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Books > History > British & Irish history > 1700 to 1900

Married to the Empire - Gender, Politics and Imperialism in India, 1883-1947 (Hardcover): Mary A. Procida Married to the Empire - Gender, Politics and Imperialism in India, 1883-1947 (Hardcover)
Mary A. Procida
R1,560 R1,170 Discovery Miles 11 700 Save R390 (25%) Out of stock

Mary A. Procida provides a new approach to the growing history of women and empire by situating women at the centre of the practices and policies of British imperialism. Rebutting interpretations that have marginalised women in the empire, this book demonstrates that women were a crucial factor in establishing and sustaining the British Raj in India, from the 'High Noon' of imperialism in the late-19th century through to Indian independence in 1947. Using three separate modes of engagement with imperialism - domesticity, violence and race - this text demonstrates the varied ways in which British women, particularly the wives of imperial officials, created a role for themselves in the empire.

Flagships of Imperialism - The P&O Company and the Politics of Empire from Its Origins to 1867 (Hardcover, New): Freda... Flagships of Imperialism - The P&O Company and the Politics of Empire from Its Origins to 1867 (Hardcover, New)
Freda Harcourt, Sarah Palmer, Edward Harcourt
R1,825 R1,361 Discovery Miles 13 610 Save R464 (25%) Out of stock

Flagships of Imperialism is the first scholarly monograph on the history of the P&O shipping company, and the first history of P&O to pay due attention to the context of nineteenth century imperial politics which so significantly shaped the company's development. Based chiefly on unpublished material from the P&O archives and the National Archives, and on contemporary official publications, the book covers the crucial period from the company's origins to 1867. After presenting new findings about the company's origins in the Irish transport industry, the book charts the extension of the founders' interests from the Iberian peninsula to the Mediterranean, India, China and Australia. In so doing it deals with the development of the necessary financial infrastructure for P&O's operations; the founders' attitudes to technical advances; the shareholding base; the company's involvement in the opium trade, and with its acquisition of mail, Admiralty and other government contracts. It was the P&O's status as a government contractor which, above all else, implicated its fortunes in the wider politics of empire, as illustrated by the book's concluding account of the company's rescue from the edge of a financial precipice by the award of a new government mail contract prompted, among other things, by the Abyssinian expedition of 1867. Flagships of Imperialism will be of interest to transport and company historians and to historians of the British empire alike, as well as to anyone interested in the history of British ships and shipping in the nineteenth century.

Peace, War and Party Politics - The Conservatives and Europe, 1846-59 (Hardcover): Geoffrey Hicks Peace, War and Party Politics - The Conservatives and Europe, 1846-59 (Hardcover)
Geoffrey Hicks
R1,737 R1,299 Discovery Miles 12 990 Save R438 (25%) Out of stock

Peace, war and party politics examines the mid-Victorian Conservative Party's significant but overlooked role in British foreign policy and in contemporary debate about Britain's relations with Europe. The book considers the Conservatives' response - in opposition and government - to the tumultuous era of Napoleon III, the Crimean war and Italian unification. Within a clear chronological framework, it focuses on 'high' politics, and offers a detailed account of the party's foreign policy in government under its longest-serving but forgotten leader, the fourteenth Earl of Derby. It attaches equal significance to domestic politics, and incorporates a provocative new analysis of Disraeli's role in internal tussles over policy, illuminating the roots of the power struggle he would later win against Derby's son in the 1870s. Overall, it helps to provide us with a fuller picture of mid-Victorian Britain's engagement with the world. This book will be of use to those teaching and studying Victorian politics and foreign policy at all levels in higher education.

Witchcraft and Whigs - The Life of Bishop Francis Hutchinson, (1660-1739) (Hardcover): Andrew Sneddon Witchcraft and Whigs - The Life of Bishop Francis Hutchinson, (1660-1739) (Hardcover)
Andrew Sneddon
R1,634 R1,223 Discovery Miles 12 230 Save R411 (25%) Out of stock

This ground-breaking biography of Bishop Francis Hutchinson (1669-1739) provides a detailed and rare portrait of an early eighteenth century Irish bishop and witchcraft theorist. Drawing upon a wealth of printed primary source material, the book aims to increase our understanding of the eighteenth-century established clergy, both in England and Ireland. It illustrates how one of the main skeptical texts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the "Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft" (1718), was constructed and how it fit into the wider intellectual and literary context of the time, examining Hutchinson's views on contemporary debates concerning modern prophecy and miracles, demonic and Satanic intervention, the nature of Angels and hell, and astrology.

