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This volume reconstructs Martin Heidegger's lecture course at the University of Marburg in the winter semester 1924-25, devoted to an interpretation of Plato (especially his later dialogue, the Sophist) and Aristotle, especially Book VI of the Nichomahcan Ethics. Published for the first time in German in 1992 as volume 19 of Heidegger's Collected Works, it is one of Heidegger's major texts, because of its intrinsic importance as an interpretation of Aristotle and Plato and also because of its relation to Being and Time. Composed at the same time, the lectures and Being and Time are complementary works in that both are commentaries on Plato's Sophist. The lectures approach Plato through a detailed reading of the Nichomachean Ethics, providing one of Heidegger's major interpretations of Aristotle. In a line-by-line interpretation of the Sophist, Heidegger then takes up the relation of Being and non-being, the ontological problematic that forms the key link between Greek philosophy and Heidegger's thought.
In the first part about the specific Stoic doctrine on moral progress (prokop) attention is first given to the subtle view developed by the early Stoics, who categorically denied the existence of any mean between vice and virtue, and yet succeeded in giving moral progress a logical and meaningful place within their ethical thinking. Subsequently, the position of later Stoics (Panaetius, Hecato, Posidonius, Seneca, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius) is examined. Most of them appear to adopt a basically 'orthodox' view, although each one of them lays his own accents and deals with Chrysippus' tenets from his own personal perspective. Occasionally, the 'heterodox' position of Aristo of Chios proves to have remained influential too. The second part of the study deals with the polemical reception of the Stoic doctrine of moral progress in (Middle-)Platonism. The first author who is discussed is Philo of Alexandria. Philo deals with the Stoic doctrine in a very ideosyncratical way. He never explicitly attacked the Stoic view on moral progress, although it is clear from various passages in his work that he favoured the Platonic-Peripatetic position rather than the Stoic one. Next, Plutarch's position is examined, through a detailed analysis of his treatise 'De profectibus in virtute'. Finally, attention is given to two school handbooks dating from the period of Middle-Platonism (Alcinous and Apuleius). In both of them, the Stoic doctrine is rejected without many arguments, which shows that a correct (and anti-Stoic) conception of moral progress was regarded in Platonic circles as a basic knowledge for beginning students.The whole discussion is placed into a broaderphilosophical-historical perspective by the introduction (on the philosophical tradition before the Stoa) and the epilogue (about later discussions in Neo-Platonism and early Christianity).
This volume provides the Greek text with facing English translation of Plato's 31st Socratic Letter. This letter was composed in response to Philip II's hostility towards Plato for his meddling in Macedonian affairs and, as a result, his withdrawal of support from the Academy. The study includes an extensive commentary and an introductory discussion of the function of this public letter, its historical background, its rhetoric and its authenticity.
This rich compendium on the lives and doctrines of philosophers ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus (to whom the whole tenth book is devoted); 45 important figures are portrayed. Diogenes Laertius carefully compiled his information from hundreds of sources and enriches his accounts with numerous quotations.
Diogenes Laertius lived probably in the earlier half of the 3rd century CE, his ancestry and birthplace being unknown. His history, in ten books, is divided unscientifically into two 'Successions' or sections: 'Ionian' from Anaximander to Theophrastus and Chrysippus, including the Socratic schools; 'Italian' from Pythagoras to Epicurus, including the Eleatics and sceptics. It is a very valuable collection of quotations and facts.
The Loeb Classical Library edition of Diogenes Laertius is in two volumes.
Timaeus and Critias is a Socratic dialogue in two parts. A response to an account of an ideal state told by Socrates, it begins with Timaeus's theoretical exposition of the cosmos and his story describing the creation of the universe, from its very beginning to the coming of man. Timaeus introduces the idea of a creator God and speculates on the structure and composition of the physical world. Critias, the second part of Plato's dialogue, comprises an account of the rise and fall of Atlantis, an ancient, mighty and prosperous empire ruled by the descendents of Poseidon, which ultimately sank into the sea.
Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) taught logic to Alexander the Great and, by virtue of his philosophical works, to every philosopher since, from Marcus Aurelius, to Thomas Aquinas, to Mortimer J. Adler. Now Adler instructs the world in the "uncommon common sense" of Aristotelian logic, presenting Aristotle's understandings in a current, delightfully lucid way. He brings Aristotle's work to an everyday level. By encouraging readers to think philosophically, Adler offers us a unique path to personal insights and understanding of intangibles, such as the difference between wants and needs, the proper way to pursue happiness, and the right plan for a good life.
