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Their faces look out across a chasm of time. Stern and often stiff, they wear the high collars and hoop skirts, buckskins and ceremonial feathers of another era. The names of some are familiar--Teddy Roosevelt, Mark Twain, Sitting Bull, Annie Oakley. The names of others may be less well known, but they played a significant role in re-creating the American West. These are all people of the West, and their portraits give us a unique glimpse into a lost time and place.
"Faces of the Frontier" showcases more than 120 photographic portraits of leaders, statesmen, soldiers, laborers, activists, criminals, and others, all posed before the cameras that made their way to nearly every mining shanty-town and frontier outpost on the prairie. Drawing primarily on the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, this book depicts many of the people who helped transform the West between the end of the Mexican War and passage of the Indian Citizenship Act.
Accompanying the portraits are an introduction and two essays that provide historical context and help frame their interpretation. Frank Goodyear explores how photography influenced Americans' understanding of the West by giving the region a face and by shaping public responses to western issues. Richard White questions the notion that these photographs accurately represent individuals and argues that the portraits' subjects participated in a process that idealized them as types.
This handsome volume is not only a record of the people we associate with the West during a remarkably formative eighty years but also a key to understanding what Americans then saw in the West, and how they saw themselves.
A world traveler, Isabella Bird recorded her 1873 visit to Colorado Territory in her classic travel narrative, "A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains." This work inspired Robert Root's own discovery of Colorado's Front Range following his move from the flatlands of Michigan. In this elegantly written book, Root retraces Bird's three-month journey, seeking to understand what Colorado meant to her--and what it would come to mean for him.
"Following Isabella" is a work of intersecting histories. Root interweaves an overview of Bird's life and work with regional history, nature writing, and his own travels to produce a uniquely informative and entertaining narrative. He probes Bird's self-transformation as her writing moved from private letters to published books, and also draws on reflections of other authors of her day, including Grace Greenwood and Helen Hunt Jackson. Like Bird, Root experiences his most fulfilling moments in the mountains, climbing formidable Longs Peak, living alone in the cabin of famed editor William Allen White, and wandering wild landscapes.
Through reflections on earlier writers' experiences, and by weighing his own response to them, Root learns not only how to come to Colorado, as visitors so often do, but more important, how to stay.
Georger Armstrong Custer's death in 1876 at the Battle of the Little Big Horn left Elizabeth Bacon Custer a thirty-four-year-old widow who was deeply in debt. By the time she died fifty-seven years later she had achieved economic security, recognition as an author and lecturer, and the respect of numerous public figures. She had built the Custer legend, an idealized image of her husband as a brilliant military commander and a family man without personal failings. In Elizabeth Bacon Custer and the Making of a Myth, Shirley A. Leckie explores the life of "Libbie," a frontier army wife who willingly adhered to the social and religious restrictions of her day, yet used her authority as model wife and widow to influence events and ideology far beyond the private sphere.
