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This book adopts a holistic, integrated and pragmatic approach to exploring the myths, concepts, policies, key conditions and tools for enhancing creative knowledge cities, as well as expounding potentially negative impacts of knowledge based city policies. The authors provide a critical reflection on the reality of city concepts including university-city alignment for campus planning, labour market conditions, social capital and proximity, triple helix based transformation, and learning by city governments. Original examples from both the EU and US are complemented by detailed case studies of cities including Rotterdam, Vienna and Munich. The book also examines the reality of knowledge cities in emerging economies such as Brazil and China, with a focus on institutional transferability. Key conditions addressed include soft infrastructure, knowledge spillovers among firms and the connectivity of cities via transport networks to allow the creation of new hubs of knowledge-based services. Addressing new policy tools and developments in governance, this book will prove a fascinating read for academics, researchers and students with an interest in urban policy and planning, urban spatial economics, regional economics and urban sociology. In addition, practitioners within city and regional governments and agencies will find this book an invaluable reference tool.
In today's globalised world, modern society is characterized by rapid transitions in space that are in part the result of technological developments of previous decades. This unique book deals with the complex issues raised by these transformations, focusing particularly on the impacts on regional development, technological innovation, and the flows and mobility of ideas, knowledge, people and firms. Societies in Motion examines the dynamic forces of technological and institutional change that are affecting the design of society, the economy and the environment, and provides a base for policy-makers to develop new systems for a better, more sustainable future. The leading contributors adopt a systems approach to mobility exploring knowledge, ideas, flows of information and creativity, human capital and transportation. Authoritative and detailed, this book is an ideal source of analysis and debate for research scholars and students of regional science, economics and geography. Policymakers will also find plenty of invaluable information in this original volume.
This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches and lessons learnt from a number of key case studies across the world. Many cities worldwide, in order to brand themselves as knowledge cities, have undergone major transformations in the 21st century. This book provides a thorough understanding of these transformations and the key issues in building prosperous knowledge cities by focusing particularly on the policy-making, planning process and performance assessment aspects. The contributors reveal theoretical and conceptual foundations of knowledge cities and their development approach of knowledge-based urban development. They present best-practice examples from a number of key case studies across the globe. This important book provides readers with a thorough understanding of the key issues in planning and developing prosperous knowledge cities of the knowledge economy era, which will prove invaluable to national, state/regional and city governments' planning and development departments. Academics, postgraduate and undergraduate students of regional and urban studies will also find this path-breaking book an intriguing read.
What is creativity and who exactly is creative? In this insightful and highly readable book, Gunnar Toernqvist attempts to answer these questions by arguing that geographical millieux are hotbeds for creativity and renewal - places where pioneers in art, technology and science have gathered and developed their special abilities. In light of ongoing social and economic transformations, special attention is paid to the institutional settings in firms and universities. The goal is to identify those features which facilitate and those which impede the creative process. Individual lives are illustrated through the autobiographies of hundreds of Nobel Laureates. Their life paths reveal the importance of geographic mobility and contact patterns for the development of creativity and international prestige. From these biographies we can also see how local millieux and schools have influenced many scientists. The Geography of Creativity will be of great benefit to academics and students in regional science, economic geography and economics.
Despite overstated claims of their `global' homogeneity, ubiquity and contribution to `flattening' spatial differences, the geographies of brands and branding actually do matter. This vibrant collection provides a comprehensive reference point for the emergent area of brand and branding geographies in a multi-disciplinary and international context. The eminent contributors, leaders in their respective fields, present critical reflections and synthesis of a range of conceptual and theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches, incorporating market research, oral history, discourse and visual analyses. They reflect upon the politics and limits of brand and branding geographies and map out future research directions. The book will prove a fascinating and illuminating read for academics, researchers, students, practitioners and policy-makers focusing on the spatial dimensions of brands and branding.
Today, economic growth is widely understood to be conditioned by productivity increases which are, in turn, profoundly affected by innovation. This volume explores these key relationships between innovation and growth, bringing together experts from both fields to compile a unique Handbook. The Handbook considers innovation from fresh perspectives, encompassing topics such as services innovation, inward investment and innovation, creative industry innovation and green innovation. It is divided into seven sections, dealing with regional innovation and growth theory, dynamics, evolution, agglomeration, innovation `worlds', innovation system institutions, and innovation governance and policy. This definitive compendium on regional innovation and growth will undoubtedly appeal to teachers, students, researchers and practitioners of innovation and growth dynamics worldwide.
