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Volume IV of the series "Mathematics and Physics Applied to Science and Technology," this comprehensive six-book set covers: Linear Differential Equations and Oscillators Non-linear Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems Higher-order Differential Equations and Elasticity Simultaneous Systems of Differential Equations and Multi-dimensional Oscillators Singular Differential Equations and Special Functions Classification and Examples of Differential Equations and their Applications
Qualitative Estimates For Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction describes an approach to the use of partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in the modelling of physical phenomena. It treats a wide range of differential inequality techniques applicable to problems arising in engineering and the natural sciences, including fluid and solid mechanics, physics, dynamics, biology, and chemistry. The book begins with an elementary discussion of the fundamental principles of differential inequality techniques for PDEs arising in the solution of physical problems, and then shows how these are used in research. Qualitative Estimates For Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction is an ideal book for students, professors, lecturers, and researchers who need a comprehensive introduction to qualitative methods for PDEs arising in engineering and the natural sciences.
Since the 1970s researchers in the communicative development of infants and small children had rejected traditional models and began to explore the complex, dynamic properties of communicative exchanges. This title, originally published in 1993, proposed a new and advanced frame of reference to account for the growing body of empirical work on the emergence of communication processes at the time. Communication development in the early years of life undergoes universal processes of change and variations linked to the characteristics and qualities of different social contexts. The first section of the book presents key issues in communication research which were either revisited (intentional communication, imitation, symbolic play) or newly introduced (co-regulation, the role of emotions, shared meaning) in recent years. The second section provides an account of communication as a context-bound process partly inspired by theoretical accounts such as those of Vygotsky and Wallon. Included here are new studies showing differences in communication between infants compared with those between infants and adults, which also have important methodological implications. With perspectives from developmental psychology, psycholinguistics and educational psychology, the international contributors give a multi-disciplinary account of the expansion, variety and richness of current research on early communication. This title will be of particular interest to those involved in child development and communication research, as well as for social, educational and clinical psychologists.
This two-volume collection contains Paulo Ribenboim's work on ordered structures and mathematical logic. Two long unpublished papers and a reproduction of his first book on abelian groups are also featured in these volumes. With over 240 publications, including 13 books, Ribenboim is responsible for some of the most influential research in number theory, mathematical logic, and algebraic structures. Together, these volumes include papers on algebraic structures on directed graphs, real algebraic geometry, applications of model theory in collaboration with Lou van den Dries, and more recent papers with Sibylla Priess-Crampe on mathematical logic programming and Ultrametric spaces. The Ribenboim Prize of the Canadian Number Theory Association is named after him. Paulo Ribenboim is currently professor emeritus at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
This book was first published in 1947.
Linear Differential Equations and Oscillators is the first book within Ordinary Differential Equations with Applications to Trajectories and Vibrations, Six-volume Set. As a set, they are the fourth volume in the series Mathematics and Physics Applied to Science and Technology. This first book consists of chapters 1 and 2 of the fourth volume. The first chapter covers linear differential equations of any order whose unforced solution can be obtained from the roots of a characteristic polynomial, namely those: (i) with constant coefficients; (ii) with homogeneous power coefficients with the exponent equal to the order of derivation. The method of characteristic polynomials is also applied to (iii) linear finite difference equations of any order with constant coefficients. The unforced and forced solutions of (i,ii,iii) are examples of some general properties of ordinary differential equations. The second chapter applies the theory of the first chapter to linear second-order oscillators with one degree-of-freedom, such as the mechanical mass-damper-spring-force system and the electrical self-resistor-capacitor-battery circuit. In both cases are treated free undamped, damped, and amplified oscillations; also forced oscillations including beats, resonance, discrete and continuous spectra, and impulsive inputs. Describes general properties of differential and finite difference equations, with focus on linear equations and constant and some power coefficients Presents particular and general solutions for all cases of differential and finite difference equations Provides complete solutions for many cases of forcing including resonant cases Discusses applications to linear second-order mechanical and electrical oscillators with damping Provides solutions with forcing including resonance using the characteristic polynomial, Green' s functions, trigonometrical series, Fourier integrals and Laplace transforms
Do large cities grow more or less rapidly than small ones? Why should the relationship between city size and population growth vary so much from one period to another? This book studies the process of population growth in a national set of cities, relating its findings to the theoretical concepts of urban geography. To test his ideas, the author studies the growth of cities in England and Wales between 1801 and 1911. His explanations draw strongly on the connection between growth and the adoption of innovations. He develops a model of innovation diffusions in a set of cities and, in support of this model, looks at the way in which three particular innovations - the telephone, building societies and gaslighting - spread amongst English towns in the nineteenth century. This book was first published in 1973.