The souvenir book of the exhibition Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland: National Museum of Scotland, 26 June to 10 November. In the era of the European Romantic movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, Scotland became the subject of international fascination. Using material evidence, the exhibition - and the book - traces Scotland's journey into the global imagination, and show how, by the end of Queen Victoria's reign, a particular version of the cultural traditions of the highlands and islands had become fixed as a badge of wider Scottish identity. The romantic visions of Scotland that took shape during this period have always been questioned. The stories of objects, costume, art, literature and music highlighted in both the exhibition and the book can tell us a great deal about the relationship between Scotland, romance and reality. https://www.nms.ac.uk/national-museum-of-scotland/whats-on/wild-and-majestic/
This clearly written and engrossing book presents a global narrative of the origins of the modern world from 1400 to the present. Unlike most studies, which assume that the "rise of the West" is the story of the coming of the modern world, this history, drawing upon new scholarship on Asia, Africa, and the New World and upon the maturing field of environmental history, constructs a story in which those parts of the world play major roles, including their impacts on the environment. Robert B. Marks defines the modern world as one marked by industry, the nation state, interstate warfare, a large and growing gap between the wealthiest and poorest parts of the world, increasing inequality within the wealthiest industrialized countries, and an escape from the environmental constraints of the "biological old regime." He explains its origins by emphasizing contingencies (such as the conquest of the New World); the broad comparability of the most advanced regions in China, India, and Europe; the reasons why England was able to escape from common ecological constraints facing all of those regions by the eighteenth century; a conjuncture of human and natural forces that solidified a gap between the industrialized and non-industrialized parts of the world; the mounting environmental crisis that defines the modern world; and the ways in which the forces of globalization stress the economic and political underpinnings of the modern world. Now in a new edition that brings the saga of the modern world to the present in an environmental context, the book considers how and why the United States emerged as a world power in the twentieth century and became the sole superpower by the twenty-first century, and why the changed relationship of humans to the environmental likely will be the hallmark of the modern era-the Anthopocene. Once again arguing that the US rise to global hegemon was contingent, not inevitable, Marks also points to the resurgence of Asia and the vastly changed relationship of humans to the environment that may in the long run overshadow any political and economic milestones of the past hundred years.
"Mastering Modern German History 1864-1990" addresses the key political, social and economic developments in German history from 1864, to unification, through to the collapse of the Berlin Wall and re-unification. In recent years, significant aspects of German history have been the subject of new interpretations and areas such as Bismarck, William II, the origins of the First World War, Hitler, the Holocaust and the Second World War will be fully explored in the light of new research. Completely accessible and written in an engaging and lucid style, this text provides students with an in-depth look at Germany and its complex past.
When Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina savagely caned Senator Charles Sumner Massachusetts on the floor of the U.S. Senate on May 21, 1856, southerners viewed the attack as a triumphant affirmation of southern chivalry, northerners as a confirmation of southern barbarity. Public opinion was similarly divided nearly three-and-a-half years later after abolitionist John Brown's raid on the Federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, with northerners crowning John Brown as a martyr to the cause of freedom as southerners excoriated him as a consciousness fanatic. These events opened American minds to the possibility that North and South might be incompatible societies, but some of Dixie's defenders were willing to go one step further -- to propose that northerners and southerners represented not just a "divided people" but two scientifically distinct races. In Normans and Saxons, Ritchie Watson, Jr., explores the complex racial mythology created by the upper classes of the antebellum South in the wake of these divisive events to justify secession and, eventually, the Civil War.
This mythology cast southerners as descendants of the Normans of eleventh-century England and thus also of the Cavaliers of the seventeenth century, some of whom had come to the New World and populated the southern colonies. These Normans were opposed, in mythic terms, by Saxons -- Englishmen of German descent -- some of whose descendants made up the Puritans who settled New England and later fanned out to populate the rest of the North. The myth drew on nineteenth-century science and other sources to portray these as two separate, warring "races," the aristocratic and dashing Normans versus the common and venal Saxons. According to Watson, southern polemical writers employed this racial mythology as a justification of slavery, countering the northern argument that the South's peculiar institution had combined with its Norman racial composition to produce an arrogant and brutal land of oligarchs with a second-rate culture. Watson finds evidence for this argument in both prose and poetry, from the literary influence of Sir Walter Scott, De Bow's Review, and other antebellum southern magazines, to fiction by George Tucker, John Pendleton Kennedy, and William Alexander Caruthers and northern and southern poetry during the Civil War, especially in the works of Walt Whitman. Watson also traces the continuing impact of the Norman versus Saxon myth in "Lost Cause" thought and how the myth has affected ideas about southern sectionalism of today.
Normans and Saxons provides a thorough analysis of the ways in which myth ultimately helped to convince Americans that regional differences over the issue of slavery were manifestations of deeper and more profound differences in racial temperament -- differences that made civil war inevitable.
