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This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today's mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas-representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, while the study of cluster algebras provides representation theory with new objects of study. The six mini-courses comprising this text were delivered March 7-18, 2016 at a CIMPA (Centre International de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees) research school held at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina. This research school was dedicated to the founder of the Argentinian research group in representation theory, M.I. Platzeck. The courses held were: Advanced homological algebra Introduction to the representation theory of algebras Auslander-Reiten theory for algebras of infinite representation type Cluster algebras arising from surfaces Cluster tilted algebras Cluster characters Introduction to K-theory Brauer graph algebras and applications to cluster algebras
The second edition of this defining handbook provides an up-to-date reference on approaches to the principles and practice of negotiation, group decision-making, and collaboration. It includes the origins, development, and prospects of electronic negotiation, as well as on-line or computer-based arbitration. It constitutes a comprehensive guide to how traditional issues in negotiation, such as knowledge, language, strategy, fairness and justice, have been transformed by technology. The growing field of group decision and negotiation is best described as the empirical, formal, computational, and strategic analysis of group decision-making and negotiation, especially from the viewpoints of organizational behaviour, management science and operations research. The topic crosses many traditional disciplinary boundaries. It has connections to business administration and business strategy, management science, systems engineering, computer science, mathematics, law, economics, psychology, and other social sciences. The first edition greatly strengthened this advancing field. This thoroughly revised and considerably enlarged second edition maintains the approach and philosophy, while adding many important and emerging topics, and an entire section on the frameworks that have created the field. It is a comprehensive, accurate, reliable, and readable reference, and is a major reference volume in the field of group decision and negotiation.
MATRIX is Australia's international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: - Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics - Winter of Disconnectedness - Approximation and Optimisation - Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory - Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low- dimensional Topology The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The articles are grouped into peer-reviewed contributions and other contributions. The peer-reviewed articles present original results or reviews on selected topics related to the MATRIX program; the remaining contributions are predominantly lecture notes based on talks or activities at MATRIX.
Approximate groups have shot to prominence in recent years, driven both by rapid progress in the field itself and by a varied and expanding range of applications. This text collects, for the first time in book form, the main concepts and techniques into a single, self-contained introduction. The author presents a number of recent developments in the field, including an exposition of his recent result classifying nilpotent approximate groups. The book also features a considerable amount of previously unpublished material, as well as numerous exercises and motivating examples. It closes with a substantial chapter on applications, including an exposition of Breuillard, Green and Tao's celebrated approximate-group proof of Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth. Written by an author who is at the forefront of both researching and teaching this topic, this text will be useful to advanced students and to researchers working in approximate groups and related areas.
3D rotation analysis is widely encountered in everyday problems thanks to the development of computers. Sensing 3D using cameras and sensors, analyzing and modeling 3D for computer vision and computer graphics, and controlling and simulating robot motion all require 3D rotation computation. This book focuses on the computational analysis of 3D rotation, rather than classical motion analysis. It regards noise as random variables and models their probability distributions. It also pursues statistically optimal computation for maximizing the expected accuracy, as is typical of nonlinear optimization. All concepts are illustrated using computer vision applications as examples. Mathematically, the set of all 3D rotations forms a group denoted by SO(3). Exploiting this group property, we obtain an optimal solution analytical or numerically, depending on the problem. Our numerical scheme, which we call the "Lie algebra method," is based on the Lie group structure of SO(3). This book also proposes computing projects for readers who want to code the theories presented in this book, describing necessary 3D simulation setting as well as providing real GPS 3D measurement data. To help readers not very familiar with abstract mathematics, a brief overview of quaternion algebra, matrix analysis, Lie groups, and Lie algebras is provided as Appendix at the end of the volume.
There have been remarkably few systematic expositions of the theory of derived categories since its inception in the work of Grothendieck and Verdier in the 1960s. This book is the first in-depth treatment of this important component of homological algebra. It carefully explains the foundations in detail before moving on to key applications in commutative and noncommutative algebra, many otherwise unavailable outside of research articles. These include commutative and noncommutative dualizing complexes, perfect DG modules, and tilting DG bimodules. Written with graduate students in mind, the emphasis here is on explicit constructions (with many examples and exercises) as opposed to axiomatics, with the goal of demystifying this difficult subject. Beyond serving as a thorough introduction for students, it will serve as an important reference for researchers in algebra, geometry and mathematical physics.
This groundbreaking monograph in advanced algebra addresses crossed
products. Author Donald S. Passman notes that crossed products have
advanced from their first occurrence in finite dimensional division
algebras and central simple algebras to a closer relationship with
the study of infinite group algebras, group-graded rings, and the
Galois theory of noncommutative rings.
