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Feeding the world, climate change, biodiversity, antibiotics, plastics, pandemics - the list of concerns seems endless. But what is most pressing, and what should we do first? Do we all need to become vegetarian? How can we fly in a low-carbon world? How can we take control of technology? And, given the global nature of the challenges we now face, what on Earth can any of us do, as individuals? Mike Berners-Lee has crunched the numbers and plotted a course of action that is full of hope, practical, and enjoyable. This is the big-picture perspective on the environmental and economic challenges of our day, laid out in one place, and traced through to the underlying roots - questions of how we live and think. This updated edition has new material on protests, pandemics, wildfires, investments, carbon targets and of course, on the key question: given all this, what can I do?
This book divides the engineering reliability process into multiple parts. Part I focuses on system reliability estimation for time independent and time dependent models, helping engineers create a "firm" design. Part II presents the concept of constructing the likelihood function and its use in estimating the parameters of a failure time distribution. This aids the reader in assembling necessary components and configures them to achieve desired reliability objectives, conducting reliability tests on components and using field data from similar components. Part III addresses Physics of Failures, Mechanical Reliability and System Resilience. Finally, Part IV of the book focuses on ensuring reliability objectives by providing preventive and scheduled maintenance and warranty policies.
The solar photovoltaic sector is moving forward very fast, both in terms of its own technological advancement and its standing among global renewable energy technologies. Rapid increases in solar cell efficiencies, fast technical change in solar batteries and solar glass, and economies of scale in production fuel its rapid adoption, and it is becoming clear that existing forecasts about its adoption need to be updated extensively. This timely and distinctive examination of the economic side of the field takes into account solar PV's recent and growing lead among renewable energies competing to replace fossil fuels. The Revolution in Energy Technology examines the birth of this technology in the United States, where the main innovators are still located, the emergence of China as a main production hub, and new and growing contributions to the innovation cascades from other countries including Germany, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The participation of universities as investors and the role of venture capital are discussed, and particular emphasis is given to the domination of the sector by large firms. The book is interesting for both academics and graduate students as well as policy-makers, technicians, engineers and companies involved in the field.
In this book, Chen Gang examines the real-world effectiveness of China's approach to the promotion of green technologies and practices, and discusses the political landscape in which it is situated. Politics of Renewable Energy in China questions the wisdom of hailing China as a model for authoritarian environmental governance with an up-to -date examination of the subject. It provides readers with a thorough and timely account of recent developments in China's low-carbon energy industries. Disclosing how energy interest groups are lobbying members of central government, and shedding light on disputes between pro-development and pro-environmental groups, this book explores the ideological and bureaucratic inconsistency and confusion which surrounds China's environmental policies. Emphasizing China's renewable energy policies, related enforcement issues and local political concerns over wind and solar generation, this book examines the extent to which China's centralised, top down approach has been effective in ensuring local actors reach policy targets. This up-to-date account of recent developments in Chinese low-carbon industries will be useful for readers with an interest in China's model of renewable energy industries, in particular students of Chinese and international politics. It will also be a valuable tool for researchers and professors of public and environmental policy, Chinese and climate studies.
This collection addresses the pressing needs for sustainable technologies with reduced energy consumption and environmental pollutions and the development and application of alternative sustainable energy to maintain a green environment and efficient and long-lasting energy supply. Contributors represent both industry and academia and focus on new and efficient energy technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, and recycling and waste heat recovery, as well as emerging novel energy solutions. The volume also covers a broad range of mature and new technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, processes that improve energy efficiency, reduce thermal emissions, and reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions. Authors also explore the valorization of materials and their embodied energy including byproducts or coproducts from ferrous and nonferrous industries, batteries, electronics, and other complex secondary materials.
The idea that energy shapes and is shaped by geopolitics is firmly rooted in the popular imagination - and not without reason. Very few countries have the means to secure their energy needs through locally available supplies; instead, enduring dependencies upon other countries have developed. Given energy's strategic significance, supply systems for fuels and electricity are now seamlessly interwoven with foreign policy and global politics. Energy and Geopolitics enables students to enhance their understanding and sharpen their analytical skills with respect to the complex relations between energy supply, energy markets and international politics. Per Hoegselius guides us through the complexities of world energy and international energy relations, examining a wide spectrum of fossil fuels, alongside nuclear and renewable energies. Uniquely, the book also shows how the geopolitics of energy is not merely a matter for the great powers and reveals how actors in the world's smaller nations are as active in their quest for power and control. Encouraging students to apply a number of central concepts and theoretical ideas to different energy sources within a multitude of geographical, political and historical contexts, this book will be a vital resource to students and scholars of geopolitics, energy security and international environmental policy and politics.