Lattice Point Identities and Shannon-Type Sampling demonstrates that significant roots of many recent facets of Shannon's sampling theorem for multivariate signals rest on basic number-theoretic results. This book leads the reader through a research excursion, beginning from the Gaussian circle problem of the early nineteenth century, via the classical Hardy-Landau lattice point identity and the Hardy conjecture of the first half of the twentieth century, and the Shannon sampling theorem (its variants, generalizations and the fascinating stories about the cardinal series) of the second half of the twentieth century. The authors demonstrate how all these facets have resulted in new multivariate extensions of lattice point identities and Shannon-type sampling procedures of high practical applicability, thereby also providing a general reproducing kernel Hilbert space structure of an associated Paley-Wiener theory over (potato-like) bounded regions (cf. the cover illustration of the geoid), as well as the whole Euclidean space. All in all, the context of this book represents the fruits of cross-fertilization of various subjects, namely elliptic partial differential equations, Fourier inversion theory, constructive approximation involving Euler and Poisson summation formulas, inverse problems reflecting the multivariate antenna problem, and aspects of analytic and geometric number theory. Features: New convergence criteria for alternating series in multi-dimensional analysis Self-contained development of lattice point identities of analytic number theory Innovative lattice point approach to Shannon sampling theory Useful for students of multivariate constructive approximation, and indeed anyone interested in the applicability of signal processing to inverse problems.
We present an introduction to Berkovich's theory of non-archimedean analytic spaces that emphasizes its applications in various fields. The first part contains surveys of a foundational nature, including an introduction to Berkovich analytic spaces by M. Temkin, and to etale cohomology by A. Ducros, as well as a short note by C. Favre on the topology of some Berkovich spaces. The second part focuses on applications to geometry. A second text by A. Ducros contains a new proof of the fact that the higher direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper map are coherent, and B. Remy, A. Thuillier and A. Werner provide an overview of their work on the compactification of Bruhat-Tits buildings using Berkovich analytic geometry. The third and final part explores the relationship between non-archimedean geometry and dynamics. A contribution by M. Jonsson contains a thorough discussion of non-archimedean dynamical systems in dimension 1 and 2. Finally a survey by J.-P. Otal gives an account of Morgan-Shalen's theory of compactification of character varieties. This book will provide the reader with enough material on the basic concepts and constructions related to Berkovich spaces to move on to more advanced research articles on the subject. We also hope that the applications presented here will inspire the reader to discover new settings where these beautiful and intricate objects might arise.
This volume publishes key proceedings from the recent International Conference on Hopf Algebras held at DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois. With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this collection deals with current topics ranging from categories of infinitesimal Hopf modules and bimodules to the construction of a Hopf algebraic Morita invariant. It uses the newly introduced theory of bi-Frobenius algebras to investigate a notion of group-like algebras and summarizes results on the classification of Hopf algebras of dimension pq. It also explores pre-Lie, dendriform, and Nichols algebras and discusses support cones for infinitesimal group schemes.
A comprehensive presentation of abstract algebra and an in-depth treatment of the applications of algebraic techniques and the relationship of algebra to other disciplines, such as number theory, combinatorics, geometry, topology, differential equations, and Markov chains.
Master the fundamentals first for a smoother ride through math Basic Math & Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies is your ticket to finally getting a handle on math! Designed to help you strengthen your weak spots and pinpoint problem areas, this book provides hundreds of practice problems to help you get over the hump. Each section includes a brief review of key concepts and full explanations for every practice problem, so you'll always know exactly where you went wrong. The companion website gives you access to quizzes for each chapter, so you can test your understanding and identify your sticking points before moving on to the next topic. You'll brush up on the rules of basic operations, and then learn what to do when the numbers just won't behave negative numbers, inequalities, algebraic expressions, scientific notation, and other tricky situations will become second nature as you refresh what you know and learn what you missed. Each math class you take builds on the ones that came before; if you got lost somewhere around fractions, you'll have a difficult time keeping up in Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, and Calculus so don't fall behind! This book provides plenty of practice and patient guidance to help you slay the math monster once and for all. * Make sense of fractions, decimals, and percentages * Learn how to handle inequalities, exponents, square roots, and absolute values * Simplify expressions and solve simple algebraic equations * Find your way around a triangle, circle, trapezoid, and more Once you get comfortable with the rules and operations, math takes on a whole new dimension. Curiosity replaces anxiety, and problems start feeling like puzzles rather than hurdles. All it takes is practice. Basic Math & Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies is your ultimate math coach, with hundreds of guided practice practice problems to help you break through the math barrier.
Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation includes more than 500 landmark and up-to-date references providing direction for further research.
Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal mapping properties, rather than by constructions whose technical details are irrelevant. Addresses Common Curricular Weaknesses In addition to standard introductory material on the subject, such as Lagrange's and Sylow's theorems in group theory, the text provides important specific illustrations of general theory, discussing in detail finite fields, cyclotomic polynomials, and cyclotomic fields. The book also focuses on broader background, including brief but representative discussions of naive set theory and equivalents of the axiom of choice, quadratic reciprocity, Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions, and some basic complex analysis. Numerous worked examples and exercises throughout facilitate a thorough understanding of the material.
This book introduces students to the world of advanced mathematics using algebraic structures as a unifying theme. Having no prerequisites beyond precalculus and an interest in abstract reasoning, the book is suitable for students of math education, computer science or physics who are looking for an easy-going entry into discrete mathematics, induction and recursion, groups and symmetry, and plane geometry. In its presentation, the book takes special care to forge linguistic and conceptual links between formal precision and underlying intuition, tending toward the concrete, but continually aiming to extend students' comfort with abstraction, experimentation, and non-trivial computation. The main part of the book can be used as the basis for a transition-to-proofs course that balances theory with examples, logical care with intuitive plausibility, and has sufficient informality to be accessible to students with disparate backgrounds. For students and instructors who wish to go further, the book also explores the Sylow theorems, classification of finitely-generated Abelian groups, and discrete groups of Euclidean plane transformations.
Extending Structures: Fundamentals and Applications treats the extending structures (ES) problem in the context of groups, Lie/Leibniz algebras, associative algebras and Poisson/Jacobi algebras. This concisely written monograph offers the reader an incursion into the extending structures problem which provides a common ground for studying both the extension problem and the factorization problem. Features Provides a unified approach to the extension problem and the factorization problem Introduces the classifying complements problem as a sort of converse of the factorization problem; and in the case of groups it leads to a theoretical formula for computing the number of types of isomorphisms of all groups of finite order that arise from a minimal set of data Describes a way of classifying a certain class of finite Lie/Leibniz/Poisson/Jacobi/associative algebras etc. using flag structures Introduces new (non)abelian cohomological objects for all of the aforementioned categories As an application to the approach used for dealing with the classification part of the ES problem, the Galois groups associated with extensions of Lie algebras and associative algebras are described
"This collection of essays spans pure and applied mathematics. Readers interested in mathematical research and historical aspects of mathematics will appreciate the enlightening content of these essays. Highlighting the pervasive nature of mathematics today in different areas, the book also covers the spread of mathematical ideas and techniques in areas ranging from computer science to physics to biology"--
This book contains an extensive collection of exercises and problems that address relevant topics in linear algebra. Topics that the author finds missing or inadequately covered in most existing books are also included. The exercises will be both interesting and helpful to an average student. Some are fairly routine calculations, while others require serious thought.The format of the questions makes them suitable for teachers to use in quizzes and assigned homework. Some of the problems may provide excellent topics for presentation and discussions. Furthermore, answers are given for all odd-numbered exercises which will be extremely useful for self-directed learners. In each chapter, there is a short background section which includes important definitions and statements of theorems to provide context for the following exercises and problems.
The impact and influence of Jean-Pierre Serre's work have been notable ever since his doctoral thesis on homotopy groups. The abundance of significant results and deep insight contained in his research and survey papers ranging through topology, several complex variables, and algebraic geometry to number theory, group theory, commutative algebra and modular forms, continues to provide inspiring reading for mathematicians working in these areas, in their research and their teaching. Characteristic of Serre's publications are the many open questions he formulated suggesting further research directions. Four volumes specify how he has provided comments on and corrections to most articles, and described the present status of the open questions with reference to later results. Jean-Pierre Serre is one of a few mathematicians to have won the Fields medal, the Abel prize, and the Wolf prize.