This textbook offers students with a basic understanding of group theory a preview of several interesting groups they would not typically encounter until later in their academic careers. By presenting these advanced concepts at this stage, they will gain a deeper understanding of the subject and be motivated to explore more of it. Groups covered include Thompson's groups, self-similar groups, Lamplighter groups, and Baumslag-Solitar groups. Each chapter focuses on one of these groups, and begins by discussing why they are interesting, how they originated, and why they are important mathematically. A collection of specific references for additional reading, topics for further research, and exercises are included at the end of every chapter to encourage students' continued education. With its accessible presentation and engaging style, A Sampling of Remarkable Groups is suitable for students in upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate abstract algebra courses. It will also be of interest to researchers in mathematics, computer science, and related fields.
This classic monograph on representation theory and the symmetric
group is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students
of mathematics. The "Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society"
hailed Daniel Edwin Rutherford's treatment as "a long overdue
account of Young's representation theory of the symmetric group,"
noting that "many of Young's complicated proofs have been
simplified through a free use of mathematical induction."
These books grew out of the perception that a number of important conceptual and theoretical advances in research on small group behavior had developed in recent years, but were scattered in rather fragmentary fashion across a diverse literature. Thus, it seemed useful to encourage the formulation of summary accounts. A conference was held in Hamburg with the aim of not only encouraging such developments, but also encouraging the integration of theoretical approaches where possible. These two volumes are the result. Current research on small groups falls roughly into two moderately broad categories, and this classification is reflected in the two books. Volume I addresses theoretical problems associated with the consensual action of task-oriented small groups, whereas Volume II focuses on interpersonal relations and social processes within such groups. The two volumes differ somewhat in that the conceptual work of Volume I tends to address rather strictly defined problems of consensual action, some approaches tending to the axiomatic, whereas the conceptual work described in Volume II is generally less formal and rather general in focus. However, both volumes represent current conceptual work in small group research and can claim to have achieved the original purpose of up-to-date conceptual summaries of progress on new theoretical work.
This book offers an introduction to the theory of groupoids and their representations encompassing the standard theory of groups. Using a categorical language, developed from simple examples, the theory of finite groupoids is shown to knit neatly with that of groups and their structure as well as that of their representations is described. The book comprises numerous examples and applications, including well-known games and puzzles, databases and physics applications. Key concepts have been presented using only basic notions so that it can be used both by students and researchers interested in the subject. Category theory is the natural language that is being used to develop the theory of groupoids. However, categorical presentations of mathematical subjects tend to become highly abstract very fast and out of reach of many potential users. To avoid this, foundations of the theory, starting with simple examples, have been developed and used to study the structure of finite groups and groupoids. The appropriate language and notions from category theory have been developed for students of mathematics and theoretical physics. The book presents the theory on the same level as the ordinary and elementary theories of finite groups and their representations, and provides a unified picture of the same. The structure of the algebra of finite groupoids is analysed, along with the classical theory of characters of their representations. Unnecessary complications in the formal presentation of the subject are avoided. The book offers an introduction to the language of category theory in the concrete setting of finite sets. It also shows how this perspective provides a common ground for various problems and applications, ranging from combinatorics, the topology of graphs, structure of databases and quantum physics.
This book provides an introduction to the basics and recent developments of commutative algebra. A glance at the contents of the first five chapters shows that the topics covered are ones that usually are included in any commutative algebra text. However, the contents of this book differ significantly from most commutative algebra texts: namely, its treatment of the Dedekind-Mertens formula, the (small) finitistic dimension of a ring, Gorenstein rings, valuation overrings and the valuative dimension, and Nagata rings. Going further, Chapter 6 presents w-modules over commutative rings as they can be most commonly used by torsion theory and multiplicative ideal theory. Chapter 7 deals with multiplicative ideal theory over integral domains. Chapter 8 collects various results of the pullbacks, especially Milnor squares and D+M constructions, which are probably the most important example-generating machines. In Chapter 9, coherent rings with finite weak global dimensions are probed, and the local ring of weak global dimension two is elaborated on by combining homological tricks and methods of star operation theory. Chapter 10 is devoted to the Grothendieck group of a commutative ring. In particular, the Bass-Quillen problem is discussed. Finally, Chapter 11 aims to introduce relative homological algebra, especially where the related concepts of integral domains which appear in classical ideal theory are defined and investigated by using the class of Gorenstein projective modules. Each section of the book is followed by a selection of exercises of varying degrees of difficulty. This book will appeal to a wide readership from graduate students to academic researchers who are interested in studying commutative algebra.
