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For one-semester, undergraduate-level courses in Optoelectronics and Photonics, in the departments of electrical engineering, engineering physics, and materials science and engineering. This text takes a fresh look at the enormous developments in electo-optic devices and associated materials-such as Pockels (Lithium Niobate) modulators.
Nanooptics which describes the interaction of light with matter at the nanoscale, is a topic of great fundamental interest to physicists and engineers and allows the direct observation of quantum mechanical phenomena in action. This self-contained and extensively referenced text describes the underlying theory behind nanodevices operating in the quantum regime for use both in advanced courses and as a reference for researchers in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and materials science. Presenting an extensive theoretical toolset for design and analysis of nanodevices, the authors demonstrate the art of developing approximate quantum models of real nanodevices. The rudimentary mathematical knowledge required to master the material is carefully introduced, with detailed derivations and frequent worked examples allowing readers to gain a thorough understanding of the material. More advanced applications are gradually introduced alongside analytical approximations and simplifying assumptions often used to make such problems tractable while representative of the observed features.
This comprehensive and self-contained text presents the fundamentals of optical imaging from the viewpoint of both ray and wave optics, within a single volume. Comprising three distinct parts, it opens with an introduction to electromagnetic theory, including electromagnetic diffraction problems and how they can be solved with the aid of standard numerical methods such as RCWA or FDTD. The second part is devoted to the basic theory of geometrical optics and the study of optical aberrations inherent in imaging systems, including large-scale telescopes and high-resolution projection lenses. A detailed overview of state-of-the-art optical system design provides readers with the necessary tools to successfully use commercial optical design software. The final part explores diffraction theory and concludes with vectorial wave propagation, image formation and image detection in high-aperture imaging systems. The wide-ranging perspective of this important book provides researchers and professionals with a comprehensive and rigorous treatise on the theoretical and applied aspects of optical imaging.
The second edition of Rad Tech's Guide to MRI provides practicing and training technologists with a succinct overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Designed for quick reference and examination preparation, this pocket-size guide covers the fundamental principles of electromagnetism, MRI equipment, data acquisition and processing, image quality and artifacts, MR Angiography, Diffusion/Perfusion, and more. Written by an expert practitioner and educator, this handy reference guide: Provides essential MRI knowledge in a single portable, easy-to-read guide Covers instrumentation and MRI hardware components, including gradient and radio-frequency subsystems Provides techniques to handle flow imaging issues and improve the quality of MRIs Explains the essential physics underpinning MRI technology Rad Tech's Guide to MRI is a must-have resource for student radiographers, especially those preparing for the American Registry of Radiation Technologist (ARRT) exams, as well as practicing radiology technologists looking for a quick reference guide.
'Bold, inspired and hopeful' Arianna Huffington, founder and CEO of Thrive Global 'Lucid and captivating' Max Tegmark, professor of physics at MIT and author of Life 3.0 A captivating memoir that chronicles one woman's mission to humanise technology and what she learns about humanity along the way. Now more than ever, we find ourselves unable to express our true feelings through technology. Whether it's a misunderstood text, an oversimplified emoji or a Skype call that leaves us feeling lonely, when most of our communication is carried out through tech, the result is a virtual world that's lacking our humanity - a society lacking in empathy. Rana el Kaliouby discovered this when she left Cairo, a newly-married, Muslim woman, to take up her place at Cambridge University to study computer science. Many thousands of miles from home, she began to develop systems to help her better connect with her family. She started to pioneer the new field of Emotional Intelligence (EI). She now runs her company, Affectiva (the industry-leader in this emerging field) that builds EI into our technology and develops systems that understand humans the way we understand one another. This is the fascinating story of her mission to humanise technology and what she learns about humanity along the way.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
"Jay Gao's book on the analysis of remote sensing imagery is a well-written, easy-to-read, and informative text best serving graduate students in geosciences, and practitioners in the field of digital image analysis. Although Dr. Gao states that he has targeted his book at upper-level undergraduates and lower-level postgraduate students, its rigor and depth of mathematical analysis would challenge most students without prior experience in remote sensing and college-level mathematics. The book covers a lot of ground quickly, beginning with a basic explanation of pixels, digital numbers and histograms and advancing rapidly through a description of the most well-known satellite systems to data storage formats, rectification and classification. It best serves students who have already taken an introductory course in remote sensing. Following a three-chapter description of the basics the remaining eleven chapters are dedicated to the description of the most common image processing systems and the details of the image analysis functions which can be carried out. The largest portion of the text covers classification - spectral and spatial, neural networks, decision trees and expert systems - and is an invaluable reference to anyone interested in understanding image analysis terminology and the algorithms behind these different systems. The last chapter of the text is addressed to practitioners wishing to integrate remote sensing image data with GIS and/or GPS data. The text is nicely structured so that individual chapters can easily be skipped when their content is not of interest to the reader without impairing the understanding of later chapters.