This book will be of particular interest to academics and students in the areas of history of witchcraft, and the religious, political and social history of Britain and Ireland in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Victorians and the Virgin Mary - Religion and Gender in England 1830 - 1885 (Hardcover): Carol Engelhardt Herringer Victorians and the Virgin Mary - Religion and Gender in England 1830 - 1885 (Hardcover)
Carol Engelhardt Herringer
R1,627 R1,216 Discovery Miles 12 160 Save R411 (25%) Out of stock

This interdisciplinary study of competing representations of the Virgin Mary examines how anxieties about religious and gender identities intersected to create public controversies that, whilst ostensibly about theology and liturgy, were also attempts to define the role and nature of women. Drawing on a variety of sources, this book seeks to revise our understanding of the Victorian religious landscape by retrieving Catholics from the cultural margins to which they are usually relegated. By showing that the Roman Catholics and Anglo-Catholics constituted a significant proportion of Victorian society that was opposed to the Protestant majority, this analysis more accurately evaluates their contributions to Victorian culture.In addition, this analysis of the Protestant hostility toward the Virgin Mary and preference toward a more ordinary woman suggests that Protestant clergymen, who are generally associated with promoting the feminine ideal associated with nineteenth-century culture, were actually uneasy about the ideal when they realized it could give women a great deal of public power. This book will be useful to advanced students and scholars in a variety of disciplines including history, religious studies, Victorian studies, women's history and gender studies, as well as the educated lay reader who is interested in changing views of the Virgin Mary.

Untold Histories - Black People in England and Wales During the Period of the British Slave Trade, C. 1660-1807 (Hardcover):... Untold Histories - Black People in England and Wales During the Period of the British Slave Trade, C. 1660-1807 (Hardcover)
Kathleen Chater
R1,750 R1,307 Discovery Miles 13 070 Save R443 (25%) Out of stock

Untold Histories looks in detail at the experiences of the average black person in England and Wales during the period of the British slave trade. Drawing on a database which is the most extensive of its kind, it reveals for the first time information about sex ratios, ages, from where in the world they came and how they were treated by the criminal justice system. As well as unique statistical data, there are the life stories of ordinary individuals and how they integrated into society. This book overturns many of the conventional assumptions that have been made about their lives. They were not enslaved, stigmatised outsiders but woven into English society as government officials, defenders of the country, tradesmen, entertainers and founders of families who have left a legacy of their presence in the form of descendants that in some cases can be traced to the present day. The approach is factual rather than theoretical, using the techniques of the genealogist to reconstruct individual lives. It is written in a lucid, accessible style that will make it essential reading not just for academics but for those who are interested in this aspect of English history and may want to learn how to find out more about the black people in their own localities.

The Lost Ireland of Stephen Gwynn - Irish Consitutional Nationalism and Cultural Politics, 1864-1950 (Hardcover): Colin Reid The Lost Ireland of Stephen Gwynn - Irish Consitutional Nationalism and Cultural Politics, 1864-1950 (Hardcover)
Colin Reid
R1,927 Discovery Miles 19 270 Out of stock

Through the rich and engrossing life of Stephen Gwynn (1864-1950), an alternative history of Ireland can be traced, one which envisaged a moderate form of Irish self-government, nationalist rapprochement with the British Empire, and the healing of the bitter divisions. Gwynn was the most prominent Protestant member of John Redmond's Irish Parliamentary Party. He was also an active participant in the Gaelic language and Irish literature revival, and acted as a literary advisor to the Macmillan publishing house of London, providing an invaluable conduit between Irish authors and a major British publisher. As such, Gwynn offers a unique insight into the overlapping of these worlds, and his experiences illuminate many facets of the complex political and cultural psychologies in the Ireland of his time. This book will interest scholars and students of modern Irish and British history, and those interested in the development of cultural movements in Ireland during the age of W. B. Yeats.

