Joint doctrine's roots reach back to the commanders who first dealt
with the timeless problems of coordinating military operations
among land, sea and, later, air forces. The challenges inherent in
coordinating different military forces have existed since armies
became distinct from navies. The nation-states of ancient Greece
that maintained both armies and navies faced the same challenges of
joint coordination that General Grant and Admiral Porter addressed
at the battle of Vicksburg. As technological developments added air
power to the joint coordination equation, multi-Service
coordination became even more complex. The nature of multi-Service
coordination seen in World War II convinced Congress in 1947 that a
permanent institution was required to control its complexities. The
result was legislation that created the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Establishing a permanent structure to coordinate US land, sea, and
air forces recognized that multiplying force effectiveness through
joint action was critical to military success. Throughout history,
nations that successfully coordinated simultaneous land and sea
actions won their battles. Those that did not, lost. Although the
ancients coordinated forces on land and sea, modern military
planners must also deal with air and space. These new media change
the situation quantitatively, not qualitatively. Multi-Service
coordination still seeks to solve problems revealed when Pericles
balanced his naval and land forces to defend Athens. Since Athens
fought Sparta, technological advances have greatly reduced the time
available for military decision making. In the age of sail,
governments had months to decide how to coordinate land and sea
responses to military threats. W ith modern weapons and
communications, the luxury of time has virtually disappeared. The
pace of events requires rapid and more effective decision making.
Lacking time and facing critical decisions, military planners who
know their history can base their choices on useful knowledge. The
outstanding characteristic of all joint operations is their
relative complexity compared to single Service operations. The
increasing capability of today's forces exacerbates the
coordination problem, while the lethality and accuracy of modern
weaponry demand a higher standard of control. For example, in
DESERT STORM coalition forces dropped more bomb tonnage in 100 days
than the allies dropped in all of World War II. Coordinating the
logistics, maneuver, and timing of huge forces over great distances
increases the opportunities for friction, the fog of war, and enemy
action to destroy plans. The case histories each show specific
actions taken to handle the coordination of large for ces. These US
joint and multinational operations also demonstrate the efforts
required to make operational reach over extreme distances work for,
rather than against, US goals. Prosecuting the war on the
adversary's territory is always a good plan, but it requires long
term investment, enormous planning capabilities, and the ability to
synchronize activities on land, on the sea, and in the air for long
periods. Leader, planner, and action officer accomplishments
demonstrated in these case histories show how the proper use of
experience and applied knowledge leads to military success.
Is the information for this product incomplete, wrong or inappropriate?
Let us know about it.
Does this product have an incorrect or missing image?
Send us a new image.
Is this product missing categories?
Add more categories.
Review This Product
No reviews yet - be the first to create one!