Solar cooling systems can be a cost-effective and environmentally attractive air-conditioning solution. The design of such systems, however, is complex. Research carried out under the aegis of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling Program has shown that there is a range of seemingly subtle design decisions that can impact significantly on the performance of solar cooling systems. In order to reduce the risk of errors in the design process, this guide provides detailed and very specific engineering design information. It focuses on case study examples of installed plants that have been monitored and evaluated over the last decade. For three successful plants the design process is described in detail and the rationale for each key design decision is explained. Numerical constraints are suggested for the sizing / selection parameters of key equipment items. Moreover, the application conditions under which the system selection is appropriate are discussed. By following The Guide for any of the three specific solar cooling systems, the designer can expect to reliably achieve a robust, energy-saving solution. This book is intended as a companion to the IEA Solar Cooling Handbook which provides a general overview of the various technologies as well as comprehensive advice to enable engineers to design their own solar cooling system from first principles.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. A Step-by-Step Guide to Building a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle from the Ground Up Written by clean energy guru and electric vehicle expert Seth Leitman, this hands-on guide gives you the latest technical information and easy-to-follow instructions for building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). "Written by Seth Leitman, longtime green vehicle/sustainability expert and author of "Build Your Own Electric Vehicle," this 275-page book provides an overview of the technology and the issues in doing a conversion, and it works well as a different way in to the open source material that can be found at http://www.eaa-phev.org or the easier-to-remember http://www.priusplus.org." -- CalCars.org Build Your Own Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle puts you in the driver's seat when it comes to hitting the road in a reliable, economical, and environmentally friendly ride. Inside, you'll find complete details on the hybrid powertrain and all the required components, including the motor, battery, and chassis. The book covers the plug-in hybrids currently on the market as well as hybrid conversion companies, conversion kits, and related resources. Pictures, diagrams, charts, and graphs illustrate each step along the way. With this how-to guide on hand, you'll be behind the wheel of your own plug-in hybrid electric automobile in no time! Build Your Own Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle covers: Energy savings and environmental benefits PHEV background Drivetrain components and design Chassis selection DC and AC motor types Batteries and chargers The conversion process Licensing and insurance Safety, maintenance, troubleshooting, and warranties Clubs and associations Additional resources
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. 50 Ways to Be a Green Evil Genius! Who knew being environmentally conscious would ever be considered evil? With 50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius, you'll have wicked fun while reducing your impact on the planet and saving money. Using easy-to-find parts and tools, this do-it-yourself guide offers a wide variety of environmentally focused projects you can accomplish on your own. Topics covered include transportation, alternative fuels, solar, wind, and hydro power, home insulation, construction, and more. The projects in this unique guide range from easy to more complex and are designed to optimize your time and simplify your life! 50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius: Features step-by-step instructions for 50 environmentally friendly projects, complete with helpful illustrations Shows you how to design, build, and install your creations Allows you to customize each project for your purposes Removes the frustration factor-all required parts are listed, along with sources 50 Green Projects for the Evil Genius provides you with all the plans and schematics you need to: Dramatically improve the fuel efficiency of your car Insulate the windows in your home Build a worm compost bin Audit your appliances with an energy meter Build a water purifier Set up a rainwater collection system Create a solar water heater Construct a homopolar motor Assemble a solar module from PV cells Create a wind turbine Assemble your own weather-protected human-powered vehicle Convert your car to biodiesel Build a contained composite structure And more
Solar photovoltaics (SPV) forms an integral part of renewable energy systems that are crucial for combating global warming. Written to serve as an ideal text for students, researchers and industrial personnel, it discusses the principles of operation of photovoltaic devices, their limitations, choice of materials, and maximum efficiencies. It covers in depth discussion of new materials and devices based on organics and perovskites, and a flow-chart of the manufacture of Si, GaAs and CdTe cells, their characterization and testing. It highlights characterization, testing and reliability of solar PV modules, comparison of fixed and tracking SPV systems using concentrator cells. Economical aspects of grid-connected and stand-alone systems and a wide range of applications, from solar pumps, and street lighting to large power plants is covered in the text. Several aspects such as cell and module manufacture, characterization, testing, reliability, and system design are described considering commercial SPV manufacturing plants.