Cock of the Walk (Hardcover): Roy Lewis Cock of the Walk (Hardcover)
Roy Lewis
R650 R584 Discovery Miles 5 840 Save R66 (10%) Out of stock

Cock of the Walk is an ingenious reconstruction of an episode in English social and religious history. It is based in the mid-Victorian era, at the turn of the Great Exhibition, and has echoes today. Pope Pius IX hopes that the newly appointed Cardinal Wiseman, Archbishop of Westminster, will spread the papal message throughout Britain. But he has misjudged the strength of the 'anti-popery' establishment and the power of the press. Should the British retaliate with a naval blockade? Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary rejects the idea. The Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, is indecisive on this and other matters, including the erection of the Crystal Palace. He half hopes it will fall down and so divert attention from Wiseman. Thomas Carlyle bemoans the lack of political vision, of leadership.... Meanwhile other activities are afoot, including political intrigue. The Queen and Prince Albert are brazen in their views of those in the corridors of power. Her Majesty cannot abide that upstart Disraeli. A medley of contemporary figures, the good and the great, flit across the stage. These and the ambience of the period are authentically captured in an entertaining narrative, spiced with a selection of satirical engravings from Punch.

The Transformation of Urban Liberalism - Party Politics and Urban Governance in Late Nineteenth-Century England (Hardcover):... The Transformation of Urban Liberalism - Party Politics and Urban Governance in Late Nineteenth-Century England (Hardcover)
James R. Moore
R1,939 R1,443 Discovery Miles 14 430 Save R496 (26%) Out of stock

"The Transformation of Urban Liberalism" re-evaluates the dramatic and turbulent political decade following the 'Third Reform Act', and questions whether the Liberal Party's political heartlands - the urban boroughs - really were in decline. In contrast to some recent studies, it does not see electoral reform, the Irish Home Rule crisis and the challenge of socialism as representing a fundamental threat to the integrity of the party. Instead this book illustrates, using parallel case studies, how the party gradually began to transform into a social democratic organisation through a re-evaluation of its role and policy direction. This process was not one directed from the centre - despite the important personalities of Gladstone and Rosebery - but rather one heavily influenced by 'grass roots politics'. Consequently, it suggests that late Victorian politics was more democratic and open than sometimes thought, with leading urban politicians forced to respond to the demands of party activists. Changes in the structure of urban rule produced new policy outcomes and brought new collectivist forms of New Liberalism onto the political agenda. Thus, it is argued that without the political transformations of the decade 1885-1895, the radical liberal governments of the Edwardian era would not have been possible.

Prison Reform in Lancashire, 1700-1850 - A Study in Local Administration (Hardcover): Margaret Delacy Prison Reform in Lancashire, 1700-1850 - A Study in Local Administration (Hardcover)
Margaret Delacy
R911 R702 Discovery Miles 7 020 Save R209 (23%) Out of stock
Parliament, Party, and the Art of Politics in Britain, 1855-1859 (Hardcover): Angus Hawkins Parliament, Party, and the Art of Politics in Britain, 1855-1859 (Hardcover)
Angus Hawkins
R1,118 R856 Discovery Miles 8 560 Save R262 (23%) Out of stock
Thomas Davis and Ireland - A Biographical Sketch (Hardcover): Helen F. Mulvey Thomas Davis and Ireland - A Biographical Sketch (Hardcover)
Helen F. Mulvey
R1,306 Discovery Miles 13 060 Out of stock

Thomas Davis (1814-1845) was a leading figure in the "Young Ireland" movement of the 1840s. With Charles Gavan Duffy and John Blake Dillon, he created the influential weekly newspaper "Nation" in an effort to support Daniel O'Connell's campaign to repeal the Act of Union. A man of great political and literary promise, he died at only 31. This work provides an objective portrait of Davis' life and thoughts. Helen Mulvey covers the principal events of Davis' life and work, discusses his role in the evolution of Irish nationalism, and reveals his importance to generations of nationalists. The text pays particular attention to his motivations, ideas, interests, friendships, and inconsistencies. A man of many talents, Davis might have become a lawyer, an historian of Ireland, a writer of historical fiction, or a champion of various public causes, political or social.

Liverpool Park Estates - Their Legal Basis, Creation and Early Management (Paperback): Susan George Liverpool Park Estates - Their Legal Basis, Creation and Early Management (Paperback)
Susan George
R673 Discovery Miles 6 730 Out of stock

The rapid growth of nineteenth-century English cities produced leafy suburbs, and an occasional feature of these was the development of the estate park of modestly secluded Victorian villas. To preserve their valued amenities, such parks bound the middle-class owners of houses within them by restrictive legal covenants. The documents relating to such parks are often inaccessible, but for three of them in Liverpool, the available records enable their early history to be studied. The first part of this book deals with the legal basis and evolution of the restrictive covenant, a device still of considerable importance in housing development and amenity protection across England. The second part deals individually with the three Liverpool parks, the social reasons for their foundation and growth, and the problems that beset the entrepreneurs who established them in the mid-nineteenth century (and often then lived in them) during the early years of the parks' existence. After more than a hundred years, all three of the parks studied continue not only as highly favoured residential areas, but also as exemplars of the success of the deployment of the restrictive covenant.

