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This book represents Part 2 of a venture started by distinguished neuroscientists to visualize and advertise the experimentally advantageous preparations of the crustacean nervous system. The advantage is a combination of ease of dissection of key structures and the possibility of repeatedly accessing identified individual cells to measure the detailed response of the system to the experimentally imposed stimulus program. Of course, the neurosciences have to focus their research on the nervous system of mammals and man in order to understand the principles of function and their regulation if malfunctions occur. This is in line with efforts to investigate nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom. The specific potential of the encountered systems for exploratory research into hitherto unexplained functions of the brain may very well be a key to new insights. The simply organized nervous system of crustaceans performs tasks of vital importance imposed on the organism. Hence this system consists of a complete set of neural circuitry open for inspection and measurement by systematic investigation. The first volume, The Crustacean Nervous System, contains exhaustive reports on experimental work from all sectors of neuroscience using crayfish and lobsters. This second volume, Crustacean Experimental Systems in Neurobiology," contains excellent reviews on significant topics in neurobiology. Each section is introduced by short texts written by the section editors of the Crustacean Nervous System. More, prominent authors explain their approach to understanding the brain using a selection of experiments involving visual orientation, neuromuscular systems and identification of principles of neural processing.
The symposium on "Zinc in Soils and Plants" is the third in a series which began with "Copper in Soils and Plants" in Perth in 1981 and continued with "Manganese in Soils and Plants" in Adelaide in 1988. The symP9sium brings together a series of valuable accounts of many aspects of the reactions of zinc in soils, the uptake, transport and utilization of zinc in plants, the diagnosis and correction of zinc deficiency in plants and the role of zinc in animal and human nutrition. I am grateful for the financial support provided by Grains Research and Development Corporation, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Wool Research and Development Corporation, Ansett Australia, and Qantas Australian. I am most appreciative of the willingness of many scientists to act as referees: G S P Ritchie, R J Gilkes, N C Uren, K Tiller, BLeach, H Greenway, N E Longnecker, J F Loneragan, Z Rengel, C A Atkins, J W Gartrell, P J Randall, D G Edwards, R J Hannam, R J Moir, J E Dreosti, N Suttle, C L White, H Marschner, N Wilhelm, M McBride. All provided valuable comments on the manuscripts. Finally, I thank Mrs M Davison who provided excellent secretarial assistance. A.D. Robson September 1993 Chapter 1.
Introduction to Mammalian Reproduction is a welcome contribution
to the fields of gametogenesis, gamete transport, fertilization,
and reproduction technologies. Key topics covered include:
In Volume 12, eminent international ornithologists further elucidate endocrinological correlates of mating strategies and hormones and reproductive behavior; assess the value of the ''brood reduction hypothesis'' in explaining ''the paradox of hatching asynchrony''; and explore the validity and sensitivity of growth bands in feathers as an indication of nutritional condition and the use of feather banding in studying growth. Chapters are well supported with charts, maps, schematic diagrams, and photographs. Current Ornithology is the only English-language publication currently devoted exclusively to extensive reviews and synthesis of topics pertaining to all aspects of the biology of birds. Chapters fall under such diverse rubrics as ecology, evolution, behavior, phylogeny, behavioral ecology, anatomy and physiology, and conservation biology. All authors are leading authorities on their subjects, and each chapter is refereed by experts in the topics covered. Although all chapters focus primarily on birds, some topics, such as the social cognition of birds as compared to primates (Volume 13), have significant application to disciplines outside of ornithology. Current Ornithology aims to provide an accessible, up-to-date, accurate source of data and to contribute to conceptual generalization and unification across the biological sciences.
From recent developments in the rapidly growing area of neuroscience it has become increasingly clear that a simplistic description of brain function as a broad collection of simple input-output relations is quite inadequate. Introspection already tells us that our motor behavior is guided by a complex interplay between many inputs from the outside world and from our internal "milieu," internal models of ourselves and the outside world, memory content, directed attention, volition, and so forth. Also, our motor activity normally involves more than a circumscribed group of muscles, even if we intend to move only one effector organ. For example, a reaching movement or a reorientation of a sensory organ almost invariably requires a pattern of preparatory or assisting activities in other parts of the body, like the ones that maintain the body's equilibrium. The present volume is a summary of the papers presented at the symposium "Sensory Interaction in Posture and Movement Control" that was held at Smolenice Castle near Bratislava, Slovakia, as a Satellite Symposium to the ENA Meeting 1994 in Vienna. The focus of this meeting was not only restricted to the "classical" sensory interactions such as between vestibular and visual signals, or between otolith and semicircular canal inputs. Rather, the symposium tried to consider also the interplay between perception and action, between reflexive and volitional motor acts as well as between sensory driven or self-initi ated motor acts and reafferent inputs."
