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In 1945 a joint committee of the US Senate and House of Representatives was appointed to investigate and hear testimony from a variety of military and civilian leaders about the attack on Pearl Harbor. Brought together here is a cross-section of the relevant testimony from the Congressional committee's 39-volume report. Witnesses recount events leading up to the war, American espionage efforts, the failure of radar, the penetration of the Japanese diplomatic codes, and the performance of the military.
Tatau is a beautifully designed and richly illustrated retelling of the unique and powerful history of Samoan tattooing, from 3,000 years ago to modern practices. The Samoan Islands are virtually unique in that tattooing has been continuously practiced with indigenous techniques: the full male tattoo, the pe'a, has evolved in subtle ways in its design since the nineteenth century, but remains as elaborate, meaningful, and powerful as it ever was. This cultural history is the first publication to examine Samoan tatau from its earliest beginnings. Through a chronology rich with people, encounters, and events it describes how Samoan tattooing has been shaped by local and external forces of change over many centuries. It argues that Samoan tatau has a long history of relevance both within and beyond Samoa, and a more complicated history than is currently presented in the literature. It is richly illustrated with historical images of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Samoan tattooing, contemporary tattooing, diagrams of tattoo designs and motifs, and with supplementary photographs such as posters, ephemera, film stills, and artefacts.
In this witty and satirical revisiting of Australia's heroic past, Craig Cormick rediscovers the contributions of indigenous Australians that have always remained unrecorded and unacknowledged, Australia's unwritten histories. Drawing on original records of the time, he has turned the spotlight away from its traditional focus to illuminate those whom history had forgotten. Great explorers, teachers, warriors and dreamers, who were there when Banks first saw a banksia or when Burke and Wills staggered on from Coopers Creek, but have vanished simply because their stories were unrecorded, 'now repopulate these short stories.The old heroes confess their darkest secrets, facing their own culpability in the destruction of societies and cultures, or blindly march towards their own fame, stamping firmly on law, conscience, and their own better judgement in the process. Make way for a new history of Australia, in which Cook fancies an ice-cream, Kennedy is mobbed by the press, and Windradvne and landamarra. Wooredy and Trugernanna. Jacket' Jacket' and Johnny Mullagh act out the real past. The combination of delicious humour and fantasy, and the true horror that must arise from any reading of our indigenous history, makes this collection at once playful and mordant, funny and frightening, and an exciting new work of Australian fiction.
Species acclimatization-the organized introduction of organisms to a new region-is much maligned in the present day. However, colonization depended on moving people, plants, and animals from place to place, and in centuries past, scientists, landowners, and philanthropists formed acclimatization societies to study local species and conditions, form networks of supporters, and exchange supposedly useful local and exotic organisms across the globe. Pete Minard tells the story of this movement, arguing that the colonies, not the imperial centers, led the movement for species acclimatization. Far from attempting to recreate London or Paris, settlers sought to combine plants and animals to correct earlier environmental damage and populate forests, farms, and streams to make them healthier and more productive. By focusing particularly on the Australian colony of Victoria, Minard reveals a global network of would-be acclimatizers, from Britain and France to Russia and the United States. Although the movement was short-lived, the long reach of nineteenth-century acclimatization societies continues to be felt today, from choked waterways to the uncontrollable expansion of European pests in former colonies.
The first anthropological monograph published on the Vula'a people of south-eastern Papua New Guinea, The Shark Warrior of Alewai considers oral histories and Western historical documents that cover a period of more than 200 years in the light of an ethnography of contemporary Christianity. Van Heekeren's phenomenology of Vula'a storytelling reveals how the life of one man, the Shark Warrior, comes to contain the identity of a people. Drawing on the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, she goes on to establish the essential continuities that underpin the reproduction of Vula'a identity, and to demonstrate how these give a distinctive form to Vula'a responses to historical change. In an approach that brings together the fields of Anthropology, History and Philosophy, the book questions conventional anthropological categories of exchange, gender and kinship, as well as the problematic dichotomization of myth and history, to argue for an anthropology grounded in ontology.
