A practical guide to measures needed to ensure that the food and
nutrition needs of disaster-stricken populations, refugees, or
internally displaced persons are adequately met. Noting that
nutrition is always a key concern in emergency management, the book
offers expert advice based on both the latest knowledge in the
nutritional sciences and advances in concepts of emergency
management that stress preparedness and long-term recovery. The
engagement of local health services and authorities is emphasized
as the best strategy for building national capacity and ensuring
rapid recovery. The book covers the concepts, principles, and
precise measures needed to ensure adequate nutrition in both the
relief phase and the subsequent rehabilitation and development
phases. Details range from a list of the equipment needed for a
weight-for-height survey, through a diagram illustrating
arrangements for ration distribution in camp situations, to
instructions for preparing feeding mixtures for the treatment of
specific deficiency diseases. Throughout, particular attention is
given to conditions in developing countries, where inadequate
nutrition and infectious diseases can make populations especially
vulnerable to malnutrition in emergencies. The book has seven
chapters. The first, on meeting nutritional requirements, explains
the importance of nutritional assessment, as a fundamental
management tool for calculating food needs, monitoring the adequacy
of food access and intake, and ensuring adequate food procurements.
The chapter also sets out recommendations for mean daily per capita
intakes of energy and protein and for micronutrients and other
specific nutrients. The major nutritional deficiency diseases are
covered in chapter two, which includes detailed information on the
signs, symptoms, prevention, and treatment of protein-energy
malnutrition, iron-deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, iodine
deficiency disorders, beriberi, pellagra, and scurvy. Chapter three
describes the methodology for measuring malnutrition. Information
includes target audiences for assessment, advice on body
measurements and clinical indicators of malnutrition, and precise
instructions for conducting rapid nutritional surveys, individual
screening, and nutritional surveillance. Chapter four provides a
detailed guide to the planning, organization, and delivery of
general feeding programs aimed at the affected population as a
whole. Topics covered include basic requirements for suitable food
commodities, principles of good organization and coordination, and
the composition of a general ration calculated to meet the
populations' minimum requirements for energy, protein, fat, and
micronutrients. Guidelines for selective feeding programs are
presented in chapter five, which covers both the supplementary
feeding of vulnerable groups and the therapeutic feeding of
individuals suffering from deficiency diseases. In view of the
close link between infectious diseases and malnutrition, chapter
six offers advice on the organization of services to ensure
priority immunizations and to monitor and treat each of twelve
infectious diseases commonly seen in developing countries. The book
concludes with advice on the planning, administration, and
logistics of emergency preparedness and response programs,
emphasizing the need to detect vulnerability to nutritional
deficiencies and monitor early warning indicators.
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