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In Another Country: Everyday Social Restitution, author Sharlene Swartz introduces the concept of `social restitution' - understood as the actions and attitudes that everyday people can undertake in dialogue with each other to `make things good' since `making things right' is impossible. In setting out an understanding of and an agenda for social restitution, she offers four ideas based on engaged reflection with sixty ordinary South Africans of all ages, colours and classes. First, injustice damages all our humanity and continues over time, and must be understood before we can simply move forward. Second, that a broad understanding of restitution is a helpful tool to bring about change, and that we need new language beyond the labels of victim and perpetrator to talk about our role in the past (such as beneficiary, resister, ostrich, architect or implementer). Third, that restitution should aim at restoring dignity, opportunity, belonging and memory, and so should include not only symbolic but also practical and financial acts. Fourth, that there is something for everyone to do - individuals and communities, alongside government and institutional efforts, and the best way to decide on what action should be taken is to decide together, in dialogue, across previous divides. This book offers stories, ideas and strong theories for how South Africa can be Another Country in our lifetime.
`Moral Eyes is based on interviews with university students in four African countries: Cameroon, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa. Each country exemplifies a distinctive axis of discrimination and privilege-religion, language, ethnicity, and race-though with a good deal of intersectional overlap. The authors use the interviews to theorise about deep issues of injustice, history, and restitution. Through an emphasis on the historical dimension of contemporary injustice, they insightfully expand the familiar moral framework of victim-perpetrator-bystander to include `inheritors of unjust benefit' and `resisters'. They also reveal significant differences in how historical memory plays out in these four countries. Global North readers, of whom I hope there will be many, will derive great illumination from seeing familiar issues of social justice discussed in a wholly African context, including a diversity unlikely to be familiar to these readers. Moral Eyes is a wonderful book and an excellent contribution to the literature on moral education, social justice, and the moral character of transitions to a more just society.'
This title is based on a study of South African youth who live in Townships (ikasi in IsiZulu). South Africa's townships constitute some of the most disenfranchised pockets of the world. The youth who are teenagers now were spared the apartheid era struggle but they grew up in a moral vacuum. Crime is rampant and many criminals come from townships. iKasi is an examination of how these disenfranchised youth think about morality. Through a detailed ethnographic study, Sharlene Swartz describes how a group of young people aged between 14 and 20 construct right and wrong, what rules govern their behavior, how they explain the gap between what they say is right and what they do in the moral sphere, and ultimately the multiple ways in which they construct meaning from the influences in their immediate contexts ( or moral ecologies). She unpacks their moral influences and the meanings attributed to each from mothers, absent fathers, younger siblings, friends, vibrant youth culture, school, faith and cultural beliefs (such as witchcraft and protective amulets) through to the impact of violent, rubbish-strewn communities and government policies. The main theme of iKasi concerns the inter-relationships between poverty, morality and youth in a post-conflict context. It illustrates the extent to which poverty impacts on the physical, emotional and psychological aspects of young people's lives including on their moral functioning, growth and development.
Teenage Tata: Voices of young fathers in South Africa provides a fresh and in-depth portrait of impoverished young South African men who became fathers while teenagers. It provides space for their articulate and impassioned voices to be heard amidst the outcry against the absence of fathers, and offers insights into young fathers' personal, emotional, financial and cultural struggles as they come to terms with fatherhood. The study highlights young fathers' strong sense of responsibility; poignant accounts of emotional engagement with their children and the women in their lives; the motivating power of young fathers' own absent fathers on their parenting intentions; their desire for sex- and relationship-education from male family members and their clear recognition of the help they need. Based on a multi-interview qualitative study in the informal settlements and townships around Cape Town and Durban, this monograph offers methodological innovations and showcases how social network interviews offer great potential for both research and intervention.
The term ?moral? has had a chequered history in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly due to the legacy of colonialism and Apartheid (in South Africa). In contrast to moral education as a vehicle of cultural imperialism and social control, this volume shows moral education to be concerned with both private and public morality, with communal and national relationships between human beings, as well as between people and their environment. Drawing on distinctive perspectives from philosophy, economics, sociology and education, it offers the African ethic of Ubuntu/Botho as a plausible alternative to Western approaches to morality and shows how African ethics speaks to political and economic life, including ethnic conflict and HIV/AIDS, and may be an antidote to the current practice of timocracy that values money over people.
The volume provides sociological tools for understanding the lived morality of those marginalised by poverty, and analyses the effects of culture, religion and modern secularisation on moral education. With contributions from fourteen African scholars, this book challenges dominant frameworks, and begins conversations for mutual benefit across the North-South divide. It has global implications, not just, but especially, where moral education is undertaken in pluralist contexts and in the presence of economic disparity.
This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Moral Education.
Comprising a sample of eight schools in three sub-Saharan African countries--Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania--this compelling study examines the sources, contents, and processes of children's community-based sexual knowledge, questioning how their awareness falls in line with their school's AIDS education programs. The examination showcases the possibilities of consulting pupils using engaging, interactive, and visual methods, including digital still photography, mini video documentaries, interviews, and observations. These innovative means allow children to speak freely and openly in an environment where discussing sex with adults remains a cultural taboo. The study also sheds fresh light on teachers' fears and struggles with a lack of training and limited opportunities for reflection on practice. Engaging in dialogue with conflicting voices of community stakeholders, this valuable discussion reveals them as aware of the dangers faced by children living in a world with AIDS as well as afraid of the many cultural, religious, and moral restraints surrounding sex education in Africa.
Around the world today, young people are being called upon to develop civic competence and carry the burden of forging a political future in the midst of impoverishment, exclusion and inequality. In societies that have experienced civil war, military occupation, mass immigration of displaced people or social conflict, the conditions under which young people attempt to build their citizenship are not well understood. Youth Citizenship and the Politics of Belonging contributes to the field of youth citizenship studies by purposively exploring the experiences of young adults in the context of the formation of nationhood and global citizenship. It explores, from the perspective of various countries, the role of social context and schooling in creating young citizens. This collection offers a unique opportunity to hear the voices of young people themselves who, as `learner citizens' within educational institutions, poor communities and refugee camps, amongst other settings, expose the tensions between social inclusion and marginalization. The book considers young people's contemporary social movements, their activism and their sense of belonging. It looks at understandings of national, political and religious identities, youth rights, and various forms of state, community and sexual violence as well as strategic coping strategies, their reinterpretations of civic messages, and the ways in which anger, resistance and disengagement put youth in a difficult position. This book was originally published as a special issue of Comparative Education.
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