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Europe's research and technology system is about to change with the introduction of a novel approach, labelled `European Research Area' (ERA). This concept makes an attempt to break with the established mode of governance in Europe and seeks to advance European research collaboration and co-ordinate national research policies. Changing Governance of Research and Technology Policy is a unique collection analysing and commenting on the development of the ERA. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy, and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential impacts, benefits and limits to research and innovation policy within Europe both in the short and long term. Moreover, the debate about ERA is placed firmly in the context of the overall changes in governance at the European level. The book will be essential reading for international researchers, policymakers and students interested in research, technology and innovation policy in Europe.
This book provides an overview of the institutional arrangements affecting labour market transitions through different working-time arrangements in seven European countries. It examines the extent to which social integration through transitional labour markets is possible, assesses the effects of labour market transitions, and prescribes improvements, with the aim of preventing the development of social exclusion from paid employment. The book concentrates on how working-time transitions are shaped by industrial relations, employment regulation and social policy systems. In particular it seeks to ascertain how institutional regulations may hinder or encourage the development of transitional labour markets in France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The contributors to this volume also analyse the characteristics of employment regulation with regard to working-time flexibility and industrial relations in their national setting. They provide a review of current debates around this issue, and explore the role of recent reforms to social policy in facilitating or hindering labour market transitions. Outlining the changes that have occurred in the regulatory institutional framework shaping working-time transitions in recent years, this book will be invaluable to academics with an interest in labour market policy. The book will also strongly appeal to labour market policymakers.
It is through a gradual evolution, rather than by grand design, that the somewhat fragmented economic policies of the EU now appear to be heading towards a rather more robust and coherent economic governance. EU Economic Governance and Globalization considers the following crucial question as the EU enters its final stage of institution-building; will the economic institutions of the EU push ahead to reform its rigid national economies and open them up to globalization and international competition? Focusing on telecommunications, air transportation, currency competition, taxation, eastern enlargement and transatlantic relations, the contributors to this book question whether EU standards, regulatory regimes, and policies are flexible enough to bring about a dynamic and open economy. This book will be of interest to scholars of European and regional studies and international political economy, as well as policy analysts and policymakers.
The majority of the world's population now live in cities, nearly a quarter of which boast populations of one million or more. The rise of globalisation has granted cities unprecedented significance, both politically and economically, leading to benefits and problems at national and international levels. The Handbook of Emerging 21st-Century Cities explores the changes that are occurring in cities, and the impacts that they are having, at the local, national and global scale. Bringing together voices from around the world, this Handbook provides an interdisciplinary view of the changes that are happening in emerging cities, examining a range of topics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. With chapters covering changes in urban economies, social dynamics, and emerging technology this Handbook radically rethinks the dynamics of cities in the 21st century, including those in the global south. The Handbook of Emerging 21st-Century Cities is an important addition to the literature, and is a useful resource for students of geography, economics, sociology, anthropology and urban planning. Its insights will also be of value for public administrators and urban planners, and anyone else whose work impacts on, or is impacted by, cities.
Globalisation and social transformation theorists have paid significantly less attention to the movement of people than they have to the movement of capital. This book redresses the balance and provides timely insights into recent developments in return skilled migration in four regions in the Asia Pacific - Bangladesh, China, Taiwan and Vietnam. The authors believe that the movement of skilled migrants, and the tacit knowledge they bring with them, is a vital component in the process of globalisation. The authors examine the patterns and processes of return migration and the impacts it can have on migrants, their families and communities (including gender relations), as well as the effects on both the original source country and the host country. They highlight the many considerations which can influence the decision to return home, including social factors, career-related prospects, and the economic and political environment. Government policies in facilitating return migration through the promotion of entrepreneurship, education and training can also play a crucial role. In the long term, fears of a `brain drain', under certain circumstances, may be replaced by the prospect of a `brain gain' or `global brain circulation', where emigration and immigration (or return migration) co-exist and are supplemented by short-term circulatory movements as a country becomes more integrated into the global economy. This is a pioneering comparative study of return migration in the Asia Pacific based on original primary data. Researchers, academics and students interested in migration, globalisation, demography and social transformation will find this a valuable and highly rewarding book.