El fusilamiento en 1896 de Jose Rizal, acusado de conspirar contra la integridad territorial espanola avivo el movimiento de independencia, dirigido por su nuevo jefe, Emilio Aguinaldo quien, junto con Andres Bonifacio, se lanzo a la lucha mas enconada. Dos anos mas tarde, la revolucion declaro la Republica de Filipinas, el 12 de junio de 1898. Al iniciarse el conflicto hispano-norteamericano, provocado en apariencia por la destruccion del buque de guerra norteamericano Maine en La Habana, los nacionalistas filipinos prestaron su ayuda a los Estados Unidos con la esperanza de conseguir la independencia del pais tras la derrota espanola. Sin embargo, Estados Unidos, a cuyo poder paso el Archipielago en virtud del segundo Tratado de Paris de 1898, rehuso conceder la independencia a los nacionalistas y se entablo una sangrienta guerra.
What if key episodes in Australia's past had turned out differently? If France had colonised part of Australia in the eighteenth century? If the ANZACS had played only a minor role in the Gallipoli landing in World War I? If Gough Whitlam's Labor government had been re-elected after its dismissal in 1975? If Aborigines had been granted citizenship much earlier? What new paths might our national history have followed? In this fascinating volume, leading Australian historians search for answers. Together, they reimagine Australia's environment, race relations, art, political life, and national identity, providing a play on actual and possible, action and result, result and consequence that is as rigorous as it is creative. It asks how our history has been written, what our nation has become, and what it might yet be.
On a long stretch of green coast in the South Pacific, hundreds of
enormous, impassive stone heads stand guard against the ravages of
time, war, and disease that have attempted over the centuries to
conquer Easter Island. Steven Roger Fischer offers the first
English-language history of Easter Island in "Island at the End of
the World," a fascinating chronicle of adversity, triumph, and the
enduring monumentality of the island's stone guards.
In 1787, the Royal Navy ship H.M.S. "Bounty," captained by William Bligh, set sail for Tahiti in search of breadfruit plants. Soon after leaving Tahiti, Master s Mate Fletcher Christian led a successful revolt, setting Bligh and eighteen of his men adrift. In his journal, fellow mutineer James Morrison recounts the "Bounty s" voyage from his perspective as the boatswain s mate, placing considerable blame for the mutiny on Bligh s irascible personality and style of command. This event, however, simply introduces Morrison s remarkable journey through the South Seas.A born storyteller, Morrison presents compelling tales after the "Bounty" mutiny, beginning with ringleader Fletcher Christian s two bloody, ill-fated attempts to establish a refuge on the island of Tubuai. Morrison then recounts his eighteen month sojourn on Tahiti, where he constructed a seaworthy schooner and closely observed every aspect of the island and its way of life. He also includes the subsequent arrival of H.M.S. "Pandora," which was charged with bringing the mutineers back to England for trial, and his imprisonment in the horrific Pandora s Box. Morrison once again faces peril when the "Pandora" sinks on Australia s Great Barrier Reef, where thirty-one of the crew and four prisoners perished.Although Morrison did not actively participate in the "Bounty" insurrection, he had remained with Fletcher Christian s party, which was enough evidence for condemnation once back in England. While imprisoned, Morrison began composing his journal. He was released King George III granted a pardon and soon after wrote the second half of the journal, which he filled with detailed descriptions of Tahitian life, culture, and natural history. Morrison s journal is an invaluable resource for naval historians and an enthralling tale for the general reader.
'Commonwealth, curry and cricket' has become the belaboured phrase by which Australia seeks to emphasise its shared colonial heritage with India and improve bilateral relations in the process. Yet it is misleading because the legacy of empire differs in profound ways in both countries. Indians may be the fastest-growing group of migrants to Australia, but they have long been present. British India, White Australia explores connections between Australia and India through the lens of the British Empire, by tracing the lives of people of Indian descent in Australia, from Australian Federation to Indian independence. The White Australia Policy was firmly in place while both countries were part of the British Empire. Australia was nominally self-governing but still attached very strongly to Britain; India was driven by the desire for independence. The racist immigration policies of dominions like Australia, and Britain's inability to reform them, further animated nationalist sentiments in India. Kama Maclean has undertaken extensive archival research in all three countries and the book includes cartoons and photographs, many of them shocking, that reflect attitudes of the time. In this original, landmark work she calls for more meaningful dialogue and acknowledgment of the constraints placed upon Indians in Australia and those attempting to immigrate. The force of white imperialism was strong: some Australians may have found solidarity with the cause of Indian nationalism, but at the point British India ceased to exist, White Australia remained steadfast. Indians are now the fastest-growing group of migrants in Australia, yet their presence has a long history, as told in this book.
