diverse and rapidly growing body of methods that social scientists have developed to help study complex ordered social processes, including chains of transitions, trajectories and other ordered phenomena. Social sequence analysis is not limited by content or time scale and can be used in many different fields, including sociology, communication, information science and psychology. Social Sequence Analysis aims to bring together both foundational and recent theoretical and methodological work on social sequences from the last thirty years. A unique reference book for a new generation of social scientists, this book will aid demographers who study life-course trajectories and family histories, sociologists who study career paths or work/family schedules, communication scholars and micro-sociologists who study conversation, interaction structures and small-group dynamics, as well as social epidemiologists.
As America descends deeper into polarization and paralysis, social psychologist Jonathan Haidt""has done the seemingly impossible--challenged conventional thinking about morality, politics, and religion in a way that speaks to everyone on the political spectrum. Drawing on his twenty five years of groundbreaking research on moral psychology, he shows how moral judgments arise not from reason but from gut feelings. He shows why liberals, conservatives, and libertarians have such different intuitions about right and wrong, and he shows why each side is actually right about many of its central concerns. In this subtle yet accessible book, Haidt gives you the key to understanding the miracle of human cooperation, as well as the curse of our eternal divisions and conflicts. If you're ready to trade in anger for understanding, read "The Righteous Mind."
Dr. George Simon knows how people push your buttons. Your children--especially teens--are expert at it, as is your mate. A co-worker may quietly undermine your efforts while professing to be helpful, or your boss may prey on your weaknesses. Manipulative people have two goals: to win and to look good doing it. Often those they abuse are only vaguely aware of what is happening to them. In this eye-opening book, you'll also discover...
* 4 reasons why victims have a hard time leaving abusive relationships
* Power tactics manipulators use to push their own agendas and justify their behavior
*Ways to redefine the rules of engagement between you and an abuser
* How to spot potential weaknesses in your character that can set you up for manipulation.
* 12 tools for personal empowerment to help you maintain greater strength in all relationships
Identity is never just an individual matter; it is intricately shaped by our experiences of social life. Taking a Symbolic Interactionist approach, and drawing on Goffman s dramaturgical theory, Susie Scott explores the micro-social processes of interaction through which identities are created, maintained, challenged and reinvented. With a focus on empirical studies as illustrations, classic sociological theory is applied to contemporary examples. Each chapter focuses on a key dimension of how identities are negotiated in the drama of everyday life, from politeness and face-saving rituals to secrecy, lies and deception. Goffman s ideas are explored in relation to self-presentation, role-making, group interaction and public behaviour, while language and discourse are shown to help people to give credible identity performances and to frame social situations. The book reveals how social selves change over the life course through stigma, labelling and deviant careers, and how life in a total institution can radically transform its members' identities. Through all of these processes, self and society are shown to be intertwined. This insightful approach will appeal to students taking a range of courses in the sociology of the self, identity, interaction and everyday life
The concept of prejudice has profoundly influenced how we have investigated, explained and tried to change intergroup relations of discrimination and inequality. But what has this concept contributed to our knowledge of relations between groups and what has it obscured or misrepresented? How has it expanded or narrowed the horizons of psychological inquiry? How effective or ineffective has it been in guiding our attempts to transform social relations and institutions? In this book, a team of internationally renowned psychologists re-evaluate the concept of prejudice, in an attempt to move beyond conventional approaches to the subject and to help the reader gain a clearer understanding of relations within and between groups. This fresh look at prejudice will appeal to scholars and students of social psychology, sociology, political science and peace studies.
Modern Families brings together research on parenting and child development in new family forms including lesbian mother families, gay father families, families headed by single mothers by choice and families created by assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), egg donation, sperm donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. This research is examined in the context of the issues and concerns that have been raised regarding these families. The findings not only contest popular myths and assumptions about the social and psychological consequences for children of being raised in new family forms but also challenge well-established theories of child development that are founded upon the supremacy of the traditional family. It is argued that the quality of family relationships and the wider social environment are more influential in children's psychological development than are the number, gender, sexual orientation, or biological relatedness of their parents or the method of their conception.
"Sixty years ago the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre wrote 'hell is other people'. Now, new evidence shows us that he was utterly wrong. Beginning from the first moments of life and at every age and stage, close contact with other people - and especially with women - affects how we think, whom we trust, and where we invest our money. Our social ties powerfully influence our sense of life satisfaction, our cognitive skills, and how resistant we are to infections and chronic disease. While information about diet, exercise, and new classes of drugs were the life-changing breakthroughs of the past decades, the new evidence is that social bonds - the people we know and care about-are just as critical to our survival. The Village Effect tells the story of the ways face-to-face human contact changes our minds, literally. Drawing on the latest discoveries in social cognition, social networks and neuroscience, salted with profiles of real people and their relationships, Susan Pinker explains why we are driven to trust other people and form lifelong bonds, and why we ignore these connections at our peril."
"Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction, 8E, International Edition" is the most comprehensive and readable compendium of research and theory on nonverbal communication available today. Written by a communication scholar and two social psychologists, the book offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of nonverbal communication that shows how it affects a wide variety of academic interests. The theory and research included in this text comes from scholars with a wide variety of academic backgrounds, including communication, anthropology, counseling, psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics. The eighth edition includes new material on nonverbal messages and technology/media that covers the increasing amount of communication that is mediated by some form of technology and newly added text boxes that acquaint readers with cutting-edge research questions and findings, and appeal to the real-life concerns of students.