East Asia is the most competitive and dynamic industrial region in the developing world. This is universally acknowledged but not yet fully understood. In particular, the different strategies the `Tiger' economies used to access and absorb foreign technologies, and the interaction of technology imports with domestic technological effort, have not been sufficiently explored. This book addresses this imbalance with new country studies on the interaction between foreign direct investment (FDI) and technological activity in building export competitiveness. The book covers China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand, highlighting different strategic approaches to building capabilities in industrial enterprises. The book also includes a general overview and studies of Japanese multinationals overseas. Those interested in the critical role that technologies can play in promoting economic growth and competitiveness will find this study of great interest, especially academics and those in governments and agencies engaged in economic development policy.
In this book, a group of distinguished authors addresses three broad questions: what broad strategies and macroeconomic policies best support poverty reduction efforts in Asia; what role should targeted antipoverty interventions play, and how should such interventions be designed; and how is poverty measured, what new approaches are needed, and how does measurement affect our understanding of poverty. Each of these three broad themes is also considered together in chapters examining the poverty situations in a number of countries in Asia and the Pacific. The book represents a major scholarly contribution of the Asian Development Bank to the literature on poverty in the region it serves. The organization adopted poverty reduction as the principal objective of its lending in 1999. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of development economics and Asian studies, and will be useful reading for policymakers and development practitioners working in national, international or nongovernmental organizations. A Joint Publication with the Asian Development Bank
This book uses household survey data from five Central Asian countries to analyse the important consequences of, and elements that constitute, the creation of a market economy. The countries studied - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - had taken minimal action towards creating a market economy before the dissolution of the USSR in late 1991. From similar initial conditions they have pursued different post-independence economic strategies, making them ideal candidates for comparative analysis. The pivotal question concerns the determination of living standards. Who gained and who lost from the transition to a market economy? Which characteristics are rewarded in a new market economy? How do national policies and other systematic factors affect these outcomes? The authors also address other important issues that have emerged during transition debates: the position of women and the role of small businesses. The book analyses the gender issue in the narrow, but significant, sense of what happened to women in the labour market and the authors also analyze the characteristics of households with non-farm businesses. This book will prove invaluable to academics and researchers of Asian studies and particularly those with an interest in economic development and labour economics within the region.
This book examines the ideas which have structured half a century of civil war in Burma, and the roles which political elites and foreign networks - from colonial missionaries to aid worker activists - have played in mediating understandings of ethnic conflict in the country. The book includes a brief overview of precolonial and colonial Burma, and the emergence ethnic identity as a politically salient characteristic. It describes the struggle for independence and the parliamentary era (1948-62), and the quarter century of military-socialist rule that followed (1962-88). The book analyses the causes, dynamics and impacts of on-going armed conflict in Burma, since the 1988 'democracy uprising' through to the 2007 'saffron revolution' (when monks and ordinary people took to the streets in protest against the military regime). There is a special focus on the plight of displaced people, and the ways in which local and international agencies have responded. The book also examines one of the most significant, but least well-understood, political developments in Burma over the last twenty years: the series of ceasefires agreed since 1989 between the military government and most armed ethnic groups. The positive and negative impacts of the ceasefires are analysed, including a study of civil society among ethnic nationality communities. This analysis leads to a discussion of the nature of social and political change in Burma, and a re-examination of some commonly held assumptions regarding the country, including issues of ethnicity and federalism. The book concludes with a brief Epilogue, taking account of Cyclone Nargis, which struck Burma on 2 and 3 May 2008, resulting in a massive humanitarian crisis.
This highly topical book addresses the challenge of economic convergence within Europe, beginning with a thorough review of the theory of growth and related empirical research. Historical and more recent economic developments within the present EU and current accession countries are discussed, along with the design for the process of further integration of accession countries into the EU and the Euro area. Moreover, the potential to achieve a sustainable catch-up process in Western Balkan countries, the Ukraine and Russia is explored, focusing on the task facing the EU in designing proper policies vis-a-vis these countries. The contributors' varied perspectives ensure that the theories and policies postulated are linked closely with the actual situation in accession countries and offer up-to-date insights. Economic Convergence and Divergence in Europe will be of interest to economists and researchers of regional and European studies, particularly those with a focus on integration. Its accessible and non-technical approach assures its appeal to experts from the banking and governmental sectors.