This study is intended to be the most comprehensive textbook on economic integration in East Asia. It introduces the reader to various issues related to the topic such as institutional building of FTAs; production networks and the location choice of MNEs; R&D and innovation; infrastructure development and transport costs; international migration and service trade; monetary integration; regional disparity and poverty. It also deals with critical energy, environmental and agricultural concerns. Each chapter contains ample data and rigorous analyses, complemented by illustrative box articles. Covering a wide range of aspects surrounding economic integration in East Asia, this well-researched text will appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students of development studies, regional economics and Asian studies. It will be of particular value to those on courses concerned with economic and regional integration.
The introduction of endogenous growth theory has led to new interest in the role of the entrepreneur as an agent driving technical change at the local regional level. This book examines theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the interface of the entrepreneur in regional growth dynamics on the one hand and on the other presents illuminating case studies. In total the book's contributions amplify understanding of such critical issues as the relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship, the entrepreneur's role in transforming knowledge into something economically useful, and knowledge commercialization with both conceptual and empirical contributions. The emergence of endogenous growth theory has unleashed a flurry of new hypotheses and related inquiries that have in turn created an exciting dynamic in the conceptual, theoretical and empirical foundations of the field. A central feature has been the recognition that local initiatives matter in how regions grow and adjust to changes and shocks. Moreover, it is the role of technical change, driven by entrepreneurs, that motivates these initiatives. This volume begins by outlining and explaining the theory and method behind entrepreneurship and development. This is followed by specific case studies of practice and policy. These cases are region specific, offering the reader concrete, empirically based research results. Scholars and students in economics, entrepreneurship and public policy will find this volume a valuable tool in understanding the latest research in regional economic development.
The contributors expertly provide a comparative perspective on regional integration in different regions of the world while at the same time analysing the various facets of integration, relating to trade, FDI, finance and monetary policies. They provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject and offer new perspectives on the potential developmental effects of regional integration and the implications of regional integration for global economic governance. Whilst highlighting and illustrating the potential benefits deriving from regional economic integration, the book also stresses the problems and challenges regional integration processes are usually confronted with. This informative book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, policymakers and professional economists working on matters of regional economic cooperation and integration, international economics and development economics. While applying state of the art economic tools, it is written in a clear and accessible style, intended for a wide readership among professionals and general readers interested in these fields.
On a freezing winter's night, a few hours before dawn on May 12, 1969, South African security police stormed the Soweto home of Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, activist and wife of the imprisoned Nelson Mandela, and arrested her in the presence of her two young daughters, then aged nine and ten. Rounded up in a group of other antiapartheid activists under Section 6 of the Terrorism Act, designed for the security police to hold and interrogate people for as long as they wanted, she was taken away. She had no idea where they were taking her or what would happen to her children. For Winnie Mandela, this was the start of 491 days of detention and two trials. Forty-one years after Winnie Mandela's release on September 14, 1970, Greta Soggot, the widow of one of the defense attorneys from the 1969?-70 trials, handed her a stack of papers that included a journal and notes she had written while in detention, most of the time in solitary confinement. Their reappearance brought back to Winnie vivid and horrifying memories and uncovered for the rest of us a unique and personal slice of South Africa's history. 491 Days: Prisoner number 1323/69 shares with the world Winnie Mandela's moving and compelling journal along with some of the letters written between several affected parties at the time, including Winnie and Nelson Mandela, himself then a prisoner on Robben Island for nearly seven years. Readers will gain insight into the brutality she experienced and her depths of despair, as well as her resilience and defiance under extreme pressure. This young wife and mother emerged after 491 days in detention unbowed and determined to continue the struggle for freedom.
This concise and timely book, written by one of the world's leading
authorities on China, argues that the country is at a crossroads in
its development and explores the challenges that lie ahead.
The prospects and value of economic integration and regionalism in Asia are increasingly evident in what could turn out to be `the Asian Century'. It is within this context that this important book explores the critical economic issues, security concerns and political themes pertinent to Asia in general, and to East Asia in particular. The book features contributions by both Asian and Western scholars who take an interdisciplinary approach encompassing economics, political science and culture. They address various issues including the application of European experiences to Asia, and blend regional country perspectives with broader external views from Russia and the US. In conclusion, the book suggests a tentative roadmap and future directions for an Asian community asserting the importance of cultural and value studies. This objective analysis of Asian regionalism explores perspectives from both within and outside the region. As such it will prove a fascinating read for academics and researchers, practitioners and policy-makers in a wide variety of fields, including Asian studies, economics, public policy, political economy, international relations and regional science.
