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Since the publication of the first edition of A South African Renewable Energy Guide for Local Government, the costs related to non-renewable energy generation have increased exponentially, and coal-based energy systems have continued to generate large quantities of dangerous emissions. Conversely, sustainable energy generation has become more cost-effective, and in many instances renewables are now more economically viable than non-renewables. This narrowing gap in costs, coupled with an increased awareness of the environmental benefits of renewables, has greatly stimulated the sustainable energy market.
Over the last several years, metropolitan municipalities have engaged with innovative, cost-effective sustainable energy projects and solutions. Medium and smaller municipalities are beginning to understand the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders in the energy sector. They are learning how to work within the confines of the South African national, provincial and local policy, legislative and regulatory frameworks; how to embed renewables within local integrated development plans and strategies; how to utilise appropriate technologies and how to apply financing mechanisms and leverage partnerships for successful project delivery. It is critically important therefore that (particularly) small, medium and rural municipalities continue to explore, and receive capacity-building and support for, renewable and energy-efficient solutions
In line with these developments, this second edition provides useful information and solid examples of how politicians, city managers and government officials, in partnership with communities, can facilitate the adoption of renewable energy systems and technologies to achieve a more sustainable energy future for all.
The highly anticipated new book from the internationally bestselling, prize-winning author of Landmarks, The Lost Words and The Old Ways Discover the hidden worlds beneath our feet... In Underland, Robert Macfarlane takes us on a journey into the worlds beneath our feet. From the ice-blue depths of Greenland's glaciers, to the underground networks by which trees communicate, from Bronze Age burial chambers to the rock art of remote Arctic sea-caves, this is a deep-time voyage into the planet's past and future. Global in its geography, gripping in its voice and haunting in its implications, Underland is a work of huge range and power, and a remarkable new chapter in Macfarlane's long-term exploration of landscape and the human heart. 'Macfarlane has invented a new kind of book, really a new genre entirely' The Irish Times 'He is the great nature writer, and nature poet, of this generation' Wall Street Journal 'Macfarlane has shown how utterly beautiful a brilliantly written travel book can still be' Observer onThe Old Ways 'Irradiated by a profound sense of wonder... Few books give such a sense of enchantment; it is a book to give to many, and to return to repeatedly' Independent onLandmarks 'It sets the imagination tingling...like reading a prose Odyssey sprinkled with imagist poems' The Sunday Times onThe Old Ways
Given Half a Chance is both a snapshot of our world and a call to arms, setting out the most pressing environmental challenges that we face while making a passionate case for why we need to meet them. From fields of solar panels in Nevada to the flourishing agricultural landscapes of Ethiopia; from the traditional water harvesters of northern Rajasthan to Britain's inspiring waste campaigners; from the savannas of Northern Kenya teeming with elephants to the clear skies above Scandinavian cities, amazing things are happening right now across the world. People are acting with hope and courage, against all the odds, to make things better. The challenge before us is to go to scale and to replicate these successful approaches elsewhere, fast: this book draws on firsthand experience and interviews with many of the world's leading experts to show how.
Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, what are the knock-on effects of our actions, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? Should we frack? How can we take control of technology? Does it all come down to population? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do? Fortunately, Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is practical and even enjoyable. There is No Planet B maps it out in an accessible and entertaining way, filled with astonishing facts and analysis. For the first time you'll find big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of the day laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This book will shock you, surprise you - and then make you laugh. And you'll find practical and even inspiring ideas for what you can actually do to help humanity thrive on this - our only - planet.
Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines Subhamoy Bhattacharya, University of Surrey, UK Comprehensive reference covering the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines As the demand for green energy increases the offshore wind power industry is expanding at a rapid pace around the world. Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines is a comprehensive reference which covers the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines, and includes examples and case studies. It provides an overview of a wind farm and a wind turbine structure, and examines the different types of loads on the offshore wind turbine structure. Foundation design considerations and the necessary calculations are also covered. The geotechnical site investigation and soil behavior/soil structure interaction are discussed, and the final chapter takes a case study of a wind turbine and demonstrates how to carry out step by step calculations. Key features: * New, important subject to the industry. * Includes calculations and case studies. * Accompanied by a website hosting software and data files. Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines is a must have reference for engineers within the renewable energy industry and is also a useful guide for graduate students in this area.