This book examines the overall trends and labour patterns of migrants, their relationship with the state, and the impacts they have on the societies in which they work and sometimes settle. The book adopts a multidisciplinary perspective which encompasses economics, history, politics, geography, and sociology, and presents a unique body of new empirical research that forms the basis of many of the chapters. The book emphasises the growing importance and value of transnational communities and multiple identities. It covers many of the diverse migration patterns that have recently emerged - from rural out-migration in China, to international labour movements in the Asia Pacific region as a whole. The conditions of many migrant workers are far from satisfactory and this is highlighted in a number of the chapters. Settlement outcomes, when and where they occur, have major policy and social implications and are changing the ethnic composition of many countries in the region. The growth of civil society in Singapore, increased ethnic diversity in Japan and the emergence of New Zealand's multicultural population are all examples of some of the developments that host nations are having to come to terms with. This extensive book presents state-of-the-art research on migration in the Asia Pacific, specifically focusing on the economic, political and social identities of migrants, and the responses of different states to this complex issue. It will be extremely worthwhile reading for students, scholars and researchers in the social sciences, especially those with an interest in geography, demography and the theory and policy of international migration.
This important book, a successor volume to European Industries, brings together a number of in-depth and authoritative studies of key European industries, providing fascinating insights into their nature and characteristics. Each case study examines the recent development, structure, behaviour and performance of the industry in question, and explores competition and other policy issues. The featured industries were selected to illustrate the wide range of cost, demand and policy environments within which European business operates. The thirteen studies encompass: agriculture, energy, food processing, brewing, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, metals, motor vehicles, air transport, financial services, business services, defence industries and tourism. Together they account for over 40 percent of employment outside the public sector. Industries in Europe is ideal reading for those seeking a comprehensive introduction to a particular industry and guidance on further study. The book will also prove important reading for students of industrial organisation and related subjects, particularly as a source for case study material.
China's prospects of successfully completing the transition to a market economy and becoming the world's largest economy during the 21st century depend on the future sustainability of high rates of economic growth. This book is a comprehensive, balanced and realistic assessment of China's financial reform program and future direction. Covering not only the banking sector but also non-bank financial institutions, stock market development and external financial liberalization, the authors examine the impact of financial reform on economic development in China during the reform period. This volume will facilitate a more accurate assessment of the Chinese approach to financial reform, and will therefore, allow more informed future policy choices for both China and other developing and transitional countries. Financial Reform and Economic Development in China contains a wealth of information for anyone concerned with China's economic future, and should be required reading for those in the corporate business sector, academics and government analysts.
The Christian Right is arguably the most significant social movement in the United States today. In recent years, these religious conservatives have loudly protested a public education system they believe no longer represents their interests or values.
Educators often dismiss critiques based on religious values as irrational or flimsy, failing to appreciate the coherence of these criticisms from the Christian Right's own perspective. While the Christian Right has become ever more sophisticated in its lobbying and powerful in its influence, educators and parents find themselves lacking the background knowledge necessary to respond effectively to its efforts.
Standing on the Premises of God speaks directly to this dilemma, explaining current incarnations of the Christian Right, its leadership, its intellectual and theological foundations, and its tactics, so that those interested in the debates over education will be better prepared to engage them constructively.
Taking the novel approach of framing the Christian Right as a revitalization movement, Detwiler shows how it seeks to effect cultural transformation in order to bring public education-and our society more generally-in line with its worldview. His theoretical model provides insights into why education is so pivotal to the Christian Right and also assesses the religious viability of the Christian Right as a social movement.
Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan - East Asia's newly industrialised economies (the NIE-3) - experienced a profound development transformation over recent decades. Christopher Dent makes a comparative study of their foreign economic policies, highlighting how the NIE-3 have engaged with the international economic system in an increasingly dynamic way. The book develops a new macro-framework of foreign economic policy analysis that provides the structure for this study. The author argues that the `development context' of the NIE-3's foreign economic policies is grounded in their common development statism and semi-peripheralisation. He further contends that it is the pursuit of economic security that primarily motivates their respective foreign economic policies. This new conceptualisation of economic security in the context of foreign economic policy will appeal to academics, researchers and students in wide range of disciplines including: Asian studies, international relations, international political economy, economics and politics.
