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Recent innovations in agriculture and food technologies have brought benefits to many countries, particularly in developing regions, but information about the extent of these has often been sparse. This collection assembles the best papers on the subject to form a comprehensive, global perspective on the impacts of agricultural biotechnology around the world. With an original introduction by the editors and emphasis on the economic, environmental, health and food security aspects of agricultural biotechnology, this book is an invaluable resource for academics, students and researchers alike.
The basic concept of this book is to examine the use of innovative methods augmenting traditional plant breeding towards the development of new crop varieties under different environmental conditions to achieve sustainable food production. This book consists of two volumes: Volume 1 subtitled Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools and Volume 2 subtitled Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. This is Volume 1 which consists of 21 chapters covering domestication and germplasm utilization, conventional breeding techniques and the role of biotechnology. In addition to various biotechnological applications in plant breeding, it includes functional genomics, mutations and methods of detection, and molecular markers. In vitro techniques and their applications in plant breeding are discussed with an emphasis on embryo rescue, somatic cell hybridization and somaclonal variation. Other chapters cover haploid breeding, transgenics, cryogenics and bioinformatics.
We need to produce more food. With water and food shortages already being felt in some parts of the world, this might sound like an insurmountable challenge, but all is far from lost. You may not have heard about it, but the sustainable food revolution is already under way. Amanda Little unveils startling innovations from around the world: farmscrapers, cloned cattle, meatless burgers, edible insects, super-bananas and microchipped cows. She meets the most creative and controversial minds changing the face of modern food production, and tackles fears over genetic modification with hard facts. The Fate of Food is a fascinating look at the threats and opportunities that lie ahead as we struggle to feed ever more people in a changing world.
This Encyclopedia offers a definitive source on issues pertaining to the full range of topics in the important new area of food and agricultural ethics. It includes summaries of historical approaches, current scholarship, social movements, and new trends from the standpoint of the ethical notions that have shaped them. It combines detailed analyses of specific topics such as the role of antibiotics in animal production, the Green Revolution, and alternative methods of organic farming, with longer entries that summarize general areas of scholarship and explore ways that they are related. Renewed debate, discussion and inquiry into food and agricultural topics have become a hallmark of the turn toward more sustainable policies and lifestyles in the 21st century. Attention has turned to the goals and ethical rationale behind production, distribution and consumption of food, as well as to non-food uses of cultivated biomass and the products of animal husbandry. These wide-ranging debates encompass questions in human nutrition, animal rights and the environmental impacts of aquaculture and agricultural production. Each of these and related topics is both technically complex and involves an - often implicit - ethical dimension. Other topics include methods for integrating ethics into scientific and technical research programs or development projects, the role of intensive agriculture and biotechnology in addressing persistent world hunger and the role of crops, forests and engineered organisms in making a transition to renewable, carbon-neutral sources of energy. The Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics proves an indispensible reference point for future research and writing on topics in agriculture and food ethics for decades to come.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of pedology in Ireland. It describes the main soil types of the country, their functions, ecological use, and the conditions to which they were subjected associated with management over time. In addition, it presents a complete set of data, pictures and maps, including benchmark profiles. Factors involved in soil formation are also discussed, making use of new, unpublished data and elaborations. The book was produced with the support and sponsorship of Teagasc, The Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Ireland and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency.
This timely book is a compilation of edited articles by distinguished international scientists discussing global warming, its causes as well as present and future solutions. Social and economic growth at global level is measured in terms of GDP, which requires energy inputs generally based on fossil fuel resources. These, however, are major contributors to increasing levels of CO2, causing 15 tonnes of green house gas emissions per capita. Renewable sources of energy offer an alternative to fossil fuels, and would help reduce this to the 2 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per capita per annum needed to achieve sustainable growth. As such, the book discusses the next-generation of biofuels and all related aspects, based on the editors' significant investigations on biofuels over the last 30 years. It also presents the latest research findings from research work carried out by contemporary researchers. Presenting global biofuel perspectives, it examines various issues related to sustainable development of biofuels in the contexts of agriculture, forestry, industry and economic growth. It covers the 1st to 4th generation biofuels, as well as the status of biofuel resources and their potential in carbon neutral economy. Offering a comprehensive, state-of-art overview of current and future biofuels at local and global levels, this book appeals to administrators, policy makers, universities and research institutions.