Over the course of the past decade, there has been an enormous augmentation in the amount of information available on the lemurs of Madagascar. These advances are closely coupled with an increase in the number of national and international researchers working on these animals. As a result, Madagascar has emerged as one of the principal sites of primatological studies in the world. Furthermore, the conserva tion community has a massive interest in the preservation of the natural habitats of the island, and lemurs serve as one of the symbols of this cause. Between 10 and 14 August 1998, the XVIIth International Primatology Society (IPS) Congress was held in Antananarivo, Madagascar. For a country that about a decade ago was largely closed to foreign visitors, this Congress constituted a massive event for the Malagasy scientific community and was assisted by about 550 primatolo gists from 35 different countries. Naturally, given the venue and context of the Con gress, many of the presentations dealt with lemurs and covered a very wide breadth of subjects.
This volume contains the papers presented at the International Symposium on "Cirrhosis, Hyperammonemia and Hepatic Encephalopathy," held in Valencia, Spain, De- cember 2nd_4th, 1996. Liver cirrhosis is one of the main causes of death in occidental countries. There are other hepatic dysfunctions such as fulminant hepatic failure, Reye's syndrome, or congenital deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes which can also lead to hepatic encephalopathy, coma and death. However, the molecular bases ofthe pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy remain unclear. One ofthe consequences of hepatic failure is the reduced ability to detoxify ammonia by incorporating it into urea. This leads to increased blood ammonia levels. Hyperam- monemia is considered one of the main factors responsible for the mediation of hepatic encephalopathy and classical clinical treatments are directed towards reducing blood ammo- nia levels. Altered neurotransmission is an essential step in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The first part of the book is devoted to the discussion of the recent advances in the understanding of the alterations of different neurotransmitter systems in hepatic encephalopathy. The alterations of tryptophan metabolism and neurotransmission in hepatic encephalopathy and the implications for the clinical use of neuropsychoactive drugs are reviewed. The alterations in glutamate transport and neurotransmission in hepatic encephal- opathy due to acute liver failure are also reviewed. The role of NMDA receptors in the molecular mechanism of acute ammonia toxicity is discussed as well as its modulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors and muscarinic receptors.
The Third International Symposium on Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle, organized by George Frank, C. Paul Bianchi, and Henk E. DJ. ter Keurs, was held in Banff Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada during June 26 to June 30, 1991. The theme of these symposia has been to recognize the similarities and dissimilarities of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Cross fertilization of concepts of excitation-contraction coupling in these three types of muscle has occurred since the early studies in the late fifties and early sixties on skeletal muscle. Investigators in each field meet only at specialized symposia which exclude investigators in the other fields. The purpose of the symposia has been to bring together international investigators studying excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle so that we may learn from each other and hence provide a more global concept of excitation-contraction. The Third International Symposia has accomplished its objective as we recognize that calcium channels of the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum play key essential roles in excitation-contraction coupling in all three types of muscles. In skeletal muscle the recognition that E-C coupling consists of two parallel mechanisms, one dependent upon a dihydropyridine voltage-sensitive sensors coupled to calcium release from the terminal cisternae via the ryanodine sensitive channel in the foot structure of the triad.
How can industry profit from the biochemical tricks of cold-adapted organisms? This book covers a range of aspects in this fascinating field, from genetic tools to environmental biotechnology.
This book provides developmental data regarding piglets (with a focus on the gastrointestinal tract), data related to amino acid metabolism in pigs, data related to nutritional and physiological functions of amino acids in pigs, nutritional requirements for amino acids in pigs, signaling roles of amino acids, methodological aspects in amino acid research and the pig model for studying amino acid-related human diseases.
Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction is the only comprehensive textbook covering major topics in the reproductive biology of vertebrates, from sexuality and gametogenesis to reproductive ecology and life history tactics. The work draws heavily on recent reviews and papers while placing topics in a historical context and conceptual framework. In addition, the author provides detailed comparative surveys of each of the major topics discussed. Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction has been written as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level students in biology, zoology, physiology, animal science, and veterinary medicine. The work also serves as an excellent reference for researchers in medical and veterinary schools working in reproductive medicine.