"The first three chapters of the book cover introductory material that the reader should be familiar with for the most part, but also includes a very handy summary of today's satellite systems. Chapter one addresses basic material, such as pixel DN, coordinates, feature space, histograms, and spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution normally covered in an introductory course in remote sensing. Chapter two presents a very informative and up-to-date overview of today's satellite instruments including meteorological, oceanographic, earth resources, hyperspectral and radar instruments. Instrument and orbital parameters are presented in tabular form and make it easy to look up technical details such as spectral and spatial resolution, orbit type, repeat cycle and other instrument characteristics quickly. Written explanations are clear, readable and provide lots of interesting insight and useful tidbits of information such as potential problems and the cost of imagery. For technicians and programmers the third chapter provides details on storage formats, including descriptions of BSQ, BIL and BIP binary formats, and the most common graphics formats like GIF, TIFF and JPEG together with data compression techniques. Non-technicians can skip this chapter since image processing software will generally take care of format conversions internally without a need for understanding the nuances of each.
"Chapters four will be of interest to anyone considering the purchase of image processing software, or trying to understand the differences between systems. Gao provides a useful overview of existing software - IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, ENVI, ER Mapper, PCI, eCognition and GRASS. A brief history of each provides useful background, and a discussion of the features of each together with a comparison (also given in tabular form) is informative to anyone considering a purchase.
"Chapter five can also be viewed as a stand-alone reference on rectification, but also serves as an excellent overview of the problems of dealing with mapping on a curved surface and has particular application for geographers and cartographers. It discusses the sources of geometric distortion, coordinated systems and projections, how image rectification is done - including the use of ground control points and implications for the order of transformation employed. There is a nice example showing how accuracy is influenced by the number of GCPs employed for SPOT and Landsat TM. For non-technical students the transformation mathematics can be skipped. A rather minimal section on image subsetting and mosaicking is included. Chapter six continues in much the same vein as the previous chapter, but discussing image enhancement - techniques that improve the visual quality of an image. The terms introduced here, such as density slicing, linear enhancement, stretching, and histogram equalization, will be familiar to users of image processing software and Gao provides a useful explanation of each in turn. Other application-oriented utilities such as band ratioing, vegetation indices, IHS and Tasseled Cap transformations and principal component analysis are presented in a form which is understandable to students with good mathematical grounding.
"The remainder of the text deals, to a large extent, with the topic of classification. Chapter seven initially discusses elements of image interpretation, but then devotes the chapter to a detailed presentation of the most common (and affordable) of these - spectral analysis. Gao presents the different algorithms used to define spectral distance, and then devotes text to a discussion of the inner workings of unsupervised classification systems. The section on supervised classification is a very useful reference for anyone undertaking this process - describing how to set about the classification process, the differences between the different classifiers, and how to choose an appropriate one. The concepts of fuzzy logic and sub-pixels classifiers are also presented briefly.