Work and Community Among West African Migrant Workers Since the Nineteenth Century (Hardcover): Diane Frost Work and Community Among West African Migrant Workers Since the Nineteenth Century (Hardcover)
Diane Frost
R2,256 Discovery Miles 22 560 Out of stock

This is the story of a group of West Africans - the Kru - who as ships' labourers and seafarers contributed greatly to British colonial trade with West Afica. The Kru were among the earliest black people to settle in Britain, and their presence in the period since World War II is also significant, as it represents a continuity in migration between the pre- and post-war periods that can be claimed by few ethnic-minority groups.

Work and Community Among West African Migrant Workers Since the Nineteenth Century (Paperback): Diane Frost Work and Community Among West African Migrant Workers Since the Nineteenth Century (Paperback)
Diane Frost
R719 Discovery Miles 7 190 Out of stock

This is the story of a group of West Africans - the Kru - who as ships' labourers and seafarers contributed greatly to British colonial trade with West Afica. The Kru were among the earliest black people to settle in Britain, and their presence in the period since World War II is also significant, as it represents a continuity in migration between the pre- and post-war periods that can be claimed by few ethnic-minority groups.

Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland (Hardcover): Adrian Randall, Andrew... Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland (Hardcover)
Adrian Randall, Andrew Charlesworth
R724 Discovery Miles 7 240 Out of stock

Focusing on towns, cities, villages, corporations, colliers and tradesmen, these studies of the market and market culture provide an insight into the social, political and economic relationships of 18th-century Britain and Ireland. The book offers evidence of the heterogeneity of these relations, but also demonstrates, that, for all the apparent differences from place to place and time to time, on basic issues of provisioning there was remarkable uniformity. Among the topics discussed are protest in relation to customary corn measures, opposition to turnpikes, resistance to the Cider Tax, scarcity and market management in Bristol, the moral economy of "the English middling sort", Oxford food riots, and the Irish famine of 1799-1801.

Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland (Paperback, New): Adrian Randall, Andrew... Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland (Paperback, New)
Adrian Randall, Andrew Charlesworth
R681 Discovery Miles 6 810 Out of stock

This volume is concerned with markets, market culture and popular protest in eighteenth-century Britain and Ireland. The chapters focus upon both urban and rural communities: towns and cities, villages and corporations, colliers and tradesmen all feature in these studies since the market was ubiquitous and universal. How it was managed, however, varied from place to place and from time to time and the process of management provides us with a major insight into the social, political and economic relationships of eighteenth-century Britain. Some readers will see in these chapters evidence of the heterogeneity of these relations, but others will recognise that, for all the apparent differences, on basic issues of provisioning there was a remarkable uniformity. Following an introductory chapter, contributions focus on protest in relation to customary corn measures, opposition to turnpikes, resistance to the Cider Tax, scarcity and market management in Bristol, the moral economy of the English middling sort', Oxford food riots and the Irish famine 1799 1801.

The Forgotten Commissioner - Sir William Mildmay and the Anglo-French Commission of 1750-1755 (Paperback, New): Enid Robbie The Forgotten Commissioner - Sir William Mildmay and the Anglo-French Commission of 1750-1755 (Paperback, New)
Enid Robbie
R513 R473 Discovery Miles 4 730 Save R40 (8%) Out of stock

As a middle-aged London lawyer, Sir William Mildmay had a reputation for prudence and frugality that landed him a position on the Anglo-French Commission in Paris. The Commission's ongoing negotiations and failure to ratify the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle and resolve long-standing differences were to have far-reaching consequences for the futures of Britain, France, Canada, the American colonies, and India. The contents of William Mildmay's letters, his private commission journal, and his official commission reports provide remarkable first-hand insight into the tortuous process of eighteenth-century diplomacy. Mildmay's notes also raise the fascinating possibility that in the early summer of 1752 a successful end of the treaty negotiations might have been possible, thus preventing or delaying the Seven Years' War. Given the importance of the resulting conflagration for Britain and its Empire, Mildmay's detailed descriptions of the commission's work is a remarkable and unique chronicle of a crucial episode in British and French diplomacy. Enid Robbie's Forgotten Commissioner resurrects the uncertainties, personalities, infighting, and political double-dealing behind the Anglo-French Commission through an examination of one of its quietest but most dedicated participants. As Robbie weaves Mildmay's personal fortunes through the larger diplomatic negotiations, the reader understands that politics and diplomacy were life and death professions, not just for nations, but for individual careers.