This innovative book offers a critical perspective on the state of the current global economy, making sense of knowledge-related issues by critically assessing existing institutional choices, as well as pointing to new ways forward. The pioneering chapters reposition knowledge in a number of economic debates including regional development, property rights, social enterprises, corporate governance, the management of universities, and the role of creative activities. They explore the possibility of an institutional dynamism that impacts not only on the characteristics of localities and their place in a hierarchical and ordered system of relationships, but on the nature of the system itself. Conclusions point at the individual and collective dimensions of the knowledge discovery process, suggesting a renewed approach to the assessment of economic choices. This insightful book offers an original perspective on knowledge-related issues and constitutes a valuable read for academics and postgraduate students in international business and economic competitiveness, as well practitioners and policymakers who are interested in alternative analyses and methods for economic development.
Recent years have seen considerable changes in the technology of transportation with the development of high-speed rail networks, more fuel-efficient automobiles and aircraft, and the widespread adoption of informatics in disciplines such as traffic management and supply chain logistics. The authors in this volume assess transportation interactions with employment and income, examine some of the policies that have been deployed to maximize the economic and social impacts of transportation provision at the local and regional levels and analyze how advances in transportation technologies have impacted, and will, impact future development. Due in part to the general liberalization of markets, there have been major changes in the institutional environment in which transportation is supplied; these changes inevitably affect wider economic systems and development, although in turn these changes feed back upon transportation networks. The contributors to this work develop these and other themes from a variety of perspectives, implementing a wide range of academic approaches into their analyses. Stemming from initiatives of the Network on European Communications and Transport Activities Research (NECTAR), Transportation and Economic Development Challenges presents a body of research that exemplifies the organization's objective of fostering research collaboration around the world. This book serves as a much-needed bridge between transportation and economic development. As such, it will be of significant interest to students and scholars of economics, transport studies and development, policymakers, and anyone with an interest in broadening their understanding of the links between economics and transportation.
The authors of this comprehensive book provide a detailed rationale and original theory for the study of leadership and institutional factors, including entrepreneurship, in the growth and development of cities and regions. They demonstrate why leadership, institutions and entrepreneurship can - and indeed do - play a crucial enhancing role as key elements in the process of regional endogenous growth. The so-called `new growth theory' emphasizes endogenous processes. While some of the literature refers to leadership and institutional factors, there has been little analysis of the explicit roles these factors play in the growth and development of cities and regions. This book remedies that gap, beginning with a brief overview of the evolution of the `new growth theory' in regional economic development, in which the emphasis is on endogenous factors. The book then discusses leadership and institutional factors in that context, creating a new path for understanding regional economic development processes. Multiple case studies from different parts of the world illustrate the theoretical concepts. Students and scholars in regional development, planning and public policy will find this volume invaluable.
Perhaps the most exceptional aspect of the current era of globalisation is that entrepreneurship has become the engine for local processes of economic, social and cultural development throughout the world. This important new book brings together a number of leading scholars in the field to explore the development aspects of globalisation, in particular those that foster the evolution of entrepreneurs in local-global processes. The expert contributions consider local processes such as entrepreneurship, new firm formation, creativity, media clustering, migration, and many more. They examine how the footprints of these processes reveal themselves in the contemporary global context, characterized by increasing economic interdependence as evidenced by the expanding trade in goods and services, and the growth in capital, knowledge and technology flows. The authors highlight the fact that global patterns of change are the result of innumerable local processes driven by economic, political and social entrepreneurs in localities, regions and nations around the world. With a variety of geographic perspectives, this book will appeal to researchers, students and policymakers in a range of fields including urban and regional economics, economic geography, international trade, and entrepreneurship and innovation policy.
The authors of this timely book investigate various forms and measures of corruption, examine whether corruption is more acute in Persian Gulf countries than elsewhere, and illustrate the unique forms it takes in oil- and natural gas-rich economies. They also analyze the major factors that promote corrupt practices and how they impact economic growth and social development. While corruption is globally pervasive and adversely affects the interests of citizens worldwide, it has perhaps received the most notoriety in developing countries that have an abundance of mineral deposits. Among these developing countries, the oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have received a significant amount of this attention in the popular media. This book argues that for intergenerational equity to be preserved while exploiting oil and gas reserves, other forms of capital must replace their depletion to preserve a constant capital stock. Corruption, wasteful expenditures - such as spending on armament and war - and even productive expenditures - those that enrich individual segments of society - rob much of the world's population. The authors conclude the book by offering a radical solution for containing corruption in natural resource-rich countries. This timely and thought-provoking work will resonate within the academic and business worlds alike. Those interested in Middle Eastern studies, the Persian Gulf, multinational corporations, corporate governance efforts and private NGOs will find this book of particular importance.