"The Impending World Energy Mess" will help educate readers
about the realities of energy in general and oil in particular.
The reader will be able to cut through the smokescreens that various self interests
have, and are promulgating and understand that there are a number of credible
studies that clearly demonstrate that world oil production is close to going into
decline, which will create long-term world oil shortages.
The huge economic impacts associated with impending oil shortages are brought
into sober, balanced perspective and readers are given tools to minimize the
impending negative impacts on their personal lives.
Finally, "The Impending World Energy Mess" provides a balanced discussion of the
strengths and weaknesses of a number of electric power production technologies,
and in particular, the inherent weaknesses in solar and renewable technologies.
A thorough treatment of energy harvesting technologies, highlighting RF and hybrid-multiple technology harvesting. Explains the principles of solar, thermal, kinetic and electromagnetic energy harvesting, addresses design challenges, and describes applications. Features an introduction to switched mode power converters and energy storage, and summarizes the challenges of different system implementations, from wireless transceivers to backscatter communication systems and ambient backscattering. This practical resource is essential for researchers and graduate students in the field of communications and sensor technology, in addition to practitioners working in these fields.
This book focuses on the basic science recently produced in Brazil for the improvement of sugarcane as a bioenergy crop and as a raw material for 2nd generation bioethanol production. It reports achievements that have been advancing the science of cell walls, enzymes, genetics, and sustainability related to sugarcane technologies and give continuity to the research reported in the "Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol", from Springer. The Introduction (Chapter I) explains how the National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioethanol, founded in 2008 in Brazil, became part of the main international initiatives that started to search for forms to use biomass for bioethanol production in Brazil, US and Europe. Part I reports the advances in plant cell wall composition, structure and architecture, and physical characteristics of sugarcane biomass. These discoveries are opening the way to increased efficiency of pretreatments and hydrolysis, being therefore important information for 2nd generation processes as well as for biorefinery initiatives. Part II focuses on the discovery and characterization of hydrolases from microorganisms that could be used in industrial processes. Recent advances in the search for hydrolases using metagenomics is reported. A great number of genes and enzymes from microorganisms have been discovered, affording improvement of enzyme cocktails better adapted to sugarcane biomass. Part III reports two key issues in the process of 2G ethanol, pentose fermentation and sugarcane genetics. These are the discoveries of new yeast species capable of producing ethanol more efficiently from xylose and the advances made on the sugarcane genetics, a key issue to design varieties adapted to 2G ethanol production.Part IV approaches sustainability through two chapters, one discussing the sustainability of the sugarcane agricultural and environmental system and another discussing how national and mainly international policies of Brazil regarding 2G ethanol production affected the country's strategies to establish itself as an international player in renewable energy area.
Before the development of the first self-governing windmill, settlement of the upland areas of the American West was almost impossible. Windmills were needed to pump underground water to the surface. As soon as their design and manufacture had been perfected, the mills became the most prominent feature of the American landscape, not only in the western two-thirds of the nation but also in the East and particularly in the Middle East. Besides supplying the needs of farmers and ranchers, windmills performed such tasks as pumping water to the roofs of New York tenements, cleaning our mine shafts and ships' bilges, and providing water for the boilers of locomotives.This guide to America's windmills is both a complete general history of turbine-wheel mills and an identification guide to the 112 most common models, which still dot the landscape today. With this guide a traveler or enthusiast crossing the plains and prairies of North American can identify virtually every farm-style windmill that he or she can see with a good pair of binoculars. The guide also serves as a handbook for the restoration of antique mills. In his lively narrative T. Lindsay Baker clearly explains the technical evolution of the mills and shares a wealth of windmill folklore. Among the 376 illustrations are unpublished historical photographs, long-lost engravings, field photographs by the author, and detailed India-ink drawings of the 112 most popular designs. Appendices identify all the known windmill manufacturers in the United States, Canada, and Mexico and all the known windmill models from the 1850s to the present day. The comprehensive bibliography is the first published list of source materials on the history of wind-power utilization.