"Mimosa" - The Life and Times of the Ship That Sailed to Patagonia (Paperback, New): Susan Wilkinson "Mimosa" - The Life and Times of the Ship That Sailed to Patagonia (Paperback, New)
Susan Wilkinson
R508 R467 Discovery Miles 4 670 Save R41 (8%) Out of stock

Presents a factual history of the Mimosa, the ship that carried Welsh settlers to Patagonia in 1865.

Dr MacNamara 1861-1931 (Hardcover): Robin Betts Dr MacNamara 1861-1931 (Hardcover)
Robin Betts
R2,265 Discovery Miles 22 650 Out of stock

This is an historical biography of Dr T.J. Macnamara, the first ex-elementary teacher to win a government post. Colleague and close friend of Lloyd George, and praised by Winston Churchill, Macnamara was an educationist, journalist and Cabinet Minister. This study of his life and career makes a contribution to educational history as well as to the history of the Liberal Party, the National Union of Teachers (NUT), and British political history generally.

Dr Macnamara 1861-1931 (Paperback, illustrated edition): Robin Betts Dr Macnamara 1861-1931 (Paperback, illustrated edition)
Robin Betts
R787 Discovery Miles 7 870 Out of stock

This well-researched historical biography is the first on Dr T. J. Macnamara, the first ex-elementary teacher to win a government post. Colleague and close friend of Lloyd George, and praised by Winston Churchill, Macnamara was an educationist, journalist and Cabinet Minister. This study of his life and career makes a major contribution to educational history as well as to the history of the Liberal Party, the National Union of Teachers (NUT) and British political history generally. Fascinating details of Macnamara's pre-Parliamentary career are provided and, alongside the biographical account, the book deals with a range of major issues with which Macnamara was involved. In education, government control of school funding and the curriculum in the 1890s is considered together with the emergence of elementary school teachers as powerful public figures, the operation and decline of London's first education system (the London School Board 1870 1904), and resistance (especially in Wales) to Balfour's 1902 Education Act. Defence issues feature: a view of the First World War arms race from inside the Admiralty; the Admiralty during the First World War from the standpoint of the only government minister who held the same office throughout the hostilities, working with, among others, Churchill and Balfour. Macnamara's establishment of the dole on response to the post-war economic slump, 1920 22, is also considered. Important analysis is included of the fragmentation of the Liberal Party in the 1920s, leaving Macnamara as one of the last of Lloyd George's supporters.

Gladstone Centenary Essays (Hardcover): David Bebbington, Roger Swift Gladstone Centenary Essays (Hardcover)
David Bebbington, Roger Swift
R2,254 Discovery Miles 22 540 Out of stock

W. E. Gladstone towers over the politics of the nineteenth century. He is known for his policies of financial rectitude, his campaigns to settle the Irish question and his championship of the rights of small nations. He remains the only British Prime Minister to have served for four separate terms. In 1998 an international conference at Chester College brought together Gladstone scholars to mark the centenary of his death, and many of the papers presented on that occasion are published in this volume. Covering the whole of the statesman's long political life from the first Reform Act to the last decade of the nineteenth century, they range over topics as diverse as parliamentary reform and free trade, Gladstone's English Nonconformist supporters and his Irish Unionist opponents. A select bibliography, arranged by subject, supplies guidance for further research. The collection forms a tribute, appreciative but critical, to the Grand Old Man of British politics.