A text in abstract algebra for undergraduate mathematics majors, this volume contains enough material for a two-semester course. It presents extensive coverage of set theory, groups, rings, modules, vector spaces, and fields. Examples, definitions, theorems, and proofs appear throughout, along with numerous practice exercises at the end of each section. 1991 edition.
The author introduces the supersymmetric localization technique, a new approach for computing path integrals in quantum field theory on curved space (time) defined with interacting Lagrangian. The author focuses on a particular quantity called the superconformal index (SCI), which is defined by considering the theories on the product space of two spheres and circles, in order to clarify the validity of so-called three-dimensional mirror symmetry, one of the famous duality proposals. In addition to a review of known results, the author presents a new definition of SCI by considering theories on the product space of real-projective space and circles. In this book, he explains the concept of SCI from the point of view of quantum mechanics and gives localization computations by reducing field theoretical computations to many-body quantum mechanics. He applies his new results of SCI with real-projective space to test three-dimensional mirror symmetry, one of the dualities of quantum field theory. Real-projective space is known to be an unorientable surface like the Mobius strip, and there are many exotic effects resulting from Z2 holonomy of the surface. Thanks to these exotic structures, his results provide completely new evidence of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The equivalence expected from three-dimensional mirror symmetry is transformed into a conjectural non-trivial mathematical identity through the new SCI, and he performs the proof of the identity using a q-binomial formula.
This textbook provides an essential introduction to Lie groups, presenting the theory from its fundamental principles. Lie groups are a special class of groups that are studied using differential and integral calculus methods. As a mathematical structure, a Lie group combines the algebraic group structure and the differentiable variety structure. Studies of such groups began around 1870 as groups of symmetries of differential equations and the various geometries that had emerged. Since that time, there have been major advances in Lie theory, with ramifications for diverse areas of mathematics and its applications. Each chapter of the book begins with a general, straightforward introduction to the concepts covered; then the formal definitions are presented; and end-of-chapter exercises help to check and reinforce comprehension. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students alike will find in this book a solid yet approachable guide that will help them continue their studies with confidence.
This versatile undergraduate text can be used in a variety of
courses in linear algebra. It contains enough material for a
two-semester course, and it also serves as a support text and
reference. Chapter Ten, on linear programming, will be of special
interest to students of business and economics. A balanced
combination of formal theory and related computational techniques,
this treatment begins with the familiar problem of solving a system
of linear equations. Subsequent chapters explore linear spaces and
mappings, matrices, determinants, inner product spaces,
scalar-valued functions, and linear differential equations. The
author introduces metric notions of Euclidean space at an early
stage and employs the computational technique of Gaussian
elimination throughout the book. Solutions to selected exercises
appear at the end.
This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry: theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica (R), enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several. Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.
For introductory sophomore-level courses in Linear Algebra or Matrix Theory. This text presents the basic ideas of linear algebra in a manner that offers students a fine balance between abstraction/theory and computational skills. The emphasis is on not just teaching how to read a proof but also on how to write a proof.
How much does appearance matter in the formation of romantic relationships? Do nice guys always finish last? Does playing hard-to-get ever work? What really makes for a good chat-up line? When it comes to relationships, there's no shortage of advice from self-help 'experts', pick-up artists, and glossy magazines. But modern-day myths of attraction often have no basis in fact or - worse - are rooted in little more than misogyny. In Attraction Explained, psychologist Viren Swami debunks these myths and draws on cutting-edge research to provide a ground-breaking and evidence-based account of relationship formation. At the core of this book is a very simple idea: there are no 'laws of attraction', no foolproof methods or strategies for getting someone to date you. But this isn't to say that there's nothing to be gained from studying attraction. Based on science rather than self-help cliches, Attraction Explained looks at how factors such as geography, appearance, personality, and similarity affect who we fall for and why.
This book challenges the views put forward by Pierre Cartier, one of the anchors of the famous Bourbaki group, and Cedric Villani, one of the most brilliant mathematicians of his generation, who received the Fields Medal in 2010. Jean Dhombres, mathematician and science historian, and Gerhard Heinzmann, philosopher of science and also a specialist in mathematics engage in a fruitful dialogue with the two mathematicians, prompting readers to reflect on mathematical activity and its social consequences in history as well as in the modern world. Cedric Villani's popular success proves once again that a common awareness has developed, albeit in a very confused way, of the major role of mathematics in the construction and efficiency of natural sciences, which are at the origin of our technologies. Despite this, the idea that mathematics cannot be shared remains firmly entrenched, a perceived failing that has even been branded a lack of culture by vocal forces in the media as well as cultural and political establishment. The authors explore three major directions in their dialogue: the highly complex relationship between mathematics and reality, the subject of many debates and opposing viewpoints; the freedom that the construction of mathematics has given humankind by enabling them to develop the natural sciences as well as mathematical research; and the responsibility with which the scientific community and governments should address the role of mathematics in research and education policies.
