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The first volume in the new Cambridge Handbooks in Behavioral Genetics series, Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse provides baseline information on normal behaviors, essential in both the design of experiments using genetically modified or pharmacologically treated animals and in the interpretation and analyses of the results obtained. The book offers a comprehensive overview of the genetics of naturally occurring variation in mouse behavior, from perception and spontaneous behaviors such as exploration, aggression, social interactions and motor behaviors, to reinforced behaviors such as the different types of learning. Also included are numerous examples of potential experimental problems, which will aid and guide researchers trying to troubleshoot their own studies. A lasting reference, the thorough and comprehensive reviews offer an easy entrance into the extensive literature in this field, and will prove invaluable to students and specialists alike.
The GnRH Neuron and its Control examines the developmental biology of GnRH neurons including their birth in the nasal placode of the early embryo, perinatal programming, and sexual differentiation, in addition to the hypothalamic mechanisms that control GnRH neurons in adulthood to generate pulsatile and surge modes of GnRH secretion throughout the major life stages including aging. The morphology, electrophysiology, signal transduction pathways, transcriptional regulators, and genomics underlying function of the adult GnRH neuron is discussed in detail, as is the neuroendocrinology and cell biology governing the generation of both modes of GnRH release. The book also reviews the neurobiological mechanisms and circuitry responsible for the modulation of the activity of GnRH neurons by season, stress, nutrition, and metabolism, and covers the current and potential therapeutic approaches to regulating GnRH secretion and action. Filled with newly identified research and classical fundamental knowledge to GnRH biology, it will provide students, researchers, and practitioners with an in-depth understanding of reproductive neuroendocrinology. This is the fifth volume in the Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology Series, a co- publication between Wiley and the INF (International Neuroendocrine Federation) that aims to illustrate highest standards and encourage the use of the latest technologies in basic and clinical research and hopes to provide inspiration for further exploration into the exciting field of neuroendocrinology.
Adopting a multidisciplinary approach with input from physicists,
researchers and medical professionals, this is the first book to
introduce many different technical approaches for the visualization
of microcirculation, including laser Doppler and laser speckle,
optical coherence tomography and photo-acoustic tomography. It
covers everything from basic research to medical applications,
providing the technical details while also outlining the respective
strengths and weaknesses of each imaging technique.
Discovering the secrets of animal movement and what they can teach us Insects walk on water, snakes slither, and fish swim. Animals move with astounding grace, speed, and versatility: how do they do it, and what can we learn from them? In How to Walk on Water and Climb up Walls, David Hu takes readers on an accessible, wondrous journey into the world of animal motion. From basement labs at MIT to the rain forests of Panama, Hu shows how animals have adapted and evolved to traverse their environments, taking advantage of physical laws with results that are startling and ingenious. In turn, the latest discoveries about animal mechanics are inspiring scientists to invent robots and devices that move with similar elegance and efficiency. Hu follows scientists as they investigate a multitude of animal movements, from the undulations of sandfish and the way that dogs shake off water in fractions of a second to the seemingly crash-resistant characteristics of insect flight. Not limiting his exploration to individual organisms, Hu describes the ways animals enact swarm intelligence, such as when army ants cooperate and link their bodies to create bridges that span ravines. He also looks at what scientists learn from nature (TM)s unexpected feats "such as snakes that fly, mosquitoes that survive rainstorms, and dead fish that swim upstream. As researchers better understand such issues as energy, flexibility, and water repellency in animal movement, they are applying this knowledge to the development of cutting-edge technology. Integrating biology, engineering, physics, and robotics, How to Walk on Water and Climb up Walls demystifies the remarkable mechanics behind animal locomotion.
Written for academic researchers and graduate students in entomology, this is the first comprehensive analysis of Sciomyzid flies. Sciomyzid flies are important as prime candidates for the biological control of snails and slugs that help transmit diseases such as schistosomiasis or are important agricultural pests. They also serve as a paradigm for the study of the evolution of feeding behavior in predatory insects. Starting with analyses of malacophagy in general and then in Diptera specifically, all important aspects of the Sciomyzidae are discussed, including behavior, ecology, life cycles, morphology, and identification. New behavioral and morphological classifications and hypotheses are proposed on the basis of unpublished information and a complete analysis of the extensive literature. Also included are keys to adults, larvae and puparia and a checklist of world species, with information on geographical range and the location of type specimens. The accompanying DVD includes Clifford O. Berg's classic film on the biology of Sciomyzidae and biological control of snails.