Called one of the best books ever about human communication, and a perennial bestseller, Pragmatics of Human Communication has formed the foundation of much contemporary research into interpersonal communication, in addition to laying the groundwork for context-based approaches to psychotherapy. The authors present the simple but radical idea that problems in life often arise from issues of communication, rather than from deep psychological disorders, reinforcing their conceptual explorations with case studies and well-known literary examples. Written with humor and for a variety of readers, this book identifies simple properties and axioms of human communication and demonstrates how all communications are actually a function of their contexts.
Topics covered in this wide-ranging book include: the origins of communication; the idea that all behavior is communication; meta-communication; the properties of an open system; the family as a system of communication; the nature of paradox in psychotherapy; existentialism and human communication."
It is indisputable that media is by far the most common means by which human beings spend our free time in the modern world. However, the ubiquity of media in our lives brings with it advantages and disadvantages along with uncertainty: will increased dependence on media impair our social functioning, enhance it, or both? The Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology explores facets of human behavior, thoughts, and feelings experienced in the context of media use and creation. Divided into six sections, chapters in this volume trace the history of media psychology; address content areas for media research, including children's media use, media violence and desensitization, sexual content, video game violence, and portrayals of race and gender; and cover psychological and physical effects of media such as serious games, games for health, technology addictions, and video games and attention. A section on meta-issues in media psychology brings together transportation theory, media psychophysiology, social influence in virtual worlds, and learning through persuasion. Other topics include the politics of media psychology, a lively debate about the future of media psychology methods, and the challenges and opportunities present in this interdisciplinary field. Authored by top experts from psychology, communications, and related fields, this handbook presents a vibrant map of the field of media psychology.
The Psychology of Diversity presents a captivating social-psychological study of diversity, the obstacles confronting it, and the benefits it provides. * Goes beyond prejudice and discrimination to discuss the personal and social implications of diversity for both majority and minority group members * Considers how historical, political, economic, and societal factors shape the way people think about and respond to diversity * Explains why discrimination leads to bias at all levels in society - interpersonal, institutional, cultural, and social * Describes proven techniques for improving intergroup relations * Examines the brain's impact on bias in clear terms for students with little or no background in neuroscience * Includes helpful study tools throughout the text as well as an online instructor's manual
Were you looking for the book with access to MyPsychLab? This product is the book alone, and does NOT come with access to MyPsychLab. Buy the book and access card package to save money on this resource. Research made relevant through a storytelling approach. This renowned text maintains its acclaimed storytelling approach, teaching the science of psychology through an engaging narrative that makes research relevant to students. Drawing upon their extensive experience as researchers and teachers, Elliot Aronson, Tim Wilson, and Robin Akert present the classic research that has driven the field and introduce cutting-edge research that is the future of social psychology. Significantly updated to reflect advances in the discipline, the 8th edition provides a firm foundation for students to build their understanding of this rigorous science in a way that engages and fascinates. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience- for you and your students. Here's how: *Personalize Learning - The new MyPsychLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. *Improve Critical Thinking - The authors emphasize this rigorous science through research examples that encourage students to think twice about their preconceived notions of what social psychology is - and isn't. *Engage Students - Through real-life vignettes, which open each story chapter, and "mini-stories" throughout each chapter, the eighth edition provokes student interest by focusing on real-life examples. *Explore Research - The authors present a balance between the latest findings in the field with classic research in social psychology. Noting that some older studies deserve their status as classics and are important cornerstones to the discipline, this text encourages students to experience the continuity and depth of the field versus regarding it as a collection of studies published in the past few years. *Support Instructors - This program provides instructors with unbeatable resources, including state-of-the-art PowerPoints embedded with videos, the NEW MyPsychLab with ABC's What Would You Do videos, an easy to use Instructor's Manual, a robust test bank, and an online test generator (MyTest).
This lab manual/CD-ROM package presents a set of demonstrations of classic and current experiments and concepts from cognitive psychology, allowing students to understand study design, data interpretation, and the significance of the research.
This book offers an accessible and broadly conceived introduction
to social psychology. Written in a lucid and lively style, it
assumes no prior knowledge of the field, and is the ideal textbook
to get students thinking about the subject.
The volume covers the main issues of social psychology - as well
as many classic studies - such as self and personality,
interpersonal relations, language and communication, altruism and
aggression, group processes, attitudes, and intergroup relations.
What sets this book apart is its coverage of less orthodox topics
which are often neglected in introductions of this kind. These
areas include emotions, social and moral development, social
representations, health and illness, employment and unemployment,
and the implications of these fields for social policy. The result
is an unusually rich and wide-ranging presentation of social
psychology, drawing together a deliberately varied range of
methodology and theory.
The currently dominant cognitive and psychological approach to
social psychology receives systematic consideration in a number of
chapters, but its focus on individuals and face-to-face interaction
is continually related to broader social concerns and contexts.
This is achieved through the use of cross-cultural and historical
comparisons, together with an awareness of the contributions that
can be made by related social sciences. The authors aim to show
that social psychology illuminates the whole of social life,
including everyday issues faced by all of us.
Please visit the accompanying website at: http: //www.polity.co.uk/socialpsychology
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