Photovoltaic Design and Installation For Dummies (9781119544357) was previously published as Photovoltaic Design and Installation For Dummies (9780470598931). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product. The fun and easy way to get a grip on photovoltaic design and installation Designing and installing solar panel systems is a trend that continues to grow. With 'green collar' jobs on the rise and homeowners looking for earth-friendly ways to stretch their dollars and lesson their carbon imprint, understanding photovoltaic design and installation is on the rise. Photovoltaic Design & Installation For Dummies gives you a comprehensive overview of the history, physics, design, installation, and operation of home-scale solar-panel systems. You'll also get an introduction to the foundational mathematic and electrical concepts you need to understand and work with photovoltaic systems. Covers all aspects of home-scale solar-power systems Viable resource for professionals, students, and technical laymen Can be used to study for the NABCEP exam Whether you're a building professional looking to expand your business and skills to meet the growing demand for solar power installation or are seeking a career in this rapidly expanding field, Photovoltaic Design & Installation For Dummies has you covered!
The concept of sustainable development has become a fundamental discourse in international decision making. To enable pragmatic sustainable development governance, legally coherent, mutually supportive multilateral treaties are both necessary and important. This timely book provides an accessible insight into how the concept of sustainable development can be made operational for coherent law making through its translation into legal terms. The book is split into two informative points of inquiry. The first part of the book explores the origins of the sustainable development debate and sheds light on how the international community has inadequately operationalized the concept to utilize its full potential. In this view, Elisabeth Burgi Bonanomi illustrates how sustainable development can facilitate coherent international law making when it is understood as a multidimensional legal principle and methodical norm. The second part of the book adopts this notion as an analytical lens on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, placing the focus specifically on food security and food sustainability. The overarching discussion contributes to one of the most intricate debates of international food governance and investigates the unresolved question of what a sustainable and coherent agricultural trade agreement could look like. Providing a comprehensive overview of sustainable development law, its origins, and its current theories, scholars and students with a background in international public law, trade, and investment law, development and human rights law, international relations, and environmental policy will find this book a valuable reference tool. Practitioners and policy makers will benefit from the insight into the search for politically coherent and sustainable legal agreements.
Demonstrates how to solve reliability problems using practical applications of Bayesian models This self-contained reference provides fundamental knowledge of Bayesian reliability and utilizes numerous examples to show how Bayesian models can solve real life reliability problems. It teaches engineers and scientists exactly what Bayesian analysis is, what its benefits are, and how they can apply the methods to solve their own problems. To help readers get started quickly, the book presents many Bayesian models that use JAGS and which require fewer than 10 lines of command. It also offers a number of short R scripts consisting of simple functions to help them become familiar with R coding. Practical Applications of Bayesian Reliability starts by introducing basic concepts of reliability engineering, including random variables, discrete and continuous probability distributions, hazard function, and censored data. Basic concepts of Bayesian statistics, models, reasons, and theory are presented in the following chapter. Coverage of Bayesian computation, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, and Gibbs Sampling comes next. The book then goes on to teach the concepts of design capability and design for reliability; introduce Bayesian models for estimating system reliability; discuss Bayesian Hierarchical Models and their applications; present linear and logistic regression models in Bayesian Perspective; and more. Provides a step-by-step approach for developing advanced reliability models to solve complex problems, and does not require in-depth understanding of statistical methodology Educates managers on the potential of Bayesian reliability models and associated impact Introduces commonly used predictive reliability models and advanced Bayesian models based on real life applications Includes practical guidelines to construct Bayesian reliability models along with computer codes for all of the case studies JAGS and R codes are provided on an accompanying website to enable practitioners to easily copy them and tailor them to their own applications Practical Applications of Bayesian Reliability is a helpful book for industry practitioners such as reliability engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, product engineers, system engineers, and materials scientists whose work includes predicting design or product performance.
Our civilisation stands on the brink of catastrophe. Our thirst for energy has led to threats from global warming, nuclear disaster and conflict in oil-rich countries. We are running out of options. Solar power, Keith Barnham argues, is the answer. In this eye-opening book, he shows how a solar revolution is developing based on one of Einstein's lesser known discoveries, one that gave us laptop computers and mobile phones. An accessible guide to renewable technology and a hard-hitting critique of the arguments of solar sceptics, The Burning Answer outlines a future in which the fuel for electric cars will be generated on our rooftops. It is, above all, an impassioned call to arms to join the solar revolution before it's too late.
50 Ways to Be a Green Evil Genius
Who knew being environmentally conscious would ever be considered evil? With 50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius, you'll have wicked fun while reducing your impact on the planet and saving money.