"From this point on, the text becomes much more specialized and technical and is geared towards graduate students, those carrying out research projects, and those interested in algorithmic detail. Chapter 8 is the first dealing with artificial intelligence and describes th
This is a comprehensive guide to the characteristics and use of high resolution optical images from satellite-borne sensors, concentrating on sensors designed for mapping. It considers in detail the SPOT series of satellites and sensors with a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 15m, operational since SPOT 1 and particularly the commercial sensors launched since 1999 with GSD of less than 1m The book explains to students, anyone working in map production and scientists working in fields other than mapping, the way in which high resolution imagery is obtained and the issues which surround its collection and use. It deals progressively with the fundamentals of mapping from imagery, followed by the key features in the design of sensors and methods of data storage and transmission, including data compression. Subsequent chapters cover the sensors, calibration, sensor models and the methods of determining the orientation elements and extracting coordinates from the images. Rigorous orientation, use of rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) and approximate methods are covered.Results from tests showing the accuracy which can be obtained, generation of digital elevations models, their accuracy and the production of orthoimages are included, as are image processing and data fusion. Finally, future missions and the issues which face further development are discussed. High Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery is written by a team of acknowledged international experts and is the only comprehensive text on the subject.
Because of their high noise immunity and low static power supply drain, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices produce less heat than other forms of logic and allow a high density of logic functions on a chip. These beneficial characteristics have fueled the use of CMOS image sensors in consumer electronics, robot vision, biotechnology, and medicine. With the introduction of smart functions in CMOS image sensors, even more versatile applications are now possible. Exploring this popular technology, Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications focuses on the smart functions implemented in CMOS image sensors as well as the applications of these sensors. After discussing the history of smart CMOS image sensors, the book describes the fundamental elements of CMOS image sensors. It covers some optoelectronic device physics and introduces typical CMOS image sensor structures, such as an active pixel sensor (APS). Subsequent chapters elucidate the functions and materials of smart CMOS image sensors and present examples of smart imaging. The final chapter explores various applications of smart CMOS image sensors. Several appendices supply a range of information on constants, illuminance, MOSFET characteristics, and optical resolution. This book provides a firm foundation in existing smart CMOS image sensor technology and applications, preparing you for the next phase of smart CMOS image sensors.
Metamaterials have established themselves as one of the most important topics in physics and engineering, and have found practical application across a wide variety of fields including photonics, condensed matter physics, materials science, and biological and medical physics. This modern and self-contained text delivers a pedagogical treatment of the topic, rooted within the fundamental principles of nanophotonics. A detailed and unified description of metamaterials and metasurfaces is developed, beginning with photonic crystals and their underlying electromagnetic properties before introducing plasmonic effects and key metamaterial configurations. Recent developments in research are also presented along with cutting-edge applications in the field. This advanced textbook will be invaluable to students and researchers working in the fields of optics and nanophotonics.
A state-of-the-art review of key topics in medical image perception science and practice, including associated techniques, illustrations and examples. This second edition contains extensive updates and substantial new content. Written by key figures in the field, it covers a wide range of topics including signal detection, image interpretation and advanced image analysis (e.g. deep learning) techniques for interpretive and computational perception. It provides an overview of the key techniques of medical image perception and observer performance research, and includes examples and applications across clinical disciplines including radiology, pathology and oncology. A final chapter discusses the future prospects of medical image perception and assesses upcoming challenges and possibilities, enabling readers to identify new areas for research. Written for both newcomers to the field and experienced researchers and clinicians, this book provides a comprehensive reference for those interested in medical image perception as means to advance knowledge and improve human health.