This volume contains contributions from 24 internationally known scholars covering a broad spectrum of interests in cross-cultural theory and research. This breadth is reflected in the diversity of the topics covered in the volume, which include theoretical approaches to cross-cultural research, the dimensions of national cultures and their measurement, ecological and economic foundations of culture, cognitive, perceptual and emotional manifestations of culture, and bicultural and intercultural processes. In addition to the individual chapters, the volume contains a dialog among 14 experts in the field on a number of issues of concern in cross-cultural research, including the relation of psychological studies of culture to national development and national policies, the relationship between macro structures of a society and shared cognitions, the integration of structural and process models into a coherent theory of culture, how personal experiences and cultural traditions give rise to intra-cultural variation, whether culture can be validly measured by self-reports, the new challenges that confront cultural psychology, and whether psychology should strive to eliminate culture as an explanatory variable.
Rapid urbanization of economic zones in China has resulted in a special social phenomenon: "villages-in-the-city." Underdeveloped villages are absorbed during the expansion of urban areas, while retaining their rustic characteristics. Due to the rural characteristics of these areas, social security is much lower compared with the urbanized city. This book uses Tang Village, a remote area in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, as an example to establish a comprehensive analytical framework by integrating existing crime theories in analyzing villages-in-the-city. The analysis covers the community, individual, and macro levels to detail the diverse social and behavioral factors causing crime at multiple levels. First, a brief history of the urbanization process of Tang Village is provided to establish how urban planning contributed to the issues in the village today. The authors go on to explain how socially disorganized communities dictate the crime hotspots and the common types of crime. The book examines other risk factors that may contribute to the level of crime such as weak social controls, building density, and floating populations of poor working-class migrants. The routine activities of victims, offenders, and guardians are examined. The book concludes with the current trends in the social structure within the villages-in-the-city and their expected outcome after urbanization.
Known for both its narrative style and scientific rigor, Principles of Behavior is the premier introduction to behavior analysis. Through an exploration of experimental, applied, and theoretical concepts, the authors summarize the key conversations in the field. They bring the content to life using humorous and engaging language and show students how the principles of behavior relate to their everyday lives. The text's tried-and-true pedagogy make the content as clear as possible without oversimplifying the concepts. Each chapter includes study objectives, key terms, and review questions that encourage students to check their understanding before moving on, and incorporated throughout the text are real-world examples and case studies to illustrate key concepts and principles. This edition features some significant organizational changes: the respondent conditioning chapter is now Chapter 1, a general introduction to operant conditioning is now covered in Chapters 2 and 3, and the introduction to research methods is now covered in Chapter 4. These changes were made to help instructors prepare students for starting a research project at the beginning of the course. Two new chapters include Chapter 5 on the philosophy supporting behavior analysis, and Chapter 24 on verbal behavior that introduces B.F. Skinner's approach and terminology. This edition also features a new full-color design and over 400 color figures, tables, and graphs. Principles of Behavior is an essential resource for both introductory and intermediate courses in behavior analysis. It is carefully tailored to the length of a standard academic semester and how behavior analysis courses are taught, with each section corresponding to a week's worth of coursework. The text can also function as the first step in a student's journey into becoming a professional behavior analyst at the BA, MA, or PhD/EdD level. Each chapter of the text is integrated with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) task list, serving as an excellent primer to many of the BACB tasks. The text is supported by a set of PowerPoint slides with figures, tables, and graphs for every chapter and a robust test bank with multiple choice, fill in the blank, matching, and short answer questions for every chapter for a total of over 1,500 questions.
Fascinating connections exist between group theory and automata theory, and a wide variety of them are discussed in this text. Automata can be used in group theory to encode complexity, to represent aspects of underlying geometry on a space on which a group acts, and to provide efficient algorithms for practical computation. There are also many applications in geometric group theory. The authors provide background material in each of these related areas, as well as exploring the connections along a number of strands that lead to the forefront of current research in geometric group theory. Examples studied in detail include hyperbolic groups, Euclidean groups, braid groups, Coxeter groups, Artin groups, and automata groups such as the Grigorchuk group. This book will be a convenient reference point for established mathematicians who need to understand background material for applications, and can serve as a textbook for research students in (geometric) group theory.
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