Regions are increasingly recognised as a key aspect of economic change in Europe, not merely as geographic spaces but also as social systems. Their history, culture, institutions and patterns of leadership mould the way in which they adapt to European and global competitive challenges. This book reviews the debate surrounding the construction of regions and presents eight case studies to illustrate how they are shaped and reshaped in a variety of different ways. The authors find that while some regions exhibit common patterns, there are significant variations, indicating that there is no definitive model of regional development. This book offers a systematic comparison of eight distinct regions and stateless nations, each with its own historical identity, but which is constantly being rebuilt in changing economic and political conditions. Avoiding economic or cultural determinism, the authors show how region-builders can shape their own responses to global challenges to produce models of development reflecting differing understandings and social compromises. Culture, Institutions and Economic Development will be warmly welcomed by academics within the fields of regional studies, European studies and political science.
Malaysia is one of the fastest growing economies in the world today, and this book reflects current debates about the future directions of the national economy, polity and society in light of the late 1990s watershed period of financial crisis, the arrest of Anwar Ibrahim and the subsequent 1999 general election. Malaysian Economics and Politics in the New Century aims to answer questions about how the economy and society are organized, about how the benefits from economic development are distributed, about government's relations to major national institutions, and about the nature of the political process. With its focus firmly on Malaysia's future, this will be a volume of particular interest to scholars, academics, researchers, business leaders and policymakers involved in the Asian region, and Malaysia in particular.
Monetary Policy and Taiwan's Economy questions whether the Asian crisis could have been avoided through the application of recommendations highlighted by the contributors. The conclusion reached is that in an abstract world, perhaps; but in the world in which we live; no. It is argued that the proposals made could certainly contribute to improved policy, albeit effecting marginal improvements rather than ground breaking changes. The contributors demonstrate that proficient monetary policy and banking regulation can be achieved through sound economic analysis that takes into account: * monetary aggregates in monetary policy * the role of exchange rate policies in the Asian crisis * the relationship between the exchange rate, capital flows and central bank intervention * similarities between the restructuring of banking systems in Asia and in Eastern Europe following the fall of communism. This book will appeal to academics and researchers of macroeconomics - especially those with a particular interest in monetary theory and policy. Economic analysts, commercial banks, financial institutions and specialists in financial crisis will also find the book to be a fascinating read.
Korea has experienced one of the most profound economic transformations of any nation in history, and remains a very important focus of academic inquiry. Whilst the process of catch-up in Korea - led by export-oriented growth - has been rapid and, in a sense, very successful, it has also been subject to turbulence, not least in a crisis of near bankruptcy that has dramatically revealed its Achilles heel. Informed by the 1997 crisis, Wontack Hong writes a new history of the Korean economy; one that seeks to understand export-oriented catch-up in newly industrialized countries (NICs) whilst offering a realistic appraisal and forewarning of the pitfalls which could signal self-destruction. Catch-up and Crisis in Korea offers a balanced perspective on the Korean economy, and on newly industrialized countries in general, for those who have a serious interest in understanding the industrialization process.
Blackness, as a concept, is extremely fluid: it can refer to cultural and ethnic identity, socio-political status, an aesthetic and embodied way of being, a social and political consciousness, or a diasporic kinship. It is used as a description of skin color ranging from the palest cream to the richest chocolate; as a marker of enslavement, marginalization, criminality, filth, or evil; or as a symbol of pride, beauty, elegance, strength, and depth. Despite the fact that it is elusive and difficult to define, blackness serves as one of the most potent and unifying domains of identity. God and Blackness offers an ethnographic study of blackness as it is understood within a specific community--that of the First Afrikan Church, a middle-class Afrocentric congregation in Atlanta, Georgia. Drawing on nearly two years of participant observation and in‑depth interviews, Andrea C. Abrams examines how this community has employed Afrocentrism and Black theology as a means of negotiating the unreconciled natures of thoughts and ideals that are part of being both black and American. Specifically, Abrams examines the ways in which First Afrikan's construction of community is influenced by shared understandings of blackness, and probes the means through which individuals negotiate the tensions created by competing constructions of their black identity. Although Afrocentrism operates as the focal point of this discussion, the book examines questions of political identity, religious expression and gender dynamics through the lens of a unique black church.