The Czech philosopher Jan Patocka (1907-1977), who studied with
Husserl and Heidegger, is widely recognized as the most influential
thinker to come from postwar Eastern Europe. Refusing to join the
Communist party after World War II, he was banned from academia and
publication for the rest of his life, except for a brief time
following the liberalizations of the Prague spring of 1968. Joining
Vaclav Havel and Jiri Hajek as a spokesman for the Chart 77
human-rights declaration of 1977, Patocka was harassed by
authorities, arrested, and finally died of a heart attack during
The Symposium is Plato's dramatic masterpiece, his most perfect work and arguably his most seminal dialogue. Its influence on the minds of Europe, from Plotinus to Proust, is everywhere in evidence. Yet today when we talk of Platonic love we are not near Plato's conception. This translation aims to recover the sense of Plato's original idea.
Building on the virtues that made the first edition of A Presocratics Reader the most widely used sourcebook for the study of the Presocratics and Sophists, the second edition offers even more value and a wider selection of fragments from these philosophical predecessors and contemporaries of Socrates. With revised introductions, annotations, suggestions for further reading, and more, the second edition draws on the wealth of new scholarship published on these fascinating thinkers over the past decade or more, a remarkably rich period in Presocratic studies. At the volume's core, as ever, are the fragments themselves--but now in thoroughly revised and, in some cases, new translations by Richard D. McKirahan and Patricia Curd, among them those of the recently published Derveni Papyrus.
From Aristotle to Darwin, from ancient teleology to contemporary genealogies, this book offers an overview of the birth and then persistence of Aristotle's framework into modernity, until its radical overthrow by the evolutionary revolution.
Isolates terms and offers an evolutionary history of the concept instead of a mere definition
This book links Plato and Epicurus, two of the most prominent ethicists in the history of philosophy, exploring how Platonic material lays the conceptual groundwork for Epicurean hedonism. It argues that, despite their significant philosophical differences, Plato and Epicurus both conceptualise pleasure in terms of the health and harmony of the human body and soul. It turns to two crucial but underexplored sources for understanding Epicurean pleasure: Plato's treatment of psychological health and pleasure in the Republic, and his physiological account of bodily harmony, pleasure, and pain in the Philebus. Kelly Arenson shows first that, by means of his mildly hedonistic and sometimes overtly anti-hedonist approaches, Plato sets the agenda for future discussions in antiquity of the nature of pleasure and its role in the good life. She then sets Epicurus' hedonism against the backdrop of Plato's ontological and ethical assessments of pleasure, revealing a trend in antiquity to understand pleasure and pain in terms of the replenishment and maintenance of an organism's healthy functioning. Health and Hedonism in Plato and Epicurus will be of interest to anyone interested in the relationship between these two philosophers, ancient philosophy, and ethics.
The Clarendon Aristotle Series is designed for both students and professionals. It provides accurate translations of selected Aristotelian texts, accompanied by incisive commentaries that focus on philosophical problems and issues, The volumes in the series have been widely welcomed and favourably reviewed. Important new titles are being added to the series, and a number of well-established volumes are being reissued with revisions and/or supplementary material. Christopher Shields presents a new translation and commentary of Aristotle's De Anima, a work of interest to philosophers at all levels, as well as psychologists and students interested in the nature of life and living systems. The volume provides a full translation of the complete work, together with a comprehensive commentary. While sensitive to philological and textual matters, the commentary addresses itself to the philosophical reader who wishes to understand and assess Aristotle's accounts of the soul and body; perception; thinking; action; and the character of living systems. It aims to present controversial aspects of the text in a neutral, fair-minded manner, so that readers can come to be equipped to form their own judgments. This volume includes the crucial first book, which the original translation in the Clarendon Aristotles Series omitted.
Plato uses a logic without defining or naming it, somewhat as verbs are used in daily life without saying "verbs" or defining them. Linguists may define them. Similarly, Plato's Logic identifies Plato's logic: Plato does not. He lives by it. The logic in question is used to track down first causes. These begin or end causal series of all four of Aristotle's types of cause. Thus for instance God in the Laws is the first mover in a chain of movers, so God is the first efficient cause. The Republic's Form of the Good, again, is the highest authority or order, and due to this it is the first formal cause. The Symposium's Form of Beauty is the first final cause, that is the ultimate reward. The Phaedo's psyche is a first material cause, being simple (and therefore immortal). This is not a logic in Aristotle's sense, but luckily that is not the only sense there is. Plato's logic is relational, not Aristotelian. This is because the causes are easiest to interpret as causal relations. Then the causal relations form series, and the series begin or end in Forms or Gods. In this book's formal vocabulary Plato's logic is always of the form aRbRc... zRz (if the terminus is a God) or aRbRc... zRR (if the terminus is a Form). All of Plato's writing is not quite like this, that is true. But his wildest and most characteristic writings are. He does admittedly write many other things as well. But the core of his philosophy consists of his hyperbolical claims about the Forms and Gods, and so they deserve to be in the limelight. The general idea of this book is that Plato's idealistic demands make sense in relational idioms. The idealism is not nonsensical or fallacious but rational. Speculation is a duty, not a joke or a sin. Numerous recent scholars are attacked because they belittle it.
