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Books > Science & Mathematics > Mathematics > Geometry > Algebraic geometry
This singlevolume compilation consists of "Hyperbolic Functions, " introducing the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent; "Configuration Theorems, " concerning collinear points and concurrent lines; and "Equivalent and Equidecomposable Figures, " regarding polyhedrons. 1963 edition.
This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory  to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and longstanding conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements (shas).
This uptodate introduction to Griffiths' theory of period maps and period domains focusses on algebraic, grouptheoretic and differential geometric aspects. Starting with an explanation of Griffiths' basic theory, the authors go on to introduce spectral sequences and Koszul complexes that are used to derive results about cycles on higherdimensional algebraic varieties such as the NoetherLefschetz theorem and Nori's theorem. They explain differential geometric methods, leading up to proofs of Arakelovtype theorems, the theorem of the fixed part and the rigidity theorem. They also use Higgs bundles and harmonic maps to prove the striking result that not all compact quotients of period domains are Kahler. This thoroughly revised second edition includes a new third part covering important recent developments, in which the grouptheoretic approach to Hodge structures is explained, leading to MumfordTate groups and their associated domains, the MumfordTate varieties and generalizations of Shimura varieties.
This volume collects the texts of five courses given in the Arithmetic Geometry Research Programme 20092010 at the CRM Barcelona. All of them deal with characteristic p global fields; the common theme around which they are centered is the arithmetic of Lfunctions (and other special functions), investigated in various aspects. Three courses examine some of the most important recent ideas in the positive characteristic theory discovered by Goss (a field in tumultuous development, which is seeing a number of spectacular advances): they cover respectively crystals over function fields (with a number of applications to Lfunctions of tmotives), gamma and zeta functions in characteristic p, and the binomial theorem. The other two are focused on topics closer to the classical theory of abelian varieties over number fields: they give respectively a thorough introduction to the arithmetic of Jacobians over function fields (including the current status of the BSD conjecture and its geometric analogues, and the construction of MordellWeil groups of high rank) and a state of the art survey of Geometric Iwasawa Theory explaining the recent proofs of various versions of the Main Conjecture, in the commutative and noncommutative settings.
There are many interactions between noncommutative algebra and representation theory on the one hand and classical algebraic geometry on the other, with important applications in both directions. The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive introduction to some of the most significant topics in this area, including noncommutative projective algebraic geometry, deformation theory, symplectic reflection algebras, and noncommutative resolutions of singularities. The book is based on lecture courses in noncommutative algebraic geometry given by the authors at a Summer Graduate School at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, California in 2012 and, as such, is suitable for advanced graduate students and those undertaking early postdoctorate research. In keeping with the lectures on which the book is based, a large number of exercises are provided, for which partial solutions are included.
An exploration of mathematical style through 99 different proofs of the same theorem This book offers a multifaceted perspective on mathematics by demonstrating 99 different proofs of the same theorem. Each chapter solves an otherwise unremarkable equation in distinct historical, formal, and imaginative styles that range from Medieval, Topological, and Doggerel to Chromatic, Electrostatic, and Psychedelic. With a rare blend of humor and scholarly aplomb, Philip Ording weaves these variations into an accessible and wideranging narrative on the nature and practice of mathematics. Inspired by the experiments of the Parisbased writing group known as the Oulipowhose members included Raymond Queneau, Italo Calvino, and Marcel DuchampOrding explores new ways to examine the aesthetic possibilities of mathematical activity. 99 Variations on a Proof is a mathematical take on Queneau's Exercises in Style, a collection of 99 retellings of the same story, and it draws unexpected connections to everything from mysticism and technology to architecture and sign language. Through diagrams, found material, and other imagery, Ording illustrates the flexibility and creative potential of mathematics despite its reputation for precision and rigor. Readers will gain not only a bird'seye view of the discipline and its major branches but also new insights into its historical, philosophical, and cultural nuances. Readers, no matter their level of expertise, will discover in these proofs and accompanying commentary surprising new aspects of the mathematical landscape.