`Are the Great Lakes getting better or worse?' This is the question that the public, scientists and managers are asking the International Joint Commission after a quarter-century of cooperative action by the United States and Canadian governments to clean up the Great Lakes. This volume contains papers from the workshop on Environmental Results, hosted in Windsor, Ontario, by the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission, on September 12 and 13, 1996. The Great Lakes have been through almost a century of severe pollution from the manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals. In the 1960s wildlife biologists started to investigate the outbreaks of reproductive failure in fish-eating birds and ranch mink and to link these to exposure to organochlorine compounds. Human health researchers in the 1980s and 1990s linked growth retardation, behavioral anomalies and deficits in cognitive development with maternal consumption of Great Lakes fish prior to pregnancy. The Great Lakes became the laboratory where the theory of endocrine disruptors was first formulated. Now a group of Great Lakes scientists, hosted by the International Joint Commission, has compiled the story of the trends in the concentrations and effects of persistent toxic substances on wildlife and humans. The technical papers review the suitability of various organisms as indicators, and present the results of long-term monitoring of the concentrations and of the incidence of effects. The evidence shows that there was an enormous improvement in the late 1970s, but that in the late 1990s there are still concentrations of some persistent toxic substances that have stubbornly remained at levels that continue to cause toxicological effects.
The Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology series deals with the aspects of neurosciences that have the most direct and immediate bearing on behavior. It presents the most current research available in the specific areas of sensory modalities. This volume explores circadian rhythms.
Aquaculture is now recognized as a viable and profitable enterprise worldwide. As aquaculture technology has evolved, the push toward higher yields and faster growth has involved the enhancement or replacement of natural foods with prepared diets. In many aquaculture operations today, feed accounts for more than one-half the variable operating cost. Therefore, knowledge of nutrition and practical feeding of fish is essential to successful aquaculture. This book is not written exclusively for scientists but also for students, practicing nutritionists, and aquaculturists. It covers the known nutrient requirements and deficiency effects for different fishes, and digestion and metabolism of nutrients and energy. It discusses nutrient sources and preparation of practical and research feeds. It gives directions for conducting fish nutrition and feeding experiments. Feeding practices for salmonids, channel catfish, tilapias, shrimps and hybrid striped bass are presented. Since the first edition of this book was printed, the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences has revised the nutrient requirements for fish. These revisions are in the present edition. Other additions to this revised edition are chapters on nutrition and fish health, and bioavailability of nutrients. Each original chapter has been meticulously revised and updated with new information. Aquaculture is a dynamic area and new technologies are being introduced continuously; therefore, some of the material discussed in this revised edition may become obsolete quickly. Nonetheless, the material presented has been thoughtfully selected and updated to make it of maximum use to persons whose interests range from general aquaculture to animal nutrition to feed manufacture.
A number of remarkable recent breakthroughs have made the study of nitric oxide one of the most exciting fields in physiology and pathophysiology. This authoritative edited volume reviews the progress to date and opens perspectives to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The contributors are leading authorites, in most cases the investigators who have pioneered the ideas explored in the book.
A presentation of the most elementary form of pulsatile flow as an important prerequisite for the study of other flow applications in biological systems. The book provides in a single source a complete treatment of the fluid dynamics of flow with the required mathematics and emphasis on the basis mechanics. The style and level of this book make it accessible to students and researchers in biophysics, biology, medicine, bioengineering and applied mathematics working in theoretical and clinical work on the cardiovascular system, as well as in the design of new instrumentation, medical imaging systems, and artificial organs. With problems and exercises.
Among the fishes, a remarkably wide range of biological adaptations to diverse habitats has evolved. As well as living in the conventional habitats of lakes, ponds, rivers, rock pools and the open sea, fish have solved the problems of life in deserts, in the deep sea, in the cold Antarctic, and in warm waters of high alkalinity or of low oxygen. Along with these adaptations, we find the most impressive specializations of morphology, physiology and behaviour. For example we can marvel at the high-speed swimming of the marlins, sailfish and warm-blooded tunas, air breathing in catfish and lungfish, parental care in the mouth-brooding cichlids and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are ofconsiderable importance to the survival ofthe human species in the form of nutritious and delicious food of numerous kinds. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The Chapman and Hall Fish and Fisheries Series aims to present timely volumes reviewing important aspects of fish biology. Most volumes will be of interest to research workers in biology, zoology, ecology and physiology, but an additional aim is for the books to be accessible to a wide spectrum ofnon specialist readers ranging from undergraduates and postgraduates to those with an interest in industrial and commercial aspects of fish and fisheries."