Agriculture as a social-ecological system embraces many disciplines. This book breaks through the silos of individual disciplines to bring ecologists and economists together to consider agriculture through the lens of resilience. It explores the economic, environmental and social uncertainties that influence the behaviour of agricultural producers and their subsequent farming approach, highlighting the importance of adaptability, innovation and capital reserves in enabling agriculture to persist under climate change and market volatility. The resilience concept and its relation to complexity theory is explained and the characteristics that foster resilience in agricultural systems, including the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are explored. The book discusses modelling tools, metrics and approaches for assessing agricultural resilience, highlighting areas where interdisciplinary thinking can enhance the development of resilience. It is suitable for those researching sustainable agriculture or those engaged in agricultural policy decisions and analysis, as well as students of ecology, agriculture and socioeconomics.
Many arborists learn tree work practices without fully understanding the biological and physiological principles behind them. However, outcomes for the health and longevity of trees are greatly improved when an arborist understands the science behind the care of tree root systems and crowns. In Applied Tree Biology, Drs. Hirons and Thomas draw upon their decades of experience in the laboratory, classroom, and the field - as well as the expertise of distinguished contributors to this volume - to provide those responsible for tree care with the scientific information that informs best practices for planting, pruning, soil decompaction, irrigation, and much more. Takes a multidisciplinary approach, integrating knowledge from plant biology, physiology, arboriculture, ecology, and more Provides a systematic presentation of fundamental tree biology and the scientific principles informing high quality tree care Presents accessible scientific information and best practices that help promote the health and longevity of trees Reflects the authors' decades of experience as tree biology researchers and educators, as well as their years of professional experience across the globe Applied Tree Biology is an indispensable source of practical, succinct information on tree biology, physiology, and ecology for professionals and interested amateurs involved with the care of trees. Arborists, foresters, and horticulturists at all stages of their careers will find this text particularly useful.
This open access book asks just how climate-smart our food really is. It follows an average days' worth of food and drink to see where it comes from, how far it travels, and the carbon price we all pay for it. From our breakfast tea and toast, through breaktime chocolate bar, to take-away supper, Dave Reay explores the weather extremes the world's farmers are already dealing with, and what new threats climate change will bring. Readers will encounter heat waves and hurricanes, wildfires and deadly toxins, as well as some truly climate-smart solutions. In every case there are responses that could cut emissions while boosting resilience and livelihoods. Ultimately we are all in this together, our decisions on what food we buy and how we consume it sends life-changing ripples right through the global web that is our food supply. As we face a future of 10 billion mouths to feed in a rapidly changing climate, it's time to get to know our farmers and herders, our vintners and fisherfolk, a whole lot better.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U.N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.
Agricultural and Food Electroanalysis offers a comprehensive rationale of electroanalysis, revealing its enormous potential in agricultural food analysis. A unique approach is used which fills a gap in the literature by bringing in applications to everyday problems. This timely text presents in-depth descriptions about different electrochemical techniques following their basic principles, instrumentation and main applications. Such techniques offer invaluable features such as inherent miniaturization, high sensitivity and selectivity, low cost, independence of sample turbidity, high compatibility with modern technologies such as microchips and biosensors, and the use of exciting nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires. Due to the advantages that modern electroanalytical techniques bring to food analysis, and the huge importance and emphasis given today to food quality and safety, this comprehensive work will be an essential read for professionals and researchers working in analytical laboratories and development departments, and a valuable guide for students studying for careers in food science, technology and chemistry.