To put the world of linear algebra to advanced use, it is not enough to merely understand the theory; there is a significant gap between the theory of linear algebra and its myriad expressions in nearly every computational domain. To bridge this gap, it is essential to process the theory by solving many exercises, thus obtaining a firmer grasp of its diverse applications. Similarly, from a theoretical perspective, diving into the literature on advanced linear algebra often reveals more and more topics that are deferred to exercises instead of being treated in the main text. As exercises grow more complex and numerous, it becomes increasingly important to provide supporting material and guidelines on how to solve them, supporting students' learning process. This book provides precisely this type of supporting material for the textbook "Numerical Linear Algebra and Matrix Factorizations," published as Vol. 22 of Springer's Texts in Computational Science and Engineering series. Instead of omitting details or merely providing rough outlines, this book offers detailed proofs, and connects the solutions to the corresponding results in the textbook. For the algorithmic exercises the utmost level of detail is provided in the form of MATLAB implementations. Both the textbook and solutions are self-contained. This book and the textbook are of similar length, demonstrating that solutions should not be considered a minor aspect when learning at advanced levels.
Under intense scrutiny for the last few decades, Multiple Objective Decision Making (MODM) has been useful for dealing with the multiple-criteria decisions and planning problems associated with many important applications in fields including management science, engineering design, and transportation. Rough set theory has also proved to be an effective mathematical tool to counter the vague description of objects in fields such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, civil engineering, medical data analysis, data mining, pattern recognition, and decision theory.
Rough Multiple Objective Decision Making is perhaps the first book to combine state-of-the-art application of rough set theory, rough approximation techniques, and MODM. It illustrates traditional techniques-and some that employ simulation-based intelligent algorithms-to solve a wide range of realistic problems. Application of rough theory can remedy two types of uncertainty (randomness and fuzziness) which present significant drawbacks to existing decision-making methods, so the authors illustrate the use of rough sets to approximate the feasible set, and they explore use of rough intervals to demonstrate relative coefficients and parameters involved in bi-level MODM. The book reviews relevant literature and introduces models for both random and fuzzy rough MODM, applying proposed models and algorithms to problem solutions.
Given the broad range of uses for decision making, the authors offer background and guidance for rough approximation to real-world problems, with case studies that focus on engineering applications, including construction site layout planning, water resource allocation, and resource-constrained project scheduling. The text presents a general framework of rough MODM, including basic theory, models, and algorithms, as well as a proposed methodological system and discussion of future research.
"Linear Algebra" is intended for a one-term course at the junior or senior level. It begins with an exposition of the basic theory of vector spaces and proceeds to explain the fundamental structure theorem for linear maps, including eigenvectors and eigenvalues, quadratic and hermitian forms, diagnolization of symmetric, hermitian, and unitary linear maps and matrices, triangulation, and Jordan canonical form. The book also includes a useful chapter on convex sets and the finite-dimensional Krein-Milman theorem. The presentation is aimed at the student who has already had some exposure to the elementary theory of matrices, determinants and linear maps. However the book is logically self-contained. In this new edition, many parts of the book have been rewritten and reorganized, and new exercises have been added.
The book is devoted to varieties of linear singular integral
equations, with special emphasis on their methods of solution. It
introduces the singular integral equations and their applications
to researchers as well as graduate students of this fascinating and
growing branch of applied mathematics.
Since 1973, Galois Theory has been educating undergraduate students on Galois groups and classical Galois theory. In Galois Theory, Fourth Edition, mathematician and popular science author Ian Stewart updates this well-established textbook for today's algebra students. New to the Fourth Edition The replacement of the topological proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra with a simple and plausible result from point-set topology and estimates that will be familiar to anyone who has taken a first course in analysis Revised chapter on ruler-and-compass constructions that results in a more elegant theory and simpler proofs A section on constructions using an angle-trisector since it is an intriguing and direct application of the methods developed A new chapter that takes a retrospective look at what Galois actually did compared to what many assume he did Updated references This bestseller continues to deliver a rigorous yet engaging treatment of the subject while keeping pace with current educational requirements. More than 200 exercises and a wealth of historical notes augment the proofs, formulas, and theorems.
Boost your chances of scoring higher at Algebra II Algebra II introduces students to complex algebra concepts in preparation for trigonometry and calculus. In this new edition of Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, high school and college students will work through the types of Algebra II problems they'll see in class, including systems of equations, matrices, graphs, and conic sections. Plus, the book now comes with free 1-year access to chapter quizzes online! A recent report by ACT shows that over a quarter of ACT-tested 2012 high school graduates did not meet any of the four college readiness benchmarks in mathematics, English, reading, and science. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies presents tricky topics in plain English and short lessons, with examples and practice at every step to help students master the essentials, setting them up for success with each new lesson. Tracks to a typical Algebra II class Can be used as a supplement to classroom learning or for test prep Includes plenty of practice and examples throughout Comes with free access to chapter quizzes online Get ready to take the intimidation out of Algebra II!
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