A wealth of information has been accumulated about the function of ion channels of excitable cells since the extensive and pioneering voltage clamp studies by Hodgkin, Huxley, and Katz 36 years ago. The study of ion chan nels has now reached a stage at which a quantum jump in progress is antici pated. There are many good reasons for this. Patch clamp techniques origi nally developed by Neher and Sakmann 12 years ago have made it possible to study the function of ion channels in a variety of cells. Membrane ionic currents can now be recorded practically from many types of cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The opening and closing of individual ion channels can be analyzed using the single-channel patch clamp method. Techniques have also been developed to incorporate purified ion channels into lipid bilayers to reconstitute an "excitable membrane. " Advanced tech niques developed in molecular biology, genetics, and immunology, such as gene cloning and the use of monoclonal antibodies, are now being applied to the study of ion channels. A variety of drugs have now been found or are suspected to interact with ion channels to exert therapeutic effects. In addition to the classical exam ples, as represented by local anesthetics, many other drugs, including cal cium antagonists, psychoactive drugs, cardiac drugs, and anticonvulsants, shown to alter ion channel function. For certain pesticides such as have been pyrethroids and DDT, sodium channels are clearly the major target site.
The basal forebrain has received considerable attention in recent years. This emphasis resulted from observations that the cortically projecting cholinergic neurons found in this region are critical for normal information processing. However, to achieve a complete understanding of such a complex function as "information processing" it is necessary to consider the basal forebrain not as an autonomous structure with a solitary task, but one that plays an integrative role; a structure that is connected intimately with many brain regions. This view evolved from the realization that the basal forebrain interfaces cognitive and reward functions with motor outputs. It is from this integrative and functional perspective that the present book was organized. The book is a unique collection of reports pertaining to the basal forebrain that encompasses a diversity of research approaches and techniques. It provides the reader with a progression of information that begins with anatomical descriptions of the afferent and efferent systems, stressing the integrative nature of various neurotransmitters located within the basal forebrain. The chapters focusing on anatomy are complemented by electrophysiologic studies that merge anatomical concepts with synaptic pharmacology and behavior. In vitro experiments demonstrate physiologic variations in anatomically identified neuronal subtypes and, together with in vivo techniques, provide pharmacologic descriptions of neuronal consequences to various neurotransmitter influences. Additional in vivo reports correlate changes in neuronal activity with specific motivational states and motor behaviors. These functional approaches culminate with behavioral studies that overview current understanding of basal forebrain involvement in mnemonic, reward, and motor processes.
One of the most impressive advances in the field of neuroscience over the last decade has been the accumulation of data on plasticity and regeneration in the nervous system of mammals. The book represents the contribution of a qroup of neuroscientists to this rapidly expanding field, through a Conference organized by the Institute of Developmental Neuroscience and Aging (IDNA). The meeting was held in Torino, Italy during April 1990 in honor of a great pioneer in the field of Neuroembryology, Professor Guido Filogamo. His introduction of the concept of neuroplasticity has had a significant impact on the study of neurobiology. This volume is divided into six sections, each focusing on one of the subject areas covered during the meeting Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Central and Peripheral Nervous System Development; Hormones,* Growth Factors, Heurotransmi tters, Xenobiotics and Development; In Vivo and in Vitro models of Development; Development and Regulation of Glia; Regeneration; and Aging.
The German land of Hesse (Bundesland Hessen) is well known for its excellent wines (Rheinhessen), for its financial centre and for its airport (FrankfurtlMain). It is, unjustifiably, far less well known for its importance to thennoregulation. Within the small area of Bad Nauheim, Giessen and Marburg (in alphabetical order) a greater concentration of students of thenno regulation has been trained or worked or is working than probably in any other single area of Europe, if not the world. It is thus most appropriate to hold the Ninth International Symposium on the Pharmacology of Thennoregulation in Giessen, from August 7 to 12, 1994. The community of students of thennoregulation was extremely grateful that Professor Kurt Bruck and the lustus-Liebig-University of Giessen had extended this invitation. The same community was even more saddened that Kurt Bruck died on April 27, 1992 and thus could not participate in this event that had been planned to honour his achievements. As a small token of friendship and affection, the many friends of Kurt Bruck from all over the world who will participate in this event dedicate this symposium to the memory of Kurt Bruck. Another staunch friend, researcher of temperature regulation and supporter of this series of symposia died in October 1993: Professor Wilhelm Siegmund Feldberg. We feel fortunate to be able to start this volume with two brief infonnal and personal accounts of professors Bruck and Feldberg."