Entrepreneurship and regional development can be addressed from many different angles: clusters, creativity and human capital. Professor Acs, a distinguished researcher in this field, approaches this debate through technology. Technological change can be regarded as the most important factor in long-run macroeconomic growth. It has been argued in new growth theory that the technological element of the growth process results from the profit-motivated choices of economic agents. This important volume makes an essential contribution to this debate by presenting an authoritative selection of the most significant published work on entrepreneurship and regional economic growth.
This insightful book shows how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from some of the traditionally less dynamic peripheral economies of the `old' EU - namely Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain - have responded to the twin challenges of globalisation and industrial restructuring. Through a series of unique case studies the contributing authors discuss how these economies, and in particular the SME sector, can be transformed. The book begins by examining the key drivers of the globally competitive SME sector in the EU, before moving on to explore the relationship between multinational enterprises (MNEs), SMEs and industrial development. The authors investigate important policy implications and provide lessons for SME development and growth. With empirical and theoretical contributions on SMEs in both the manufacturing and the services sectors, this essential book will be invaluable for researchers and policymakers in small business economics and management. Postgraduate students of entrepreneurship, business economics, industrial economics and European studies will appreciate this unique set of insights.
This book brings together studies conducted by researchers in East Asian countries who seek to better understand the impact of China's rise and the consequent policy challenges. The expert contributors illustrate that the rise of China and its integration with the rest of the world is one of the most important developments in the global economy. Over the past thirty years or so, China's economy has grown at nearly ten percent per annum with the expansion of the modern, export-oriented industrial sector, to become the third largest economy in the world and the second largest in trade. This book reviews the economic growth of East Asian countries since the 1990s and the various impacts that the rise of China has had on these countries. In particular, it addresses policy challenges faced in coping with the rise of China and maintaining economic growth. This timely book will strongly appeal to academics and researchers focusing on East Asia and China as well as those interested in international trade, development and economic growth.
This book rigorously explores the critical, initial stage of cluster emergence in which the seeds for further growth are sown. Whether economic growth actually occurs, however, ultimately depends on various regional conditions and the processes in place. The contributors offer a broad spectrum of conceptual perspectives and empirical case studies on the regional factors and policies required for economic growth. They discuss the link between new clusters and established regional paths, the generation of institutions and endogenous dynamics, and the patterns of emergence and growth of successful clusters. A number of important questions are addressed, including: * How do opportunities and crises influence cluster emergence? * Is cluster emergence purely random or can it be planned? * How can emerging clusters be identified and their growth patterns measured? * How can regional policies support cluster emergence? Filling a gap in the literature on the actual genesis of clusters, this path-breaking book will prove a fascinating read for academics focusing on economics, geography, entrepreneurship, technological change and innovation, and regional studies.
Probably no region's economists have had greater public visibility or greater impact on regional and national public policy than Latin America's and no region has been more directly affected by the spread of US economics. Economists in the Americas joins a small but important comparative literature on economics as a profession and is the first comparative treatment of professional economists in the United States and Latin America. A multidisciplinary group of scholars discusses the last sixty years of shifting trends in economics in seven countries in the Western Hemisphere - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay and the United States. The chapters address the history of economics in the Americas, the role of economists in politics and policy-making, economics education and competing paradigms in the field. This collection points to the interconnections among the national cases, the forging and breakdown of consensus around state and market dominance, the transnational diffusion of economic ideas and professional norms, as well as the embrace and rejection of an increasingly Americanized professional identity among Latin American economists. The book will be of interest to policymakers and scholars interested in the comparative history and sociology of economics, development, public policy, international affairs, political science and Latin American studies.
This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of current research on regional competition and co-operation. Developing our current understanding of the new role of regions and their behaviour, this book addresses questions such as: How and why do regions compete? How does competition between border regions operate? Which regions are successful and which regions fail? What are the implications of regional competition in terms of resource allocation, the location of economic activities and the distribution of incomes? The book illuminates a number of critical theoretical end empirical issues relating to the competitive and cooperative nature of regions, as well as highlighting a number of new case studies from a variety of countries. The book will be a useful enhancement to undergraduate and post-graduate courses in economics, economic geography, regional science, regional planning, business administration, and international and industrial management. It will also be an invaluable guidance tool for researchers, consultants and policy makers in international organizations such as the EU, the World Bank and the OECD.
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