Using easy-to-find parts and tools, this do-it-yourself guide offers a wide variety of environmentally focused projects you can accomplish on your own. Topics covered include transportation, alternative fuels, solar, wind, and hydro power, home insulation, construction, and more. The projects in this unique guide range from easy to more complex and are designed to optimize your time and simplify your life
50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius Features step-by-step instructions for 50 environmentally friendly projects, complete with helpful illustrationsShows you how to design, build, and install your creationsAllows you to customize each project for your purposesRemoves the frustration factor-all required parts are listed, along with sources
50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius provides you with all the plans and schematics you need to: Dramatically improve the fuel efficiency of your carInsulate the windows in your homeBuild a worm compost binAudit your appliances with an energy meterBuild a water purifierSet up a rainwater collection systemCreate a solar water heaterConstruct a homopolar motorAssemble a solar module from PV cellsCreate a wind turbineAssemble your own weather-protected human-powered vehicleConvert your car to biodieselBuild a contained composite structure And more
A Step-by-Step Guide to Building a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle from the Ground Up
Written by clean energy guru and electric vehicle expert Seth Leitman, this hands-on guide gives you the latest technical information and easy-to-follow instructions for building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV).
""Written by Seth Leitman, longtime green vehicle/sustainability expert and author of "Build Your Own Electric Vehicle," this 275-page book provides an overview of the technology and the issues in doing a conversion, and it works well as a different way in to the open source material that can be found at http: //www.eaa-phev.org or the easier-to-remember http: //www.priusplus.org."" -- CalCars.org
Build Your Own Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle puts you in the driver's seat when it comes to hitting the road in a reliable, economical, and environmentally friendly ride. Inside, you'll find complete details on the hybrid powertrain and all the required components, including the motor, battery, and chassis. The book covers the plug-in hybrids currently on the market as well as hybrid conversion companies, conversion kits, and related resources. Pictures, diagrams, charts, and graphs illustrate each step along the way. With this how-to guide on hand, you'll be behind the wheel of your own plug-in hybrid electric automobile in no time
Build Your Own Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle covers: Energy savings and environmental benefitsPHEV backgroundDrivetrain components and designChassis selectionDC and AC motor typesBatteries and chargersThe conversion processLicensing and insuranceSafety, maintenance, troubleshooting, and warrantiesClubs and associations Additional resources
Based on the results of two bioenergy research initiatives in Germany, this reference examines the sustainable management of wood biomass in rural areas. The large number of participating organizations and research institutes ensures a balanced and unbiased view on the potentials and risks is presented, taking into account economic, ecological, and social aspects. Most of the results reported are available here for the first time in English and have been collated in central Europe, but are equally applicable to other temperate regions. They highlight best practices for enhancing dendromass potential and productivity, while discussing the implications on rural economies and ecosystems.
PATTERNS OF LIFE: SPECIAL EDITIONS OF GROUNDBREAKING SCIENCE BOOKS This book proposes a new vision for modern industry. Instead of our current wasteful and polluting methods of manufacturing, we could be taking nature as a model for making things. With the right redesign, objects that have come to the end of their useful lives should provide the basis for something new. In designing and producing products we need to stop worrying about being `less bad' and start finding ways of actually being good. Find here a radical manifesto and a plan for our planet in which all waste can be put to good use.
This timely book is a compilation of edited articles by distinguished international scientists discussing global warming, its causes as well as present and future solutions. Social and economic growth at global level is measured in terms of GDP, which requires energy inputs generally based on fossil fuel resources. These, however, are major contributors to increasing levels of CO2, causing 15 tonnes of green house gas emissions per capita. Renewable sources of energy offer an alternative to fossil fuels, and would help reduce this to the 2 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per capita per annum needed to achieve sustainable growth. As such, the book discusses the next-generation of biofuels and all related aspects, based on the editors' significant investigations on biofuels over the last 30 years. It also presents the latest research findings from research work carried out by contemporary researchers. Presenting global biofuel perspectives, it examines various issues related to sustainable development of biofuels in the contexts of agriculture, forestry, industry and economic growth. It covers the 1st to 4th generation biofuels, as well as the status of biofuel resources and their potential in carbon neutral economy. Offering a comprehensive, state-of-art overview of current and future biofuels at local and global levels, this book appeals to administrators, policy makers, universities and research institutions.