Since the publication of the sixth edition of this benchmark text, numerous advances in the field have been made particularly in stem cells, 3D culture, scale-up, STR profiling, and culture of specialized cells. Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications, Seventh Edition is the updated version of this benchmark text, addressing these recent developments in the field as well as the basic skills and protocols. This eagerly awaited edition reviews the increasing diversity of the applications of cell culture and the proliferation of specialized techniques, and provides an introduction to new subtopics in mini-reviews. New features also include a new chapter on cell line authentication with a review of the major issues and appropriate protocols including DNA profiling and barcoding, as well as some new specialized protocols. Because of the continuing expansion of cell culture, and to keep the bulk of the book to a reasonable size, some specialized protocols are presented as supplementary material online. Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications, Seventh Edition provides the most accessible and comprehensive introduction available to the culture and experimental manipulation of animal cells. This text is an indispensable resource for those in or entering the field, including academic research scientists, clinical and biopharmaceutical researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, cell and molecular biology and genetics lab managers, trainees and technicians.
Animals perform many athletic tasks to an amazing degree of accomplishment: not only spectacular feats of running and jumping but also routine actions that ensure survival such as feeding, vocalization, diving, flying, and many more. The study of performance capacity (defined as the ability of an animal to conduct a key task) is of great interest to both ecologists and evolutionary biologists. At an ecological level, how well individuals perform often dictates opportunities for reproduction, occupation of preferred territories, or capturing prey. Therefore, variation in performance capacities can be a key determinant of variation in fitness within animal populations. At an evolutionary level, variation in function often follows closely from variation in form, and therefore enables animals to invade novel habitats, or to overtake other species. This novel book examines how and why animal athletes have evolved. It uses examples from across the animal kingdom and integrates them in the broader context of ecology and evolution, thereby identifying common themes that transcend taxonomic divisions. Animal Athletes is an accessible textbook of particular relevance to undergraduates, graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology, vertebrate morphology, and functional morphology, and will also appeal to the interested layperson.
Are you still routinely scruffing cats, stretching them out for jugular venipuncture, and using leather gloves for the ones hissing at the back of the cage? In this instructional DVD, Dr. Yin leads you through seven toweling techniques that will help keep potentially difficult cats calm and relaxed rather than eliciting anxiety and aggression. Each wrap is broken down step-by-step allowing you to practice along, first using stuffed animals and then using cats. By the end of this DVD you'll have the confidence you need to handle difficult cats in a caring, efficient, and safe manner.
Visual ecology is the study of how animals use visual systems to meet their ecological needs, how these systems have evolved, and how they are specialized for particular visual tasks. "Visual Ecology" provides the first up-to-date synthesis of the field to appear in more than three decades. Featuring some 225 illustrations, including more than 140 in color, spread throughout the text, this comprehensive and accessible book begins by discussing the basic properties of light and the optical environment. It then looks at how photoreceptors intercept light and convert it to usable biological signals, how the pigments and cells of vision vary among animals, and how the properties of these components affect a given receptor's sensitivity to light. The book goes on to examine how eyes and photoreceptors become specialized for an array of visual tasks, such as navigation, evading prey, mate choice, and communication.