A reissue of Simon Schama's landmark study of the Netherlands from 1780-1813, this is a tale of a once-powerful nation's desparate struggle to survive the treacheries and brutality of European war and politics. Between 1780 and 1813 the Dutch Republic - a country once rich enough to be called the cash till of Europe and powerful enough to make war with England - was stripped of its colonies, invaded by its enemies, driven to the edge of bankruptcy, and, finally, reduced to becoming an appendage of the French empire - an appendage not even the French seemed to value overmuch. Out of these events Simon Schama has constructed a gripping chronicle of revolution and privateering, constitutions and coups, in a tiny nation desperately struggling to stay afloat in a sea of geopolitics. Like his classics `The Embarrassment of Riches' and `Citizens', `Patriots and Liberators' combines a mastery of historical sources with an unabashed delight in narrative. The result confirms Schama as a historian in the finest tradition - one whose study of the past reveals volumes about the present. This is one of our most revered historians' greatest works, and this new Perennial edition will reintroduce his genius to a new generation of readers.
"James Nelson is not the first historian to reveal this
little-known albeit incredibly important aspect of our Revolution,
but no one has done it more thoroughly or with greater literary
In July 1775, in his first inspection of the American encampment on the outskirts of Boston, the Continental Army's newly arrived commander-in-chief noted its haphazard design and shabby construction--clearly the work of men unprepared to face the world's most powerful fighting force. George Washington had inherited not only an army of woefully untrained and ill-equipped soldiers, but a daunting military prospect as well. To the east he could see the enemy's heavily fortified positions on Bunker Hill and a formidable naval presence on the river beyond. British-occupied Boston was defended by impressive redoubts that would easily repel any American assault, and Boston Harbor bristled with the masts of merchant ships delivering food, clothing, arms, ammunition, and other necessities to the British. Washington knew that the king's troops had all the arms and gunpowder they could want, whereas his own army lacked enough powder for even one hour of major combat. The Americans were in danger of losing a war before it had truly begun.. .
Despite his complete lack of naval experience, Washington recognized that harassing British merchant ships was his only means of carrying the fight to the enemy and sustaining an otherwise unsustainable stalemate. But he also knew that many in Congress still hoped for reconciliation with England, and in that climate Congressional approval for naval action was out of the question. So, without notifyingCongress and with no real authority to do so, the general began arming small merchant schooners and sending them to sea to hunt down British transports in the Service of the ministerial Army. . .
In "George Washington's Secret Navy," award-winning author James L. Nelson tells the fascinating tale of how America's first commander-in-chief launched America's first navy. Nelson introduces us to another side of a general known for his unprecedented respect for civilian authority. Here we meet a man whose singular act of independence helped keep the Revolution alive in 1775. .
The Utah War of 1857-58, the unprecedented armed confrontation between Mormon Utah Territory and the U.S. government, was the most extensive American military action between the Mexican and Civil wars. At Sword's Point presents in two volumes the first in-depth narrative and documentary history of that extraordinary conflict. William P. MacKinnon offers a lively narrative linking firsthand accounts--most previously unknown--from soldiers and civilians on both sides. This first volume traces the war's causes and preliminary events, including President Buchanan's decision to replace Brigham Young as governor of Utah and restore federal authority through a large army expedition. Also examined are Young's defensive-aggressive reactions, the onset of armed hostilities, and Thomas L. Kane's departure at the end of 1857 for his now-famous mediating mission to Utah. MacKinnon provides a balanced, comprehensive account, based on a half century of research and a wealth of carefully selected new material. Women's voices from both sides enrich this colorful story. At Sword's Point presents the Utah War as a sprawling confrontation with regional and international as well as territorial impact. As a nonpartisan definitive work, it eclipses previous studies of this remarkably bloody turning point in western, military, and Mormon history.