This book is a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in modern ophthalmic optics. It makes use of the powerful matrix formalism to describe curvature and power, providing a unified view of the optical and geometrical properties of lenses. This unified approach is applicable to the design and properties of not only spectacle lenses, but also contact and intraocular lenses (IOL). The newest developments in lens design, manufacturing and testing are discussed, with an emphasis on the description of free-form technology, which has surpassed traditional manufacturing methods and allows digital lenses to be specifically designed with the unique requirements of the user. Other important topics which are covered include modern lens materials, up-to-date lens measuring techniques, contact and intraocular lenses, progressive power lenses, low vision aids, ocular protection and coatings. Providing a broad overview of recent developments in the field, it is ideal for researchers, manufacturers and practitioners involved in ophthalmic optics.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. An enlightening guide to optics Are you in the dark when it comes to understanding the science of optics? Now there's a glimmer in the gloom! Optics Demystified brings this challenging topic into focus. Written in an easy-to-follow format, this practical guide begins by covering the nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, reflection, refraction, and color dispersion. You'll move on to common optical devices and effects, lasers, and optical data transmission technology. Industrial, medical, and military applications are discussed, as are exotic optics such as holography. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce learning. It's a no-brainer! You'll get: Explanations of the particle and wave theories Analysis of optical microscopes and telescopes Functional details of fiber optics A sampling of optical illusions A time-saving approach to performing better on an exam or at work Simple enough for a beginner but challenging enough for an advanced student, Optics Demystified illuminates this vital physics topic.
One of the first texts to offer a simple presentation of the
theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this
volume is geared toward beginning theorists and experimentalists.
It assists students in applying theoretical ideas to actual
calculations in laser spectroscopy with a systematic series of
examples and exercises. Starting at an elementary level, students
gradually build up their practical skills with demonstrations of
how simplified theoretical models relate to experimentally
observable quantities. Detailed derivations offer students the
opportunity to work out all results for themselves.
With this fully updated second edition, readers will gain a detailed understanding of the physics and applications of modern X-ray and EUV radiation sources. Taking into account the most recent improvements in capabilities, coverage is expanded to include new chapters on free electron lasers (FELs), laser high harmonic generation (HHG), X-ray and EUV optics, and nanoscale imaging; a completely revised chapter on spatial and temporal coherence; and extensive discussion of the generation and applications of femtosecond and attosecond techniques. Readers will be guided step by step through the mathematics of each topic, with over 300 figures, 50 reference tables and 600 equations enabling easy understanding of key concepts. Homework problems, a solutions manual for instructors, and links to YouTube lectures accompany the book online. This is the 'go-to' guide for graduate students, researchers and industry practitioners interested in X-ray and EUV interaction with matter.
Three leaders in the field of thin-film optics present a detailed and self-contained theoretical study of planar multilayers and how they can be effectively exploited in both traditional and modern applications. Starting with a discussion of the relevant electromagnetic optics, the fundamental optical properties of multilayers are introduced using an electromagnetic approach based on a direct solving of Maxwell's equations by Fourier transforms. This powerful approach is illustrated through the comprehensive description of two of the most important phenomena in multilayers, i.e. giant field enhancement in dielectric stacks and light scattering from thin-film optical filters. The same approach is extended to the description of the operation of planar microcavities and the balance of energy between radiated and trapped light. This book will be valuable to researchers, engineers and graduate students with interests in nanophotonics, optical telecommunications, observational astronomy and gravitational wave detection.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
This is the textbook and reference resource that instructors, students, and researchers in biomedical optics have been waiting for. Comprehensive and up to date, it covers a broad range of areas in biomedical optics, from light interactions at the single-photon and single-biomolecule levels, to the diffusion regime of light propagation in tissue. Subjects covered include spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, infrared, near-infrared, and elastic scattering), imaging techniques (diffuse optical tomography, photoacoustic imaging, several forms of modern microscopy, and optical coherence tomography), and laser-tissue interactions, including optical tweezers. Topics are developed from the fundamental principles of physical science, with intuitive explanations, while rigorous mathematical formalisms of theoretical treatments are also provided. For each technique, descriptions of relevant instrumentation and examples of biomedical applications are outlined, and each chapter benefits from references and suggested resources for further reading, and exercise problems with answers to selected problems.
With the demands of quality management and process control in an industrial environment machine vision is becoming an important issue. This handbook of machine vision is written by experts from leading companies in this field. It goes through all aspects of image acquisition and image processing. From the viewpoint of the industrial application the authors also elucidate in topics like illumination or camera calibration. Attention is paid to all hardware aspects, starting from lenses and camera systems to camera-computer interfaces. Besides the detailed hardware descriptions the necessary software is discussed with equal profoundness. This includes sections on digital image basics as well as image analysis and image processing. Finally the user is introduced to general aspects of industrial applications of machine vision, such as case studies and strategies for the conception of complete machine vision systems. With this handbook the reader will be enabled not only to understand up to date systems for machine vision but will also be qualified for the planning and evaluation of such technology.