This is the fourth (and last) volume of Jonathan Barnes' collected essays on ancient philosophy. As its title suggests, the twenty-three papers which it contains cover a wide range of topics. The first paper discusses the size of the sun, and the last looks at Plato and Aristotle in Victorian Oxford. In between come pieces on-inter alia-the theory of just war and the definition of comedy, the nature of the soul according to Plato and Aristotle and Zeno and Tertullian, atheism of Protagoras, Timaeus the Sophist (and his Platonic Lexicon) and the early history of Aristotle's writings, Nietzsche on Diogenes Laertius, the first Christian novel ... One of the pieces is new. The others have all been retouched, and some of them revised. Half a dozen were written in French and have been translated into English. The volume is kitted out with a bibliography and with two rather good indexes. The papers are, in parts at least, well written, and some of them are mildly diverting: no-one with a nose for ancient philosophy will sniff at them.
The Clarendon Aristotle Series is designed for both students and professionals. It provides accurate translations of selected Aristotelian texts, accompanied by incisive commentaries that focus on philosophical problems and issues. The volumes in the series have been widely welcomed and favourably reviewed. Important new titles are being added to the series, and a number of well-established volumes are being reissued with revisions and/or supplementary material. Laura M. Castelli presents a new translation and comprehensive commentary of the tenth book (Iota) of Aristotle's Metaphysics, which provides Aristotle's most systematic account of what it is for something to be one, what it is for something to be a unit of measurement, what contraries are, and what the function of contraries is in shaping the structure of reality into genera and species. There are some objective difficulties in making sense of Iota as a part of the Metaphysics and as a piece of Aristotelian philosophy. Castelli's Introduction tackles such general difficulties, while the commentary provides a detailed analysis of the arguments, of the more specific issues and of the philosophical points emerging from Aristotle's text. The English translation, based on Ross' critical edition, is meant as a tool for readers with or without knowledge of ancient Greek.
This concise anthology of primary sources designed for use in an ancient philosophy survey ranges from the Presocratics to Plato, Aristotle, the Hellenistic philosophers, and the Neoplatonists. The Second Edition features an amplified selection of Presocratic fragments in newly revised translations by Richard D. McKirahan. Also included is an expansion of the Hellenistic unit, featuring new selections from Lucretius and Sextus Empiricus as well as a new translation, by Peter J. Anderson, of most of Seneca's De Providentia . The selections from Plotinus have also been expanded.
Returning to the Greek understanding of art to rethink its capacities, Creation and the Function of Art focuses on the relationship between techne and phusis (nature). Moving away from the theoretical Platonism which dominates contemporary understandings of art, this book instead reinvigorates Aristotelian causation. Beginning with the Greek topos and turning to insights from philosophy, pure mathematics, psychoanalysis and biology, Jason Tuckwell re-problematises techne in functional terms. This book examines the deviations at play within logical forms, the subject, and upon phusis to better situate the role of the function in poiesis (art). In so doing, Tuckwell argues that art concerns a genuinely creative labour that cannot be resolved via an ontological or epistemological problem, but which instead constitutes an encounter with the problematic. As such, techne is shown to be a property of the living, of intelligence coupled to action, that not only enacts poiesis or art, but indicates a broader role for creative deviation in nature.
A collection of seventeen international papers, from a conference held in Wuerzburg in 1998, which focus on Epicureanism during the late Republican and imperial Roman periods. Subjects include: Seneca, new Epicurean texts from Oinoanda in Lycia, the philosophical inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda, Athenian Epicureanism, the Treatise of Cleomedes, Platonism and Epicureanism in the Renaissance. Eight German, four Italian, three English and two French papers.