This volume summarizes recent technological advances in the design and engineering of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae crops. It begins with contributions on the tomato and melon genome sequence, databases for Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae research, DNA markers in the breeding of the two families, and mutant resources and TILLING platforms in tomato research. Subsequent chapters address the use of molecular techniques for the modification of important breeding traits, such as tomato fruit set, growth, ripening, and sugar accumulation, as well as disease and insect resistance in melons. The volume closes with chapters on genome editing using artificial nucleases as a future breeding tool, and on the development of an in silico crop design system. It offers a valuable resource for plant breeders, molecular biologists, and agronomists.
The book brings together papers covering the most recent scientific research from the top endophyte researchers in the world. It presents the state of the art in our knowledge and technical capacity and explores future directions of this work. It is highly relevant and timely because of the need to improve global food security and its sustainability, and also to provide novel bioactive molecules for medicine. There is also a need to protect forestry in a changing and growing world. Endophytes offer a huge potential to reduce environmentally damaging agricultural inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides. They are also a largely overlooked group of organisms where much basic science remains to be undertaken. For example, new molecular tools of DNA profiling using high throughput environmental sequencing are allowing the exploration of a previously largely unknown resource. There is a pressing need to convert scientific research on endophytes into practical application. This book describes how that will be achieved.
This volume sits at the cross-roads of a number of areas of scientific interest that, in the past, have largely kept themselves separate - agriculture, forestry, population genetics, ecology, conservation biology, genomics and the protection of plant genetic resources. Yet these areas also have a lot of common interests and increasingly these independent lines of inquiry are tending to coalesce into a more comprehensive view of the complexity of plant-pathogen associations and their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. This interdisciplinary source provides a comprehensive overview of this changing situation by identifying the role of pathogens in shaping plant populations, species and communities, tackling the issue of the increasing importance of invasive and newly emerging diseases and giving broader recognition to the fundamental importance of the influence of space and time (as manifest in the metapopulation concept) in driving epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories.
The ancient counties surrounding the Weald in the SE corner of England have a strongly marked character of their own that has survived remarkably well in the face of ever-increasing population pressure. The area is, however, comparatively neglected in discussion of Roman Britain, where it is often subsumed into a generalised treatment of the `civilian' part of Britannia that is based largely on other parts of the country. This book aims to redress the balance. The focus is particularly on Kent, Surrey and Sussex account is taken of information from neighbouring counties, particularly when the difficult subsoils affect the availability of evidence. An overview of the environment and a consideration of themes relevant to the South-East as a whole accompany 14 papers covering the topics of rural settlement in each county, crops, querns and millstones, animal exploitation, salt production, leatherworking, the working of bone and similar materials, the production of iron and iron objects, non-ferrous metalworking, pottery production and the supply of tile to Roman London. Agriculture and industry provides an up-to-date assessment of our knowledge of the southern hinterland of Roman London and an area that was particularly open to influences from the Continent.
This book takes readers on a journey through the evolution of agricultural communities in southern India, from their historical roots to the recent global neo-liberal era. It offers insights into a unique combination of themes, with a particular focus on agrarian change and urbanisation, specifically in the state of Karnataka where both aspects are significant and co-exist. Based on case studies from Karnataka in South India, the book presents a regional yet integrated multi-disciplinary framework for analysing the persistence, resilience and future of small farmer units. In doing so, it charts possible futures for small farm holdings and identifies means of integrating their progress and sustainability alongside that of the rest of the economy. Further, it provides arguments for the relevance of small holdings in connection with sustainable livelihoods and welfare at the grass roots, while also catering to the welfare needs of society at the macro level. The book makes a valuable contribution to the scholarship of agrarian as well as peri-urban transdisciplinary literature. For agrarian academics, students and the teaching community, the book's broad and topical coverage make it a valuable resource. For development practitioners and for those working on issues related to urbanisation, urban peripheries and the rural-urban interface, this book offers a new perspective that considers the primary sector on par with the secondary and tertiary. It also offers an insightful guide for policymakers and non-government organisations working in this area.
This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.