A guide to one of the most important aspects for affordable and highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells Dye-sensitized solar cells have the potential to be one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies for production of renewable and clean energy. Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells offers an introduction to the various types of counter electrode catalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells, including metal and metal compounds, carbon materials, polymers, and composites. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the book contains a discussion of the design and synthesis of the catalysts, characterization and stability of the devices, as well as calculations on properties. The contributors cover a wide range of topics including information on: carbon nanotubes electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; Pt-loaded composite electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; metal contact electrodes for perovskite solar cells; and much more. The book also includes insight into the future developments in the field. This important resource Covers the various types of counter electrode catalysts and presents design strategies, synthesis methods, theoretical calculation and stability evaluation Includes information on low-cost counter electrode catalysts and commercial applications of dye-sensitized sensitized solar cells Disscuses how electrode catalysts can be applied in a range of fields, such as solar cells, fuel cells, hydrogen production, and photocatalysis Offers contributions from leading experts in the field including Anders Hagfeldt, one of the world's leading researchers in this field Written for materials scientists, solid state chemists, electrochemists, catalytic chemists, solid state physicists, and chemical industry professionals, Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells is a comprehensive and authoritative guide to dye-sensitized solar cells.
A unique approach to understanding the foundations of statistical quality control with a focus on the latest developments in nonparametric control charting methodologies Statistical Process Control (SPC) methods have a long and successful history and have revolutionized many facets of industrial production around the world. This book addresses recent developments in statistical process control bringing the modern use of computers and simulations along with theory within the reach of both the researchers and practitioners. The emphasis is on the burgeoning field of nonparametric SPC (NSPC) and the many new methodologies developed by researchers worldwide that are revolutionizing SPC. Over the last several years research in SPC, particularly on control charts, has seen phenomenal growth. Control charts are no longer confined to manufacturing and are now applied for process control and monitoring in a wide array of applications, from education, to environmental monitoring, to disease mapping, to crime prevention. This book addresses quality control methodology, especially control charts, from a statistician's viewpoint, striking a careful balance between theory and practice. Although the focus is on the newer nonparametric control charts, the reader is first introduced to the main classes of the parametric control charts and the associated theory, so that the proper foundational background can be laid. Reviews basic SPC theory and terminology, the different types of control charts, control chart design, sample size, sampling frequency, control limits, and more Focuses on the distribution-free (nonparametric) charts for the cases in which the underlying process distribution is unknown Provides guidance on control chart selection, choosing control limits and other quality related matters, along with all relevant formulas and tables Uses computer simulations and graphics to illustrate concepts and explore the latest research in SPC Offering a uniquely balanced presentation of both theory and practice, Nonparametric Methods for Statistical Quality Control is a vital resource for students, interested practitioners, researchers, and anyone with an appropriate background in statistics interested in learning about the foundations of SPC and latest developments in NSPC.
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students and researchers will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental aspects of the hydrodynamic control of wave energy converters. Such control is necessary to maximise energy capture for a given device configuration and plays a major role in efforts to make wave energy economic. Covering a wide range of disciplines, the reader is taken from the mathematical and technical fundamentals, through the main pillars of wave energy hydrodynamic control, right through to state-of-the-art algorithms for hydrodynamic control. The various operating principles of wave energy converters are exposed and the unique aspects of the hydrodynamic control problem highlighted, with a variety of potential solutions discussed. Supporting material on wave forecasting and the interaction of the hydrodynamic control problem with other aspects of wave energy device optimisation, such as device geometry optimisation and optimal device array layout, is also provided.
This handbook aims at providing a comprehensive resource on solar energy. Primarily intended to serve as a reference for scientists, students and professionals, the book, in parts, can also serve as a text for undergraduate and graduate course work on solar energy. The book begins with availability, importance and applications of solar energy, definition of sun and earth angles and classification of solar energy as thermal and photon energy. It then goes onto cover day lighting parameters, laws of thermodynamics including energy and exergy analysis, photovoltaic modules and materials, PVT collectors, and applications such as solar drying and distillation. Energy conservation by solar energy and energy matrices based on overall thermal and electrical performance of hybrid system are also discussed. Techno-economic feasibility of any energy source is the backbone of its success and hence economic analysis is covered. Some important constants, such as exercises and problems increase the utility of the book as a text.