With full color throughout, this unique text provides an accessible yet rigorous introduction to the basic principles, technology, and applications of nanophotonics. It explains key physical concepts such as quantum confinement in semiconductors, light confinement in metal and dielectric nanostructures, and wave coupling in nanostructures, and describes how they can be applied in lighting sources, lasers, photonic circuitry, and photovoltaic systems. Readers will gain an intuitive insight into the commercial implementation of nanophotonic components, in both current and potential future devices, as well as challenges facing the field. The fundamentals of semiconductor optics, optical material properties, and light propagation are included, and new and emerging fields such as colloidal photonics, Si-based photonics, nanoplasmonics, and bioinspired photonics are all discussed. This is the 'go-to' guide for graduate students and researchers in electrical engineering who are interested in nanophotonics, and students taking nanophotonics courses.
With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging).
The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and explains how random speckle patterns or space-time varying patterns substantially improve the results of stereo vision. It then discusses stereo particle image velocimetry as a major experimental means in fluid dynamics, the robust and easy-to-implement structured-light technique for computer science applications, digital holography for performing micro- to nanoscale measurements, and grating, interferometry, and fringe projection techniques for precisely measuring dynamically deformable natural objects.
The book goes on to describe techniques that do not require triangulation to recover a 3D shape, including time-of-flight techniques and uniaxial 3D shape measurement, as well as 3D measurement techniques that are not restricted to surface capture, such as 3D ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and 3D endoscopy. The book also explores how novel 3D imaging techniques are being applied in the promising field of biometrics which may prove essential to security and public safety.
Written by key players in the field and inventors of important imaging technologies, this authoritative, state-of-the-art handbook helps you understand the core of 3D imaging technology and choose the proper 3D imaging technique for your needs. For each technique, the book provides its mathematical foundations, summarizes its successful applications, and discusses its limitations. "
This invaluable practical guide shows how to set up working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses and projecting systems, then shows how to conduct experiments for determining accuracy, resolving power, identifying aberration, and more. Only elementary mathematics required. Index. 234 diagrams.
This pioneering, course-tested text is the first to combine communications theory with the physics of optical communications. Comprehensive and rigorous, it brings together an in-depth treatment of the physical characteristics of the guided lightwave channel with the study of modern methods of algorithmic-based communication in time and space. The many different levels at which a lightwave communication signal can be described are integrated to provide a unified explanation of how a commonplace bit stream is transformed into a physical lightwave, how that lightwave travels through an optical fiber, and how it is then transformed back into the bit stream. Background fundamentals such as linear systems and electromagnetics are explained in relation to modern topics such as channel models, encoding, modulation and interference, and end-of-chapter problems are provided throughout. This is an essential text for students taking courses on optical communications, as well as researchers and professionals working in the area.
The book addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse are presented. Characteristic features of image formation and requirements for individual components are discussed. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. The feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers is studied.
This textbook presents the fundamentals of audio coding, used to compress audio and music signals, using Python programs both as examples to illustrate the principles and for experiments for the reader. Together, these programs then form complete audio coders. The author starts with basic knowledge of digital signal processing (sampling, filtering) to give a thorough introduction to filter banks as used in audio coding, and their design methods. He then continues with the next core component, which are psycho-acoustic models. The author finally shows how to design and implement them. Lastly, the author goes on to describe components for more specialized coders, like the Integer-to-Integer MDCT filter bank, and predictive coding for lossless and low delay coding. Included are Python program examples for each section, which illustrate the principles and provide the tools for experiments. Comprehensively explains the fundamentals of filter banks and audio coding; Provides Python examples for each principle so that completed audio coders are obtained in the language; Includes a suite of classroom materials including exercises, experiments, and examples.
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