Over the last forty years, David Vogan has left an indelible imprint on the representation theory of reductive groups. His groundbreaking ideas have lead to deep advances in the theory of real and padic groups, and have forged lasting connections with other subjects, including number theory, automorphic forms, algebraic geometry, and combinatorics. Representations of Reductive Groups is an outgrowth of the conference of the same name, dedicated to David Vogan on his 60th birthday, which took place at MIT on May 1923, 2014. This volume highlights the depth and breadth of Vogan's influence over the subjects mentioned above, and point to many exciting new directions that remain to be explored. Notably, the first article by McGovern and Trapa offers an overview of Vogan's body of work, placing his ideas in a historical context. Contributors: Pramod N. Achar, Jeffrey D. Adams, Dan Barbasch, Manjul Bhargava, Cedric Bonnafe, Dan Ciubotaru, Meinolf Geck, William Graham, Benedict H. Gross, Xuhua He, JingSong Huang, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Bertram Kostant, Wenjing Li, George Lusztig, Eric Marberg, William M. McGovern, Wilfried Schmid, Kari Vilonen, Diana Shelstad, Peter E. Trapa, David A. Vogan, Jr., Nolan R. Wallach, Xiaoheng Wang, Geordie Williamson
This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.
This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like "The Moduli Space of Curves" and "Moduli of Abelian Varieties," which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics. K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irreducible holomorphic symplectic varieties, the higher dimensional analogues of K3 surfaces, has become a mainstream topic in algebraic geometry. Contributors: S. Boissiere, A. Cattaneo, I. Dolgachev, V. Gritsenko, B. Hassett, G. Heckman, K. Hulek, S. Katz, A. Klemm, S. Kondo, C. Liedtke, D. Matsushita, M. NieperWisskirchen, G. Oberdieck, K. Oguiso, R. Pandharipande, S. Rieken, A. Sarti, I. Shimada, R. P. Thomas, Y. Tschinkel, A. Verra, C. Voisin.
Investigations by Baire, Lebesgue, Hausdorff, Marczewski, and othes have culminated invarious schemes for classifying point sets. This important reference/text bringstogether in a single theoretical framework the properties common to these classifications.Providing a clear, thorough overview and analysis of the field, Point Set Theoryutilizes the axiomatically determined notion of a category base for extending generaltopological theorems to a higher level of abstraction ... axiomatically unifies analogiesbetween Baire category and Lebesgue measure . .. enhances understanding of thematerial with numerous examples and discussions of abstract concepts ... and more.Imparting a solid foundation for the modem theory of real functions and associated areas,this authoritative resource is a vital reference for set theorists, logicians, analysts, andresearch mathematicians involved in topology, measure theory, or real analysis. It is anideal text for graduate mathematics students in the above disciplines who havecompleted undergraduate courses in set theory and real analysis.
This book presents the complete proof of the BlochKato conjecture and several related conjectures of Beilinson and Lichtenbaum in algebraic geometry. Brought together here for the first time, these conjectures describe the structure of etale cohomology and its relation to motivic cohomology and Chow groups. Although the proof relies on the work of several people, it is credited primarily to Vladimir Voevodsky. The authors draw on a multitude of published and unpublished sources to explain the largescale structure of Voevodsky's proof and introduce the key figures behind its development. They proceed to describe the highly innovative geometric constructions of Markus Rost, including the construction of norm varieties, which play a crucial role in the proof. The book then addresses symmetric powers of motives and motivic cohomology operations. Comprehensive and selfcontained, The Norm Residue Theorem in Motivic Cohomology unites various components of the proof that until now were scattered across many sources of varying accessibility, often with differing hypotheses, definitions, and language.
Providing an introduction to both classical and modern techniques in projective algebraic geometry, this monograph treats the geometrical properties of varieties embedded in projective spaces, their secant and tangent lines, the behavior of tangent linear spaces, the algebrogeometric and topological obstructions to their embedding into smaller projective spaces, and the classification of extremal cases. It also provides a solution of Hartshorne's Conjecture on Complete Intersections for the class of quadratic manifolds and new short proofs of previously known results, using the modern tools of Mori Theory and of rationally connected manifolds. The new approach to some of the problems considered can be resumed in the principle that, instead of studying a special embedded manifold uniruled by lines, one passes to analyze the original geometrical property on the manifold of lines passing through a general point and contained in the manifold. Once this embedded manifold, usually of lower codimension, is classified, one tries to reconstruct the original manifold, following a principle appearing also in other areas of geometry such as projective differential geometry or complex geometry.
