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came the Sabines from their old home farther up the river. They
seem to have seized and fortified some of the hills in close
proximity to the Ramnians, and engaged for a time in a struggle
with these people for mastery and possession. In this struggle
neither one proved supreme and, as a consequence, a national
alliance was entered into for mutual safety and protection. This
alliance subsequently developed into a federal State, a closer
political union, a consolidation of interests, social, political,
and religious. To this the Sabines contributed the religious
marriage ceremony known as con- farreatio and the recognition of
the wife and her part in the administration of household affairs.
This influence is also seen in the council of kinsmen who advised
the pater familias with respect to the administration of family
affairs and the adoption of children in order that the gens might
not die out and they thus be deprived of the prayers of their
descendants. The Etruscans differed very widely from the two
peoples mentioned above that went to form the Roman State. They
spoke a different language and were far in advance of the Ramnians
and Sabines in civilization, in architecture, and other arts, in
trade, and in commerce. Before coming into conflict with the
confederation of Ramnians and Sabines the Etruscans had established
settlements from the Alps to Campania. They were thus much more
powerful than their rivals, and the struggle seems to have resulted
in an Etruscan conquest and absorption of the growing confederacy.
But this Etruscan supremacy only resulted in adding a third party
to the dual confederation. They came too late to bring about much
change in institutions now hardening into fixed form. They are
perhaps responsible for the strict regard that came to be required
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