This book describes how genomics has revolutionized our understanding of agriculturally important plant-associated fungi and oomycetes. It illustrates some fundamental discoveries about these eukaryotic microbes with regard to the overall structure of their genomes, their lifestyles and the molecular mechanisms that form the basis of their interactions with plants. Genomics has provided new insights into fungal lifestyles and led to practical advances in plant breeding and crop protection, such as predictions about the spread and evolution of new pathogens.This volume focuses on fungi and oomycetes that are typical dicot plant pathogens and includes: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sp.,Verticillium alfalfae and Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora infestans, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.
This book provides a comprehensive description of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and highlights methods for the use of microphos in different crop production systems. The focus is on understanding both the basic and applied aspects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and how phosphorus-deficient soils can be transformed into phosphorus-rich ones by applying phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. The interaction of rhizosphere phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and environmental variables, as well as their importance in the production of crops such as legumes, cereals, vegetables etc. are discussed and considered. The use of cold-tolerant phosphate solubilizing microorganisms to enhance crop productivity in mountainous regions is examined, as are the ecological diversity and biotechnological implications of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Lastly, the role of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in aerobic rice cultivation is highlighted. This volume offers a broad overview of plant disease management using phosphate solubilizing microbes and presents strategies for the management of cultivated crops. It will therefore be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. This timely reference book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material, as it includes recent findings on phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their role in crop production.
This book is a compilation of the most challenging and significant chapters on the diagnosis and management of important bacterial, fungal, viral, viroid, phytoplasma, non parasitic diseases and various physiological disorders, in various crops. The chapters have been contributed by eminent plant pathologists, having wide experience of teaching and research on various crops with different types of diseases, which cause great economic losses. The book would be very useful for students, teachers and researchers of plant pathology. This book highlights recent advances made in the development of new types of resistance in host plants and alternative strategies for managing plant diseases to improve food quality and reduce the negative public health impact associated with plant diseases. Having entered into 21st century advancements in the Diagnosis of Plant Pathogens and Plant Disease Management need to be closely examined and adequately applied, so that newer challenges facing plant pathology could be adequately addressed in attaining food security for the growing population. Substantial advancements have been made in terms of expanding knowledge base of the biology of plant-microbial interactions, disease management strategies and application and practice of Plant Pathology. Application of molecular biology in Plant Pathology has greatly improved our ability to detect plant pathogens and in increasing our understanding, their ecology and epidemiology. Similarly, new technologies and resources have been evolved for the development of sustainable crop protection systems by different control strategies against various pests and pathogens that are important components of the integrated pest management programme. Natural products and chemical compounds discovered as a result of basic research and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have led to the development of "biorational" pesticides. Biological control has been found to be the most significant approach to plant health management during the twentieth century and promises using modern biotechnology, to be even more significant in the twenty-first century.
This book summarizes the results of 3 years of agricultural and forestry reconstructive efforts and applied research conducted directly in the affected areas of Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake. It describes fast and effective revival methods and technologies from tsunami and radiation damages, demonstrated through the collaborative efforts of researchers, students, local farmers, forest owners, and municipalities gathered under the Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance Project. Consisting of four parts, the first part of the book provides an overview of the damage and measures taken to overcome them by the local municipalities and the Tokyo University of Agriculture. The second part presents data and results of agricultural recovery from the tsunami-for example, monitoring systems, reconstruction models, and convenient, low-cost methods developed for the restoration of tsunami-damaged paddy fields. The third part focuses on recovery from radiation-contaminated farmlands and forests and consequent reputational damages. Included are various primary data obtained from field experiments and surveys, studies on the mechanism of contamination, and the results of radical monitoring, decontamination, and restoration techniques performed at this site. The final part is a collection of reflections of local farmers, forest owners, and students who participated in the project. The academic trials and errors recorded in this book are an invaluable contribution to disaster management and recovery processes. It is written for a wide audience, not limited to researchers and students, but also for government and state officials, municipalities, agricultural cooperative staff members, and farmers.
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