Gladstone Centenary Essays (Paperback): David Bebbington, Roger Swift Gladstone Centenary Essays (Paperback)
David Bebbington, Roger Swift
R719 Discovery Miles 7 190 Out of stock

W. E. Gladstone towers over the politics of the nineteenth century. He is known for his policies of financial rectitude, his campaigns to settle the Irish question and his championship of the rights of small nations. He remains the only British Prime Minister to have served for four separate terms. In 1998 an international conference at Chester College brought together Gladstone scholars to mark the centenary of his death, and many of the papers presented on that occasion are published in this volume. Covering the whole of the statesman's long political life from the first Reform Act to the last decade of the nineteenth century, they range over topics as diverse as parliamentary reform and free trade, Gladstone's English Nonconformist supporters and his Irish Unionist opponents. A select bibliography, arranged by subject, supplies guidance for further research. The collection forms a tribute, appreciative but critical, to the Grand Old Man of British politics.

The Reverend William Turner - Dissent and Reform in Georgian Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Paperback): Stephen Harbottle The Reverend William Turner - Dissent and Reform in Georgian Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Paperback)
Stephen Harbottle
R974 Discovery Miles 9 740 Out of stock

A biography of the Reverend William Turner, a Unitarian and founder of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary & Philosophical Society in 1793, and of many other institutions in Newcastle, from the Royal Jubilee School to the Trustee Savings Bank. The book sets Unitarianism in the context of the late-Georgian period, describing both its beliefs and the contemporary restraints upon their expression. It sketches the Unitarian enthusiasm for education in science and the humanities, in addition to the conventional classics, and shows how Turner's connections with men such as Joseph Priestley, and colleges like Warrington Academy, contributed to his achievements in Newcastle.

Josephine Butler - Her Work and Principles and Their Meaning for the Twentieth Century (Paperback, Facsimilie of 1927 ed):... Josephine Butler - Her Work and Principles and Their Meaning for the Twentieth Century (Paperback, Facsimilie of 1927 ed)
Millicent Garrett Fawcett, E.M. Turner
R416 Discovery Miles 4 160 Out of stock

Strong religious convictions enabled the nineteenth-century feminist Josephine Butler to withstand the on-slaught of abuse that she received from those both inside and outside of the woman's movement. Other women's rights activists felt she was far too radical and her efforts would harm their attempts at extending educational and employment opportunities and fighting for legal and political rights for women Her opponents viewed her as a threat to the moral foundations of society itself. In the second half of the nineteenth century in England, the Contagious Disease Acts created a class of women who were at the sexual mercy of any man in six military districts. According to that law, all prostitutes were required to have a government certificate which showed that they were free of disease, which on the face of its seems to be rather innocuous. But, as they say, the devil is in the details. Any man could denounce any woman as a prostitute for any reason. If she was a never married woman, public health officials would detain the woman and give her a virginity test, making sure that she failed the test and issued her a certificate indicating that she was disease free and therefore entitled to ply the trade of prostitution. Since the woman could be shown to have had sex outside of marriage, she was branded a prostitute and all opportunities for honorable employment were closed to her. Because she could not find employment because her reputation had been destroyed, she was essentially forced into prostitution to survive. Notice that the woman was never arrested and charged with a crime, she was never tried and convicted of anything; any man, a spurned lover, a pimp who needed more girls, or ajealous suitor could accuse the woman of having had sex outside of marriage and that was enough to ruin a woman for life. Also notice that men were not held accountable in any way for the spread of venereal disease, the ostensible justification for requiring the health certificates in the first place. Poor and working-class women could quite literally be snatched off the street and forced into prostitution. Butler's first public crusade was to halt the extension of the Contagious Disease Acts and then to repeal the existing laws. Laws similar to the British Contagious Disease Acts were in place on the Continent in France and Germany. Harassed, jostled, jeered, threatened, unable to find accommodations in many cities, smeared with excrement, even mobbed, Butler, "the moral reformer," toured the continent establishing committees in many cities to fight against such local laws. Returning to England, she founded an international organization to fight using pamphlets and the press, in the legislatures and the courts, against such laws. She even entered the fray when public health organizations in several American cities attempted to import the European styles into America, stopping the movement dead in its tracks before it was able to take root here. She fought the rich and powerful men in Parliament itself who didn't want to have their pastimes disturbed: her greatest support came from poor and working-class men who wanted to protect their mothers, their sisters, and especially their wives and daughters from a vicious system. Historically, poor, slave, and peasant women, and women of the artisan class had always been fair game for rich and powerful men. With universal male suffrage, thehusbands and fathers of such women were empowered to finally end this prerogative of the rich and powerful. This book celebrates the Josephine Butler Centenary 1828 to 1928, and is a facsimile of the 1927 edition.

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