The book presents the current state and good practices of national forest inventories in monitoring wood resources and demonstrates pathways for harmonisation and improved common reporting. Beyond a general overview over availability and use of wood resources in different countries, it provides a unique collection of original contributions from national forest inventory experts with in-depth descriptions of current NFI methods in assessing wood availability and wood use in European countries, and selected countries from America and Asia.The main topics are national definitions and improvements in common reporting of forests available for wood supply, stem quality and assortments, estimation of change including growth and drain, and tree resources outside forest land. The book is a must-have for everyone who is contributing to national forest inventories either methodologically or operatively, for people who want or need to understand national forest inventory provided data and information on the availability of wood resources. By providing profound knowledge it is a valuable basis for scientists involved in scenario modelling and analysing effects of climate change, as well as individuals in private organisations and public administrations promoting the sustainable use of natural resources and the potential of green economy.
This book provides detailed yet easily understandable information about sustainable energy alternatives in the context of growing public concern about climate change, the impending fuel crisis and environmental degradation. It deals with the history of energy use and the factors that have led to the current interest in energy alternatives, and assesses the chance of renewable energy replacing fossil fuels in the future. The authors manage to make a highly complex and often intimidating subject not only accessible but also engaging and entertaining. This book unpacks but never simplifies the science of energy, leavening the more technical passages with anecdotes, metaphors, examples and imagery. By also dealing with the history, politics and economics of energy use, it offers both scientific and non-scientific readers a deeper understanding of the most important issue of our age.
This book is a comprehensive volume dealing with climate change impacts on agriculture, and which can help guide the redesign of agricultural management and cropping systems. It includes mitigation techniques such as use of bioenergy crops, fertilizer and manure management, conservation tillage, crop rotations, cover crops and cropping intensity, irrigation, erosion control, management of drained wetlands, lime amendments, residue management, biochar and biotechnology. It also includes Management of GHG emissions Crop models as decision support tools QTL analysis Crop water productivity Impacts of drought on cereal crops Silvopastoral systems Changing climate impact on wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia Phosphorous dynamics under changing climate Role of bioinformatics The focus of the book is climate change mitigation to enhance sustainability in agriculture. We present various kinds of mitigation options, ways to minimize GHG emissions and better use of the latest techniques in conservation and environmental-sustainability.
This book reports on the objectives, methods used and difficulties faced by the RAVE research projects, and presents the results and their significance for the future use of offshore wind energy in a style that is understandable for everyone. Readers are given a comprehensive overview of the current status of offshore wind energy research and the results of the research activities. Offshore wind energy will play a significant role in our future energy supply, yet this development has really only just begun. A large team of experts from the fields of research, industry, public administration and government therefore set themselves the goal of investigating the current and fundamental issues relating to the use of offshore wind energy. They worked on interdisciplinary research projects with the aim of expanding our knowledge and finding application-oriented solutions. Their work has contributed to establishing offshore wind energy as a reliable, sustainable and economical long term source of energy.
Increase in green, renewable and sustainable energy demand due to higher environmental impacts (e.g. Greenhouse gases emissions, climate change, etc.) on consumption of fossil fuel resource put down an extra pressure on government, researchers and industrialists. Among several available biofuel options, biohydrogen is considered as one of the best environmentally clean fuel and a strong candidate to fulfil the future demand of sustainable energy resource. Although, biohydrogen production technology and its use as a fuel is still in infancy stage. Selection of most sustainable production pathway, increase in production upto industrial scale and cost efficiency are some issue still persist with the biohydrogen research. "Biohydrogen Production: Sustainability of Current Technology and Future Perspective" is giving an insight for the sustainable production of biohydrogen at industrial scale. The process of biohydrogen production is complex and to opt the best suited production system for industrial scale is a frantic task. This book will provide an in depth information on all available technologies for biohydrogen production and feedstock options to choose upon. This book is also providing information on present status of the research in the field and possibility to change future fuel economy in to biohydrogen economy. Experts views provided in the chapters by renowned researchers from all over the globe in the field of biohydrogen research made this book a cornucopia of present research and future perspective of biohydrogen. This book is targeted at the researchers working on biohydrogen as well as the bioenergy scientist planning to move towards biohydrogen research. This book will provide a platform for motivation of researchers and industrialists for innovative ideas and thoughts to bring biohydrogen production at industrial scale.
