Non Communicable Diseases are currently the leading cause of
morbidity and mortality in the in the world. Their risk factors are
smoking, excessive alcohol intake, physical inactivity, poor diet
and psychosocial stress among others. Psychosocial stress induces
release of noradrenaline which binds to 1 and -adrenergic
receptors, leading to the recruitment G proteins which activate Ras
via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and subsequently its effector
kinase Raf. Raf phosphorylates mitogen extracellular kinases -1 and
-2. Additionally, Ras directly induce p38-MAPK activation.
Activated MAPKs induces phosphorylation and subsequent degradation
of the nuclear factor kappa (NF- B)-specific cytoplasmic inhibitor
IkappaBalpha (I B ). This leads to activation and nuclear
translocation of NF- B which causes up-regulation of stable cell
adhesion molecules that activate monocyte adhesion to the
endothelium (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). The up-regulation of the primary
initiation of the serine proteases cascade of the coagulation
system in turn promotes thrombosis. This study investigated the
electrocardiographic changes in chronic mild stress in male Sprague
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