A bold and searing investigation into the role of white women in the American slave economy
Bridging women’s history, the history of the South, and African American history, this book makes a bold argument about the role of white women in American slavery. Historian Stephanie E. Jones-Rogers draws on a variety of sources to show that slave†‘owning women were sophisticated economic actors who directly engaged in and benefited from the South’s slave market. Because women typically inherited more slaves than land, enslaved people were often their primary source of wealth. Not only did white women often refuse to cede ownership of their slaves to their husbands, they employed management techniques that were as effective and brutal as those used by slave†‘owning men. White women actively participated in the slave market, profited from it, and used it for economic and social empowerment. By examining the economically entangled lives of enslaved people and slave†‘owning women, Jones-Rogers presents a narrative that forces us to rethink the economics and social conventions of slaveholding America.
For over three and a half years, from 1779 to 1783, the tiny territory of Gibraltar was besieged and blockaded, on land and at sea, by the overwhelming forces of Spain and France. It became the longest siege in British history, and the obsession with saving Gibraltar was blamed for the loss of the American colonies in the War of Independence. Located between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, on the very edge of Europe, Gibraltar was a place of varied nationalities, languages, religions and social classes. During the siege, thousands of soldiers, civilians and their families withstood terrifying bombardments, starvation and diseases. Very ordinary people lived through extraordinary events, from shipwrecks and naval battles to an attempted invasion of England and a daring sortie out of Gibraltar into Spain. Deadly innovations included red-hot shot, shrapnel shells and a barrage from immense floating batteries. This is military and social history at its best, a story of soldiers, sailors and civilians, with royalty and rank-and-file, workmen and engineers, priests, prisoners-of-war, spies and surgeons, all caught up in a struggle for a fortress located on little more than two square miles of awe-inspiring rock. Gibraltar: The Greatest Siege in British History is an epic page-turner, rich in dramatic human detail - a tale of courage, endurance, intrigue, desperation, greed and humanity. The everyday experiences of all those involved are brought vividly to life with eyewitness accounts and expert research.
"This book should help advance the use of patent literature for
"This publication is an interesting work that could be useful
for reference purposes as well as pleasant for browsing."
Dishwashers, electric light bulbs, gramophones, motion picture cameras, radios, roller skates, typewriters. While these inventions seem to speak of the 20th century, they all in fact date from the 19th century.
The Victorian age (1837-1901) was a period of enormous technological progress in communications, transport, and many other areas of life. Illustrated by the original patent drawings from The British Library's extensive collection, this attractive book chronicles the history of the one hundred most important, innovative, and memorable inventions of the 19th century. The vivid picture of the Victorian age unfolds as inventions from the ground-breaking--such as aspirin, dynamite, and the telephone--to the everyday--like blue jeans and tiddlywinks--are revealed decade by decade. Together they provide a vivid picture of Victorian life.
This follow-up volume to Stephen van Dulken's acclaimed "Inventing the 20th Century" will be compelling reading to anyone interested in inventors and the "age of machines." From the cash register to the safety pin, from the machine gun to the pocket protector, and from lawn tennis to the light bulb, Inventing the 19th Century is a fascinating, illustrative window into the Victorian Age.
This story of "Buffalo Bill" Cody's second British tour as experienced by Lakota Indian performers, includes 16 b&w illustrations and 1 map.
The only religious unit in American military history. The Mormon battalion was unique in federal service, having been recruited solely from one religious body and having a religious title as the unit designation. Serving in the Mexican War, they marched across the Southwest to California. Strangely, though, the battalion's story has not been told from the perspective of the profession of arms. Since it did not engage in battle, military historians have paid little attention to it.
Military aspects of the battalion overlooked. The military aspects of this unique battalion usually been ignored. The most common portrayal of the unit has been to treat it as a group of pioneers, rather than soldiers--emigrants who followed a unique path during the Mormon hegira to the Great Basin.
A unique military unit. This volunteer unit of five companies was unique in many ways beyond its pioneer experience. Led by regular officers, including Philip St. George Cooke, it served as part of General Stephen W. Kearny's Army of the West, invading and occupying what would become New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Formed in July 1846 in Council Bluffs, Iowa, the battalion marched to California, where it was discharged from federal service in July 1847, after exactly one year's service. In the process, it did not experience combat, but made one of the most incredible and challenging marches in American military history.