Aristotle, great Greek philosopher, researcher, reasoner, and writer, born at Stagirus in 384 BCE, was the son of Nicomachus, a physician, and Phaestis. He studied under Plato at Athens and taught there (367 47); subsequently he spent three years at the court of a former pupil, Hermeias, in Asia Minor and at this time married Pythias, one of Hermeias s relations. After some time at Mitylene, in 343 2 he was appointed by King Philip of Macedon to be tutor of his teen-aged son Alexander. After Philip s death in 336, Aristotle became head of his own school (of Peripatetics ), the Lyceum at Athens. Because of anti-Macedonian feeling there after Alexander s death in 323, he withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died in 322. Nearly all the works Aristotle prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture-materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as follows: I. Practical: "Nicomachean Ethics"; "Great Ethics" ("Magna Moralia"); "Eudemian Ethics"; "Politics"; "Oeconomica" (on the good of the family); "Virtues and Vices."
II. Logical: "Categories"; "On Interpretation"; "Analytics" ("Prior" and "Posterior"); "On Sophistical Refutations"; "Topica."
III. Physical: Twenty-six works (some suspect) including astronomy, generation and destruction, the senses, memory, sleep, dreams, life, facts about animals, etc.
IV. "Metaphysics" on being as being.
V. On Art: "Art of Rhetoric" and "Poetics."
VI. Other works including the "Athenian Constitution"; more works also of doubtful authorship.
VII. Fragments of various works such as dialogues on philosophy and literature; and of treatises on rhetoric, politics and metaphysics. The Loeb Classical Library(r) edition of Aristotle is in twenty-three volumes.
Lives and the Eminent Philosophers of Diogenes Laertius is a crucial source for much of what we know about the origins of philosophy in Greece. The work covers a larger number of figures and a longer period of time than any other extant ancient source, from the Presocratic Thales to Epicurus. Despite its importance, a complete translation of the work has not appeared in English since 1925. Working from the new, authoritative Greek text established by Tiziano Dorandi (CUP, 2013), translator Pamela Mensch's goal has been to render Diogenes into an English prose that is fluent yet faithful to the original Greek. The annotations are aimed at the general reader rather than the specialist, and explain the various references to people, places, practices, and countless mythological characters as they occur. The translation is accompanied by dozens of artworks to illustrate the ongoing influence of many of the philosophical anecdotes compiled by Diogenes, and by newly commissioned essays by James Allen, Anthony Grafton, Ingrid Rowland, and others to shed light on Diogenes' historical and intellectual contexts as well as his rich reception history.
Among the most important and influential philosophical works in Western thought: Euthyphro, exploring the concepts and aims of piety and religion; Apology, a defense of the integrity of Socrates' teachings; Crito, exploring Socrates' refusal to flee his death sentence; and Phaedo, in which Socrates embraces death and discusses the immortality of the soul. Translations by the distinguished classical scholar, Benjamin Jowett.
In English and Latin
In the questions contained in this volume, Francis of Marchia explores subjects that earned him his fame in the Middle Ages and in the history of ideas: physics and philosophical psychology. He confronts the key issues in celestial physics, concluding with his well-known proofs for terrestrial and celestial beings having the same type of matter. Marchia's discussion of how elemental qualities persist in mixtures leads to a spirited and unique defense of a mind-body dualism: not even the sensory faculties are coextensive with the body. Moreover, each living being has two forms: the soul and the form of the body (q. 38). Marchia rejects the Averroistic doctrine of the unicity of the intellect, as well as acts of understanding being entirely the result of external stimuli. Those positions in turn inform his investigation of the mechanics of thinking and willing, and his establishment of the will s priority over the intellect. Finally, Marchia balances human free will with God s absolute power and cooperation in all matters.
Throughout these questions, Marchia shows his originality and sharp intellect. Although at times his solutions look similar to those of John Duns Scotus, they are in fact very different, reflecting Marchia s awareness of the problems and limitations involved in not only Scotus views, but also those of Aristotle and Averroes, Thomas Aquinas, and Henry of Ghent, among many others."
Plato, mathematician, philosopher and founder of the Academy in Athens, is, together with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, universally considered to have laid the foundations of Western philosophy. The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato provides a comprehensive and accessible study guide to Plato's thought. Written by a team of leading experts in the field of ancient philosophy, this companion covers five major areas; - Plato's life and his historical, philosophical and literary context - synopses of all the dialogues attributed to Plato - the most important features of the dialogues - the key themes and topics apparent in the dialogues - Plato's enduring influence and the various interpretative approaches applied to his thought throughout the history of philosophy Covering every aspect of Plato's thought in over 140 entries, The Bloomsbury Companion to Plato is an engaging introduction to Plato and an essential resource for anyone working in the field of ancient philosophy.
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