Extending Griffiths' classical theory of period mappings for compact Kahler manifolds, this book develops and applies a theory of period mappings of "Hodgede Rham type" for families of open complex manifolds. The text consists of three parts. The first part develops the theory. The second part investigates the degeneration behavior of the relative Froelicher spectral sequence associated to a submersive morphism of complex manifolds. The third part applies the preceding material to the study of irreducible symplectic complex spaces. The latter notion generalizes the idea of an irreducible symplectic manifold, dubbed an irreducible hyperkahler manifold in differential geometry, to possibly singular spaces. The three parts of the work are of independent interest, but intertwine nicely.
We introduce mixed twistor Dmodules and establish their fundamental functorial properties. We also prove that they can be described as the gluing of admissible variations of mixed twistor structures. In a sense, mixed twistor Dmodules can be regarded as a twistor version of M. Saito's mixed Hodge modules. Alternatively, they can be viewed as a mixed version of the pure twistor Dmodules studied by C. Sabbah and the author. The theory of mixed twistor Dmodules is one of the ultimate goals in the study suggested by Simpson's Meta Theorem and it would form a foundation for the Hodge theory of holonomic Dmodules which are not necessarily regular singular.
The topics faced in this book cover a large spectrum of current trends in mathematics, such as Shimura varieties and the Lang lands program, zonotopal combinatorics, non linear potential theory, variational methods in imaging, Riemann holonomy and algebraic geometry, mathematical problems arising in kinetic theory, Boltzmann systems, Pell's equations in polynomials, deformation theory in non commutative algebras. This work contains a selection of contributions written by international leading mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative born in 2004 to present the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics.
This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically CohenMacaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1. It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a selfcontained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas. The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points. The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem. In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra. Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevant, open questions that may inspire future research. Graduate students and researchers working in algebraic geometry and commutative algebra will find this book to be a valuable contribution to the literature.
The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems and examples. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry. This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several open problems. Recently several connections were established with low dimensional topology, symplectic geometry and theory of Stein fillings. This created an intense mathematical activity with spectacular bridges between the two areas. The theory of deformation of singularities is the key object in these connections. "
A resurgence of interest in network synthesis in the last decade, motivated in part by the introduction of the inerter, has led to the need for a better understanding of the most economical way to realize a given passive impedance. This monograph outlines the main contributions to the field of passive network synthesis and presents new research into the enumerative approach and the classification of networks of restricted complexity. Passive Network Synthesis: An Approach to Classification serves as both an ideal introduction to the topic and a definitive treatment of the Ladenheim catalogue.In particular, the authors provide a new analysis and classification of the Ladenheim catalogue, building on recent work, to obtain an improved understanding of the structure and realization power of the class within the biquadratic positivereal functions.
After revising known representations of the group of Euclidean displacements Daniel Klawitter gives a comprehensive introduction into Clifford algebras. The Clifford algebra calculus is used to construct new models that allow descriptions of the group of projective transformations and inversions with respect to hyperquadrics. Afterwards, chain geometries over Clifford algebras and their subchain geometries are examined. The author applies this theory and the developed methods to the homogeneous Clifford algebra model corresponding to Euclidean geometry. Moreover, kinematic mappings for special CayleyKlein geometries are developed. These mappings allow a description of existing kinematic mappings in a unifying framework.
The Woods Hole trace formula is a Lefschetz fixedpoint theorem for coherent cohomology on algebraic varieties. It leads to a version of the sheavesfunctions dictionary of Deligne, relating characteristicpvalued functions on the rational points of varieties over finite fields to coherent modules equipped with a Frobenius structure. This book begins with a short introduction to the homological theory of crystals of Boeckle and Pink with the aim of introducing the sheavesfunctions dictionary as quickly as possible, illustrated with elementary examples and classical applications. Subsequently, the theory and results are expanded to include infinite coefficients, Lfunctions, and applications to special values of Goss Lfunctions and zeta functions. Based on lectures given at the Morningside Center in Beijing in 2013, this book serves as both an introduction to the Woods Hole trace formula and the sheavesfunctions dictionary, and to some advanced applications on characteristic p zeta values.