The great march across the Southwest. The story of that grueling march across wide prairies, mountains, and deserts is central to the battalion's story. It symbolizes the very essence of the Mormon drama as a frontier epic, and proves more than anything else the men's loyalty, stamina, and sacrifice. In telling that tale, the author also illuminates the battalion's place in the U.S.-Mexican War, as most accounts of its history have ignored its role in the greater campaign.
First-hand accounts bring detail and immediacy to the story. More than eighty diaries, journals, memoirs, and typed manuscript copies prepared by battalion members were accessed by the author in the preparation of this work.
The journal of Dr. Sanderson: Dr. George B. Sanderson was known in Mormon legend as "Dr. Death," and was feared and loathed by many in the battalion. In the spring of 2003, the Mormon Battalion legacy was greatly enhanced by the discovery of his journal, while serving as a volunteer assistant surgeon assigned to the battalion. This journal, extensively quoted in the book, provides a window to the soul of one of the two most hated characters of the battalion. It joins the other great accounts of Daniel Tyler, Levi Hancock, Henry Standage, William Coray, and others.
Maps and illustrations enhance the work. The two appendixes included contain the Army Pay Scale, 1846, and the Mormon Battalion Command and Staff. A thorough bibliography and index complete the book, and add to its value.
A handsome volume of typeset and bound to match other volumes in the Frontier Military Series, of which this is volume twenty-five. The book includes a chronology, historical introduction, footnotes, two appendixes, bibliography and index. Printed on acid-free paper and bound in rich blue linen cloth with spine and front covers stamped in gold foil.
With thirteen illustrations and three maps.
'He had brought nothing but trouble to the navy: how would he fare as King?' Known as the 'Sailor King', William IV was sent to join the navy by his father to discipline him, but instead became notorious for his calamitous years of service, his debts and his relationship with the actress Mrs Jordan. Yet, as Roger Knight's biography shows, William also helped see the country through the great constitutional crisis of its age, enabling the smooth succession of his niece Victoria.
It is only recently that the importance of Moses Elias Levy (1782-1854) as a Jewish social activist has come to be appreciated. C. S. Monaco's discovery of Levy's Plan for the Abolition of Slavery in the late 1990s began the transformation of historians' understanding of this man's life and work. Now, in the first full-scale biography of Levy, Monaco completes the picture of one of the antebellum South's most influential and interesting Jewish citizens. Long known only as the father of David L. Yulee, the first Jew elected to the U.S. Senate, Levy here comes into sharp relief as Monaco follows him from his affluent upbringing in a Sephardic Jewish house-hold in Morocco--where his father was a courtier to the sultan--through his career as a successful merchant shipper, to his radical reform activities in Florida. Levy had many residences abroad--in Morocco, Gibraltar, Danish Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Curacao, England--and Monaco escorts readers from country to country, considering his accomplishments in each. The sole Jewish voice during the British abolitionist crusade, Levy was so extraordinary in his activism in London that some Protestants believed he heralded the millennium. In his search for equilibrium between Enlightenment thinking and pre-modern religion, Levy founded the United States' first Jewish communitarian settlement in the wilds of the East Florida frontier. In addition, he significantly advanced agricultural development and public education in Florida. Monaco's radical reappraisal of this complex and formerly underappreciated figure brings to light for the first time the full and fascinating extent of Moses Levy's remarkable contributions to nineteenth-centuryAmerica.