A timely and much-needed resource for students and researchers alike, "Visual Ecology" also includes a glossary and a wealth of examples drawn from the full diversity of visual systems.The most up-to-date overview of visual ecology availableFeatures some 225 illustrations, including more than 140 in color, spread throughout the textGuides readers from the basic physics of light to the role of visual systems in animal behaviorIncludes a glossary and a wealth of real-world examples
Dr. Sophia Yin, author of the Small Animal Veterinary Nerdbook, is a veterinarian, applied animal behaviorist, author, and speaker. Her passion for animals and their proper handling and restraint led her to spend hundreds of hours on this project - a new book and instructional DVD set focused on the most humane techniques that reduce stress for people and pets. The book and DVD feature: * More than 1,600 photos that show practicing veterinarians and students how to handle dogs and cats correctly * Explanations of what vets think they're doing right but may actually be doing wrong * Three hours of video clips with voiceover narratives that show correct and incorrect handling procedures By using this training tool, vets will: * Be able to implement the most up-to-date handling techniques * Learn how to restrain animals correctly through behavior modification that does not involve coercion, dominance, or other negative training methods * Increase efficiency because patients will willingly comply with procedures * Stop perpetuating behavior problems in patients * Create a safer environment for themselves and and their team with fewer bites, scratches, and back injuries * Improve the bond between vet, pet, and client This new book and DVD quickly and painlessly teaches how to handle dogs and cats with ease and grace, showing veterinarians how to impress clients and create patients who willingly comply with treatments and procedures. This visual guide is the result of hundreds of hours of research and a dedication to intelligent and compassionate behavior modification in animals. Over 1,600 photos and three hours of video clips make it easy to recognize poor handling methods that can cause behavior issues for a lifetime. Dr. Yin shows the wrong way, and then the right way, to clearly illustrate exactly how and why a pet reacts the way she does. The benefits of low-stress handling are tremendous; practicing these refined handling skills will create a safer work environment, increase efficiency, and ultimately improve the bond between vet, pet, and client.
With the staggering amount of pet health information available on the Internet, it is often difficult to find exactly what you are looking for. The Internet Guide to Pet Health is a one-stop guide that weeds through all the clutter to bring you only the most dependable sources and relevant content. This comprehensive compilation of annotated links will serve as a handy, useful, and easy-to-consult guide for persons who appreciate animals and/or own domestic pets of all kinds, especially cats and dogs. This text also features a full glossary of medical terms, bibliography, and a quick-find index. The health needs of pet animals have become as complex and specialized as those of humans. Pet owners, veterinarians, and animal lovers alike need authoritative, reliable, and up-to-date information about caring for the health and well-being of pets. The Internet Guide to Pet Health offers a quick, easy, and comprehensive reference to quality Web sites that focus on the health and welfare of animal companions. The Internet Guide to Pet Health will help you pinpoint reliable information on: * the health benefits of pet ownership * diseases transmitted by pets * pet food safety * animal care and welfare societies and organizations * death, dying, and euthanasia * poisons, dangerous situations, and other hazards * spaying and neutering * traveling with pets * pet-specific care for dogs, cats, small animals, and fish * surgery, surgical procedures, and hospitalization * exercise and training * dental care, diet, and nutrition * disabled pets * service and therapy animals * and much, much more! The Internet Guide to Pet Health is an ideal resource for anyone who is directly involved in the lives of pet companions or simply an animal lover. Medical librarians in academic medical centers and teaching hospitals; consumer health and public librarians; veterinarians and veterinary clinic staff; public health personnel; animal trainers; and groomers will also find this to be an invaluable text.
This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.
The book highlights intricate predisposing factors for pathogenesis of nutritional anemia. It delivers valuable information related to this public health hazard influencing the nutritional health of preschool children. The book is valuable for readers in diverse fields to gain insight of the concept of nutritional anemia in preschool children. Additionally, book furnishes clinical and laboratory methods in a comparative way to assess nutritional anemia. Impact of the disorder on health of preschool children has been covered in a simple language. The book mentions need for interventional strategies for the management of nutritional anemia. Infants, preschool children and women during pregnancy and lactation are highly susceptible to dietary deficiency of iron, folic acid and cyanocobalamin leading to comparatively, higher predisposition to development of nutritional anemia. The condition has myriad of ill effects on nutritional health of preschool children.
Because of developments in powerful computer technology, computational techniques, advances in a wide spectrum of diverse technologies, and other advances coupled with cross disciplinary pursuits between technology and its greatly significant applied implications in human body processes, the field of biomechanics is evolving as a broadly significant area. The four volumes of Biomechanical Systems: Techniques and Applications presents the advances in widely diverse areas with significant implications for human betterment that occur continuously at a high rate. These include dynamics of musculo-skeletal systems; mechanics of hard and soft tissues; mechanics of muscle; mechanics of bone remodeling; mechanics of implant-tissue interfaces; cardiovascular and respiratory biomechanics; mechanics of blood flow, air flow, flow-prosthesis interfaces; mechanics of impact; dynamics of man machine interaction; and numerous other areas. The great breadth and depth of the field of biomechanics on the international scene requires at least four volumes for adequate treatment. These four volumes constitute a well integrated set that can be utilized as individual volumes. They provide a substantively significant and rather comprehensive, in-depth treatment of biomechanic systems and techniques that is most surely unique on the international scene.