This book introduces the contemporary notions of algebraic varieties, morphisms of varieties, and adeles to the classical subject of plane curves over algebraically closed fields. It is useful for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematics.
This book can form the basis of a second course in algebraic geometry. As motivation, it takes concrete questions from enumerative geometry and intersection theory, and provides intuition and technique, so that the student develops the ability to solve geometric problems. The authors explain key ideas, including rational equivalence, Chow rings, Schubert calculus and Chern classes, and readers will appreciate the abundant examples, many provided as exercises with solutions available online. Intersection is concerned with the enumeration of solutions of systems of polynomial equations in several variables. It has been an active area of mathematics since the work of Leibniz. Chasles' nineteenthcentury calculation that there are 3264 smooth conic plane curves tangent to five given general conics was an important landmark, and was the inspiration behind the title of this book. Such computations were motivation for Poincare's development of topology, and for many subsequent theories, so that intersection theory is now a central topic of modern mathematics.
The authors consider unitary simple vertex operator algebras whose vertex operators satisfy certain energy bounds and a strong form of locality and call them strongly local. They present a general procedure which associates to every strongly local vertex operator algebra $V$ a conformal net $\mathcal A_V$ acting on the Hilbert space completion of $V$ and prove that the isomorphism class of $\mathcal A_V$ does not depend on the choice of the scalar product on $V$. They show that the class of strongly local vertex operator algebras is closed under taking tensor products and unitary subalgebras and that, for every strongly local vertex operator algebra $V$, the map $W\mapsto \mathcal A_W$ gives a onetoone correspondence between the unitary subalgebras $W$ of $V$ and the covariant subnets of $\mathcal A_V$.
Let $X$ be an abstract not necessarily compact orientable CR manifold of dimension $2n1$, $n\geqslant 2$, and let $L^k$ be the $k$th tensor power of a CR complex line bundle $L$ over $X$. Given $q\in \{0,1,\ldots ,n1\}$, let $\Box ^{(q)}_{b,k}$ be the Gaffney extension of Kohn Laplacian for $(0,q)$ forms with values in $L^k$. For $\lambda \geq 0$, let $\Pi ^{(q)}_{k,\leq \lambda} :=E((\infty ,\lambda ])$, where $E$ denotes the spectral measure of $\Box ^{(q)}_{b,k}$. In this work, the author proves that $\Pi ^{(q)}_{k,\leq k^{N_0}}F^*_k$, $F_k\Pi ^{(q)}_{k,\leq k^{N_0}}F^*_k$, $N_0\geq 1$, admit asymptotic expansions with respect to $k$ on the nondegenerate part of the characteristic manifold of $\Box ^{(q)}_{b,k}$, where $F_k$ is some kind of microlocal cutoff function. Moreover, we show that $F_k\Pi ^{(q)}_{k,\leq 0}F^*_k$ admits a full asymptotic expansion with respect to $k$ if $\Box ^{(q)}_{b,k}$ has small spectral gap property with respect to $F_k$ and $\Pi^{(q)}_{k,\leq 0}$ is $k$negligible away the diagonal with respect to $F_k$. By using these asymptotics, the authors establish almost Kodaira embedding theorems on CR manifolds and Kodaira embedding theorems on CR manifolds with transversal CR $S^1$ action.
This is Part 1 of a twovolume set. Since Oscar Zariski organized a meeting in 1954, there has been a major algebraic geometry meeting every decade: Woods Hole (1964), Arcata (1974), Bowdoin (1985), Santa Cruz (1995), and Seattle (2005). The American Mathematical Society has supported these summer institutes for over 50 years. Their proceedings volumes have been extremely influential, summarizing the state of algebraic geometry at the time and pointing to future developments. The most recent Summer Institute in Algebraic Geometry was held July 2015 at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, sponsored by the AMS with the collaboration of the Clay Mathematics Institute. This volume includes surveys growing out of plenary lectures and seminar talks during the meeting. Some present a broad overview of their topics, while others develop a distinctive perspective on an emerging topic. Topics span both complex algebraic geometry and arithmetic questions, specifically, analytic techniques, enumerative geometry, moduli theory, derived categories, birational geometry, tropical geometry, Diophantine questions, geometric representation theory, characteristic $p$ and $p$adic tools, etc. The resulting articles will be important references in these areas for years to come. 
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