The provision of sustainable energy supplies for an expanding and increasingly productive world is one of the major issues facing civilisation today. Renewable Energy examines both the practical and economic potential of the renewable energy sources to meet this challenge. The underlying physical and technological principles behind deriving power from direct solar (solar thermal and photovoltaics), indirect solar (biomass, hydro, wind and wave) and non-solar (tidal and geothermal) energy sources are explained, within the context of their environmental impacts, their economics and their future prospects. Renewable Energy provides both perspective and detail on the relative merits and state of progress of technologies for utilizing the various 'renewables'. The analysis considers emissions, sustainability, cost implications and energy security, as political and economic pressures move society towards a low-carbon future. From an overview of basic energy conversion processes, through a discussion of the individual renewable sources, to a concluding examination of the prospects for their integration into national and international networks and the outlook for renewable energy, this book provides a valuable insight into prospects for the renewables. Online resources Renewable Energy is accompanied by online resources which include: For students: * Auto- marked multiple choice questions to accompany each chapter * Curated links to further information and up-to-date energy statistics. For registered adopters of the book: * Figures from the book: available to download for use in lectures
In a forty-year career as an oil and gas investment analyst and as
an investment banker and strategic adviser on petroleum-sector
mergers, acquisitions, and financings, Thomas A. Petrie has
witnessed dramatic changes in the business. In "Following Oil, "he
shares useful lessons he has learned about domestic and global
trends in population and economic growth, a maturing resource base,
variable national energy policies, and dynamic changes in
geopolitical forces--and how these variables affect energy markets.
More important, he applies those lessons to charting a course of
energy development for the nation as the twenty-first century
The recommendations summarise the state of the art. Their aim is the proper exploitation of the ground for geothermal purposes without adversely affecting the ground or the groundwater on the one hand and the operation of the system and nearby buildings on the other. The recommendations should be used during consulting, design, installation and operation in order to achieve optimum and sustainable use of the ground at a specific location. Authorities responsible for supervising and approving projects can use the recommendations as a guide when taking decisions and making stipulations. The Geothermal Energy Study Group was set up in Bochum in 2004 and became the joint DGGV/DGGT study group in 2007. Some 20 specialists from universities, authorities and engineering consultants are active in the group and meet two or three times a year.
Nature offers abundant renewable resources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels and commodity chemicals but issues of cost, technology readiness levels, and compatibility with existing distribution networks remain huge challenges. Cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel are the most immediately obvious target fuels, with hydrogen, methane and butanol as other potentially viable products. This book continues to bridge the technology gap and focus on critical aspects of lignocellulosic biomolecules and the respective mechanisms regulating their bioconversion to liquid fuels into energy and value-added products of industrial significance. This book is a collection of reviews elucidating several broad-ranging areas of progress and challenges in the utilization of sustainable resources of renewable energy, especially in biofuels. This book comes just at a time when government and industries are accelerating their efforts in the exploration of alternative energy resources, with expectations of the establishment of long-term sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based liquid fuels. Apart from liquid fuel this book also emphasizes the use of sustainable resources for value-added products, which may help in revitalizing the biotechnology industry at a broader scale. This book also provides a comprehensive review of basic literature and advance research methodologies to graduate students studying environmental microbiology, chemical engineering, bio-economy and microbial biotechnology.
This timely book is a compilation of edited articles by distinguished international scientists discussing global warming, its causes as well as present and future solutions. Social and economic growth at global level is measured in terms of GDP, which requires energy inputs generally based on fossil fuel resources. These, however, are major contributors to increasing levels of CO2, causing 15 tonnes of green house gas emissions per capita. Renewable sources of energy offer an alternative to fossil fuels, and would help reduce this to the 2 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per capita per annum needed to achieve sustainable growth. As such, the book discusses the next-generation of biofuels and all related aspects, based on the editors' significant investigations on biofuels over the last 30 years. It also presents the latest research findings from research work carried out by contemporary researchers. Presenting global biofuel perspectives, it examines various issues related to sustainable development of biofuels in the contexts of agriculture, forestry, industry and economic growth. It covers the 1st to 4th generation biofuels, as well as the status of biofuel resources and their potential in carbon neutral economy. Offering a comprehensive, state-of-art overview of current and future biofuels at local and global levels, this book appeals to administrators, policy makers, universities and research institutions.
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