The bright colour of haemoglobin has, from the very beginning,
played a significant role in both the investigation of this
compound as well as in the study of blood oxygen transport.
Numerous optical methods have been developed for measuring
haemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and the principal
dyshaemoglobins in vitro as well as in vivo. Modern applications
include pulse oximeters, fibre optic oximeters, multiwavelength
haemoglobin photometers ('co-oximeters') and instruments for near
infrared spectroscopy in vivo. Knowledge of the light absorption
spectra of the common haemoglobin derivatives is a prerequisite for
the development and understanding of these techniques.
Nutrient management is an important aspect of feeding livestock and poultry. Today, there is more attention directed toward this issue in animal production than ever before. The heightened awareness of the environmental impacts associated with animal production has caused animal nutritionists to refocus their thoughts, practices, and expectations regarding how nutrients are supplied to animals. In addition, the increase in the size and intensity of modern production units demands new technologies for enhancing nutrient utilization and for reducing the amount of nutrients excreted. Covering these issues and more, Nutrient Management of Food Animals to Enhance and Protect the Environment is a reference tool for agricultural industry leaders, private practitioners, government agencies, and researchers.
An integrated reference which could form the basis for advanced courses on development or become a resource for individuals teaching basic courses. Following an introduction by the volume editors, the 11 chapters represent 11 different systems, arranged phylogenetically, beginning with prokaryotic s
The volume is designed to provide an integrated overview of the results from the last fifteen years of research on Chromogranins in relation to cell biology, physiology and biomedicine. The different chapters highlight novel activities of these proteins, including their role in granule biogenesis, hormone co-storage, stimulus-processing-secretion coupling, autonomic sympathetic/parasympathetic balance, immune and cardiocirculatory function, and the response to stress. Biomedical aspects are also illustrated with focus on the prognostic and diagnostic significance of Chromogranin in the presence of tumors, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. The volume is of interest for laboratory and clinical scientists, PhD and Post-doc students that will be inspired to go deep inside the molecular, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological and clinical aspects of these fascinating multifaceted proteins.
In the last decade, research on the previously dormant field of camouflage has advanced rapidly, with numerous studies challenging traditional concepts, investigating previously untested theories and incorporating a greater appreciation of the visual and cognitive systems of the observer. Using studies of both real animals and artificial systems, this book synthesises the current state of play in camouflage research and understanding. It introduces the different types of camouflage and how they work, including background matching, disruptive coloration and obliterative shading. It also demonstrates the methodologies used to study them and discusses how camouflage relates to other subjects, particularly with regard to what it can tell us about visual perception. The mixture of primary research and reviews shows students and researchers where the field currently stands and where exciting and important problems remain to be solved, illustrating how the study of camouflage is likely to progress in the future.
Mechanical Design of Structural Materials in Animals explores the principles underlying how molecules interact to produce the functional attributes of biological materials: their strength and stiffness, ability to absorb and store energy, and ability to resist the fatigue that accrues through a lifetime of physical insults. These attributes play a central role in determining the size and shape of animals, the ways in which they can move, and how they interact with their environment. By showing how structural materials have been designed by evolution, John Gosline sheds important light on how animals work. Gosline elucidates the pertinent theories for how molecules are arranged into macromolecular structures and how those structures are then built up into whole organisms. In particular, Gosline develops the theory of discontinuous, fiber-reinforced composites, which he employs in a grand synthesis to explain the properties of everything from the body wall of sea anemones to spiders' silks and insect cuticles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Although the theories are examined in depth, Gosline's elegant discussion makes them accessible to anyone with an interest in the mechanics of life. Focusing on the materials from which animals are constructed, this book answers fundamental questions about mechanical properties in nature.
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