Social Exclusion in European Welfare States focuses on the complex relationship between economic welfare, labour market performance and social inclusion/exclusion. The contributors in the volume examine in detail the alleged trade-off between the social and economic capabilities of a society and their impact on the well-being of the citizens. Furthermore, they identify welfare regimes whose policies are more balanced in terms of prioritizing economic as well as social goals and, hence, are more successful in promoting social inclusion along with faster growth. The book attempts to promote a better understanding of the differences in policy regimes and the performances of different regime types in view of their own goals and objectives. Contributors from a broad range of disciplines - economics, sociology and political science - explore the scope for European policy coordination and the form that this should take. The book focuses on a problem that is widely considered to be one of the most intractable and damaging in contemporary European society. It will be invaluable to policymakers in a broad range of fields including employment, social policy, education and social work as well as to economists, sociologists and political scientists engaged in research and teaching in these fields.
In this book Gavin Peebles and Peter Wilson offer an historical overview of the rapid growth and development of the Singapore economy, detailing the institutions and policies which have made this growth possible. They examine the current state of the economy and its future in terms of prospective growth and structural change. The authors discuss the conflicting views on the role of government and the public sector in the economy, and analyse the quality and sustainability of growth. They explore the structural changes which have occurred due to high rates of savings and investment, a large balance of payments surplus and monetary, financial and fiscal conditions. Important in this analysis is the extent to which Singaporeans themselves have benefited in terms of welfare. The authors also identify the key roles played by trade policy, and financial and exchange rate institutions in creating and sustaining growth. In the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis, they assess the current health of the economy and the implementation of reforms to achieve the government's vision of a `New Singapore'. Based on the authors' own combined experiences of living in Singapore for over 20 years, this broadbased and analytical book sheds light on Singapore's status in the world economy. The integration of economic, social and political perspectives will ensure the book's broad appeal amongst scholars, students and researchers interested in growth and economic development in Singapore and South-east Asia.
This book addresses a number of vital economic convergence issues in the European Union. These are both general and specific issues relating to financial and monetary matters as well as social and labour market concerns. The book opens with a discussion of problems of a general nature. Questions posed include: What is the convergence record in the EU so far? Is there a sign of Baumol and Quah's `convergence clubs' and `twin peaks'? Have the `structural funds' of the European Commission made any difference? The authors then analyse questions of a fiscal and monetary nature: Can we expect the monetary policy of the ECB to have similar effects in the EMU member-states, or is it in itself a source of asymmetric shocks? Has EU membership made any difference, with respect to the initial differences in tax revenue structures? Finally the book focuses on questions regarding social and labour markets: Is global economic convergence compatible with sustainable differences in national social protection levels? Does European globalisation force labour markets to `de-institutionalise' and do European labour markets converge to a `Third Way' model? Academics and researchers of European studies and economic policy will find this up-to-date book of great interest, as will policymakers and business leaders both affected by and from within the EU.
This fully revised and updated edition of a seminal reference work provides a detailed chronological account of the development of European integration. The history of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), which began immediately after World War II, is recounted in the form of a descriptive summary of the most significant events, measures, arrangements and conferences. The chronology concludes at the end of 2001 with what is arguably one of the most important events in European history; the introduction of the euro notes and coins in twelve nation states. Throughout, Wim Vanthoor offers a detailed yet concise account of the evolution of the economic and political ideas which have culminated in this defining moment. The book is interspersed with quotations from the addresses, orations and comments of politicians and those closely involved with the process of European integration. This accessible book will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in the history of European integration.
Philipp Maier offers a unique examination of the extent to which governments and various interest groups have exerted pressure on central banks. The book looks in particular at the Deutsche Bundesbank - which acted as the blueprint for the European Central Bank (ECB) - and utilises an original set of indicators to measure external pressure and support from the government and other institutions. The author demonstrates that although some of the rhetoric of the Bundesbank may have been a response to political pressure, the operation and conduct of German monetary policy has not been influenced. The role of various pressure groups remains a more contentious issue, as there is evidence that the Bundesbank may have acted to appease the financial sector. The author also finds that a high degree of public support towards the Bundesbank has helped to mitigate the effect of external forces. As the ECB was closely modelled on its German counterpart, the author is able to extend his analysis to the European level and draw out explicit predictions for the ECB. He argues that external pressure is unlikely to influence the conduct of monetary policy, as it will be less efficient and organised, and public support is likely to be high. In the future, however, this could be jeopardised by a rapid enlargement of EMU which may result in more concentrated and powerful pressure groups. This interesting empirical study of the effect of governments, interest groups and public support on the behaviour and rhetoric of Central Banks will be welcomed by financial and monetary economists, students and scholars of European finance and European policymakers.
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