Scholarly Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Politics -
International Politics - Region: Near East, Near Orient, grade:
75%, Dublin City University, course: International Relations,
language: English, comment: An original excellent essay. Very well
conceived, analytical and based on a substantial reading list.
(first class honors), abstract: The region of the Middle East and
North Africa (MENA) appears to be an exception when it comes to the
persistence of authoritarianism. Whereas most other regions in the
world have embarked upon a path of democratisation, trends in the
MENA appear to be adverse. Not only is the MENA's record appalling
in terms of electoral democracies, but the region, on average, has
not experienced an improvement in civil liberties and political
rights for the last thirty years. This paper will look at two
aspects concerning the persistence of authoritarianism in the
region. The principal aim will be to analyse what the principle
cause for the persistence of authoritarianism in the MENA is. A
secondary objective will be to establish whether the term MENA
exceptionalism is applicable, or whether the persistence of
authoritarianism in the region can be explained through general
theories on the subject. The paper analyses the reasons why
scholars deem the MENA to be exceptional, and which variables they
believe contribute to the persistence of authoritarianism in the
region. Those arguments are then refuted, arguing instead that
rentierism is the principal independent variable with regards to
the robustness of authoritarian regimes in the MENA. The focus then
shifts to the concept of rentierism in general and more
specifically its relation to oil rich countries. Finally the paper
looks at how oil poor countries also benefit from rents and how it
is possible that levels of authoritarianism in oil rich countries
are not hugely affected by oil price fluctuations.
|Country of origin:
||216 x 140 x 2mm (L x W x T)
||Paperback - Trade
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