A unique guide to the most important technical aspects of photovoltaic power generation with comprehensive analysis and author industry-experience * Unique from other books in the area in that it explains profound theories in simple language, introduces widely used production equipment and processes for industry professionals, and explains the complete PV industry chain from material to power generation * Has originated from the author s practical industry experience, enabling the use of up-to-date information during this time of new development in the Chinese PV industry * Content includes approximately 255 illustrations and 46 tables to help clarify complex theories.
Solar cooling systems can be a cost-effective and environmentally attractive air-conditioning solution. The design of such systems, however, is complex. Research carried out under the aegis of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Program has shown that there is a range of seemingly subtle design decisions that can impact significantly on the performance of solar cooling systems. In order to reduce the risk of errors in the design process, this guide provides detailed and very specific engineering design information. It focuses on case study examples of installed plants that have been monitored and evaluated over the last decade. For three successful plants the design process is described in detail and the rationale for each key design decision is explained. Numerical constraints are suggested for the sizing / selection parameters of key equipment items. Moreover, the application conditions under which the system selection is appropriate are discussed. By following The Guide for any of the three specific solar cooling systems, the designer can expect to reliably achieve a robust, energy-saving solution. This book is intended as a companion to the IEA Solar Cooling Handbook which provides a general overview of the various technologies as well as comprehensive advice to enable engineers to design their own solar cooling system from first principles.
The energy revolution is already underway as people around the world embrace renewable energy in their communities. This groundbreaking book summarises why we must switch to renewables and explains how this can be achieved where you live. It is packed full of success stories from energy pioneers in the UK, America, Europe, Asia and Africa. It shows how we can all play a vital role in the energy revolution and change the world, one community at a time!Drawing on the author's two decades of experience as a renewable energy engineer, community activist, consultant, business leader and government adviser, Energy Revolution gives you the tools to develop projects in your locality. This handbook covers everything needed to structure your community power company - the technology, site assessment, legal and business planning, fundraising and financial modelling - whilst putting people at the heart of your strategy. Change the system from the bottom up and make the next great leap forward to achieving clean, affordable, democratic energy. It's time for us to take control, relocalise, reduce costs and carbon emissions, repower our neighbourhoods and join the energy revolution.
On Petrocultures brings together key essays by Imre Szeman, a leading scholar in the field of energy humanities and a critical voice in debates about globalization and neoliberalism. Szeman's most important and influential essays, in dialog with exciting new pieces written for the book, investigate ever-evolving circuits of power in the contemporary world, as manifested in struggles over space and belonging, redefinitions of work and individual autonomy, and the deep links between energy use and climate change. These essays explore life lived in the twenty-first century by examining critically the vocabulary through which capitalism makes sense of itself, focusing on concepts like the nation, globalization, neoliberalism, creativity, and entrepreneurship. At the heart of the volume is the concept of "petrocultures," which demands that we understand a fundamental fact of modern life: we are shaped by and through fossil fuels. Szeman argues that we cannot take steps to address global warming without fundamentally changing social, cultural, and political norms and expectations developed in conjunction with the energy riches of the past century. On Petrocultures maps the significant challenge of our dependence on fossil fuels and probes ways that we might begin to leave petrocultures behind.
Reflecting the R&D efforts in the field that have resulted in a plethora of novel applications over the past decade, this handbook gives a comprehensive overview of the tangible benefits of nanotechnology in catalysis. By bridging fundamental research and industrial development, it provides a unique perspective on this scientifically and economically important field. While the first three parts are devoted to preparation and characterization of nanocatalysts, the final three provide in-depth insights into their applications in the fine chemicals industry, the energy industry, and for environmental protection, with expert authors reporting on real-life applications that are on the brink of commercialization. Timely reading for catalytic chemists, materials scientists, chemists in industry, and process engineers.
This book provides an introduction to the working principles of reverse electrodialysis and its practical application in the generation of electricity. Salinity gradient energy (SGE) has received significant attention recently due to the energy crisis resulting from the depletion of fossil fuels and the growth in energy demand. There are currently three methods to convert SGE into electricity: pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CAPMIX). This book covers the theory and implementation of reverse electrodialysis, which uses ion exchange membranes to selectively deliver cations or anions, and its advantages over other methods, such as high reliability without any moving parts, the direct energy conversion process from chemical energy to electrical energy, and its low fouling rate. All of these have made RED an attractive option, however, there are various challenges in the route to commercialization and these are also described. The book summarizes the research progress and current status of RED, with a final chapter considering the outlook for the future of the technology at a commercial level.
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