The mutiny on HMS Bounty, in the South Pacific on 28 April 1789, is one of history's great epics - and in the hands of Peter FitzSimons it comes to life as never before. Commissioned by the Royal Navy to collect breadfruit plants from Tahiti and take them to the West Indies, the Bounty's crew found themselves in a tropical paradise. Five months later, they did not want to leave. Under the leadership of Fletcher Christian most of the crew mutinied soon after sailing from Tahiti, setting Captain William Bligh and 18 loyal crewmen adrift in a small open boat. In one of history's great feats of seamanship, Bligh navigated this tiny vessel for 3618 nautical miles to Timor. Fletcher Christian and the mutineers sailed back to Tahiti, where most remained and were later tried for mutiny. But Christian, along with eight fellow mutineers and some Tahitian men and women, sailed off into the unknown, eventually discovering the isolated Pitcairn Island - at the time not even marked on British maps - and settling there. This astonishing story is historical adventure at its very best, encompassing the mutiny, Bligh's monumental achievement in navigating to safety, and Fletcher Christian and the mutineers' own epic journey from the sensual paradise of Tahiti to the outpost of Pitcairn Island. The mutineers' descendants live on Pitcairn to this day, amid swirling stories and rumours of past sexual transgressions and present-day repercussions. Mutiny on the Bounty is a sprawling, dramatic tale of intrigue, bravery and sheer boldness, told with the accuracy of historical detail and total command of story that are Peter FitzSimons' trademarks.
Napoleon: His Life, His Battles, His Empire offers an unprecedented insight into the mind of this extraordinary man who, from modest beginnings on the small island of Corsica, became Emperor of France and its vast empire. It examines the battles that made him a legend - Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena and Wagram - and looks at his social and political reforms which revolutionized the western world. Illustrated with stunning artworks, sketches and photographs, the authors draw on painstakingly researched documents, including the Treaty of Campo Formio, signed by Napoleon, love letters from Napoleon to Josephine, Napoleon's proclamation to his troops before the Battle of Austerlitz and the codicil to the great man's will, to give a glorious account of a fascinating man.
In late 1846, Rudolph Friederich Kurz, a young and idealistic Swiss artist, came to the United States to study and paint American Indians. Because he also had to earn a living, he signed on with the Pierre Chouteau Jr. Company (commonly known as the American Fur Company) and traveled northward on the Missouri River to work as a clerk at Fort Berthold and Fort Union in present-day North Dakota. While living among fur traders and Indians of numerous tribes, Kurz filled a sketchbook and kept a detailed journal.
"On the Upper Missouri," an abridged and annotated version of his journal, is an invaluable source for information about Fort Union, the fur trade industry, and Indians of the northern plains. For this edition, editor Carla Kelly has preserved Kurz's style but included only those portions of greatest interest to readers today: his lively and detailed observations of people and activities at the fort. The volume also features 97 black-and-white drawings from Kurz's sketchbook.
This dual biography highlights the human dimensions of the Upper Missouri fur trade. Focusing on two major figures, Alexander Culbertson (1809-1879), trader with the American Fur Company, founder of Fort Benton, and the first white American to live among the Blackfeet Indians, and his wife, Natoyist-Siksina' ("Holy Snake") (1825-1893), daughter of Two Suns, the chief of the Blood (Kainah) tribe, Lesley Wischmann shows the great influence this couple had on the region. Culbertson and Natoyist-Siksina' worked together for thirty years to promote cooperative relations between Native inhabitants and newly arrived white adventurers and played key roles in the Fort Laramie Treaty Conference of 1851 and treaty negotiations with the Blackfeet tribes in 1855. As she tells the story of these "frontier diplomats," Wischmann also challenges conventional wisdom about the character of fur traders, the nature of the Blackfeet, and the role of Indian women.
Cambridge International AS Level History is a suite of three books that offer complete coverage of the Cambridge International AS Level History syllabus (code 9389). Written in clear and accessible language, this title covers the History of Europe from 1789 to 1917. Features include key questions, timelines, definitions of key terms, profile of key figures, notes to highlight significant points and formative questions to consolidate learning. Each chapter reinforces knowledge and builds skills using detailed study of primary and secondary sources to help students achieve their best. Exam support is offered in a final Examination Skills chapter offering advice on exam technique and how to approach source investigation and structured essay questions.
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