Acute lung injury, respiratory failure, and acute respiratorydistresssyndrome associ- ated with sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction isbecoming more common in hospitals through- out the world. Although new classesofantimicrobial medications have been introduced and aggressive intensive life support systems are in use in many hospitals, mortality remains in the range of35 to 65 percent in even the best equipped medical facilities. However, with new technologies inphysiology and cellularand molecularbiology, wonderful opportunities now exist for scientists to explore more effective approaches to identificationofpatients at risk, to develop better insights to pathogenic mechanisms, to use new tools to follow the progression and natural history ofdisease, and to develop better modes oftherapies. The NATOAdvanced Study Institute on Acute RespiratoryDistress Syndrome: Cel- lularandMolecularMechanisms and ClinicalManagement was an outstanding opportunity for laboratory scientists and clinical investigators to discuss their own research approaches, explore opportunities for bringing newdimensions to their laboratories, and work together to identify possible clinical applications. The conference brought together investigators who have worked with patients ofall ages, including those who have so successfully treated in- fants with respiratory distress syndrome. There is no doubt that this stimulating conference will bring new dimensions, new technologies, and new investigators into the scientific labo- ratoriesofeach participant. This provides hope that new therapeutic approaches will eventu- ally be available.
Twenty five years ago, Bill Stebbins presented the principles of animal psychophysics in an edited volume (Stebbins, 1970) describing an array of modem, creative methodologies for investigating the range of sensory systems in a variety of vertebrate species. These principles included precise stimulus control, a well defined behavioral response, and a rigorous behavioral procedure appropriate to the organism under study. As a generation of comparative sensory scientists applied these principles, our knowledge of sensory and perceptual function in a wide range of animal species has grown dramatically, especially in the field of hearing. Comparative psychoacoustics, i. e. , the study of the hearing capabilities in animals using behavioral methods, is an area of animal psychophysics that has seen remarkable advances in methodology over the past 25 years. Acoustic stimuli are now routinely generated using digital methods providing the researcher with unprecedented possibilities for stimulus control and experimental design. The strategies and paradigms for data collection and analysis are becoming more refined as well, again due in large part to the widespread use of computers. In this volume, the reader will find a modem array of strategies designed to measure detection and discrimination of both simple and complex acoustic stimuli as well experimental designs to assess how organisms perceive, identify and classify acoustic stimuli. Refinements in modem methodologies now make it possible to compare diverse species tested under similar, if not identical, experimental conditions.
Biological sensors are usually remarkably small, sensitive and efficient. It is highly desirable to design corresponding artificial sensors for scientific, industrial and commercial purposes.This book is designed to fill an urgent need for interdisciplinary exchange between biologists studying sensors in the natural world and engineers and physical scientists developing artificial sensors. Contributions from leading scientists in this area, whether engineers or biologists, are written to be accessible to readers from these and other disciplines. The main topics cover mechanical sensors, visual sensors and vision and chemosensors. Readers will obtain a fuller understanding of the nature and performance of natural sensors as well as enhanced appreciation for the current status and the potential applicability of artificial microsensors. Friedrich G. Barth was awarded the "Karl-Ritter-von-Frisch-Medaille at the 2003 Annual Conference of the German Zoological Society in Halle, Germany."
This book will give an overview of insect ovaries, showing the diversities and the common traits in egg growth processes. The idea to write this book developed while looking at the flood of information which appeared in the early 1980s on early pattern formation in Drosophila embryos. At this time a significant breakthrough was made in studies of this little fly, combining molecular biological methods with classical and molecular genetics. The answers to questions about early pattern formation raised new questions about the architecture of ovaries and the growth of eggs within these ovaries. However, by concentrating only on Drosophila it is not possible to form an adequate picture of what is going on in insect ovaries, since the enormous diversity found among insects is not considered sufficiently. Almost forgotten, but the first to study the architecture of ovaries, was Alexander Brandt writing in 1878 in aber das Ei und seine Bildungsstaette (On the egg and its organ of development). More than 100 years later, a series of ten books or more would be required to survey all the serious informa tion we have today on insect oogenesis. Thus, this book is a personal selection and personal view on the theme, and the authors must be excused by all those scientists whose papers could not be included. The book briefly describes the ectodemes, i. e."
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