"A multilayered, highly informative and insightful book that blends memoir, historical and travel narrative...vivid and meticulously researched."--"San Francisco Chronicle
"In this involving, compassionate memoir, Christina Thompson tells the story of her romance and eventual marriage to a Maori man, interspersing it with a narrative history of the cultural collision between Westerners and the Maoris of New Zealand.
The life and work of portrait and landscape painter Lina Bryans is revealed in this biography. The book situates Bryans in the context of the Modernist movement of the 1920s, which introduced Paul Cezanne and postimpressionism to the conservative Melbourne art establishment. Bryans is revealed as an individualist who refused to be allied with either the George Bell school or the Reeds' Heide group and who developed her own intuitive and expressive style. A critical assessment of Bryans's style and discussion of the range and social significance of her works are included.
The focus of this volume is Britain's trans-Pacific empire. This began with haphazard challenges to Spanish dominion, but by the end of the 18th century, the British had established a colony in Australia and had gone to the brink of war with Spain to establish trading rights in the north Pacific. These rights led to formal colonies in Vancouver Island and British Columbia, when Britain sought to maintain a north Pacific presence despite American expansionism. In the later 19th century the international 'scramble for the Pacific' resulted in new British colonies and protectorates in the Pacific islands. The result was a complex imperial presence, created from a variety of motives and circumstances. The essays selected here take account of the wide range of economic, political and cultural factors which prompted British expansion, creating tension in Britain's imperial identity in the Pacific, and leaving Pacific peoples with a complicated and challenging legacy. Along with the important new introduction, they provide a basis for the reassessment of British imperialism in the Pacific region.
In his most challenging work to date, journalist and author Tom Coffman offers readers a new and much-needed political narrative of twentieth-century Hawai'i. The Island Edge of America reinterprets the major events leading up to and following statehood in 1959: U.S. annexation of the Hawaiian kingdom, the wartime crisis of the Japanese-American community, post-war labor organization, the Cold War, the development of Hawai'i's legendary Democratic Party, the rise of native Hawaiian nationalism. His account weaves together the threads of multicultural and transnational forces that have shaped the Islands for more than a century, looking beyond the Hawai'i carefully packaged for the tourist to the Hawai'i of complex and conflicting identities - independent kingdom, overseas colony, U.S. state, indigenous nation - a wonderfully rich, diverse, and at times troubled place. With a sure grasp of political history and culture based on decades of firsthand archival research, Tom Coffman takes Hawai'i's story into the twentieth century and in the process sheds new light on America's island edge.
Written by a senior scholar and master mariner, ""Sailors and Traders"" is the first comprehensive account of the maritime peoples of the Pacific. It focuses on the sailors who led the exploration and settlement of the islands and New Zealand and their seagoing descendants, providing along the way new material and unique observations on traditional and commercial seagoing against the background of major periods in Pacific history. The book begins by detailing the traditions of sailors, a group whose way of life sets them apart. The period of prehistoric seafaring is discussed using archaeological data, interpretations from inter island exchanges, experimental voyaging, and recent DNA analysis. Sections on the arrival of foreign exploring ships centuries later concentrate on relations between visiting sailors and maritime communities. The successes and failures of Polynesian chiefs who entered into trading with European-type ships are recounted as neglected aspects of Pacific history. As foreign-owned commercial ships expanded in the region so did colonialism, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of sailors from metropolitan countries and a decrease in the employment of Pacific islanders on foreign ships. Eventually small-scale island entrepreneurs expanded inter-island shipping, and in 1978 the regional Pacific Forum Line was created by newly independent states. This was welcomed as a symbolic return to indigenous Pacific ocean linkages. The book's final sections detail the life of the modern Pacific seafarer.
Here Gananath Obeyesekere debunks one of the most enduring myths of imperialism, civilization, and conquest: the notion that the Western civilizer is a god to savages. Using shipboard journals and logs kept by Captain James Cook and his officers, Obeyesekere reveals the captain as both the self-conscious civilizer and as the person who, his mission gone awry, becomes a "savage" himself.
In this new edition of "The Apotheosis of Captain Cook," the author addresses, in a lengthy afterword, Marshall Sahlins's 1994 book, "How "Natives" Think," which was a direct response to this work.
New Zealand to many is 'Middle Earth', home of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, but it was also the last major land mass on the planet to be settled by humans. The country was catapulted kicking and screaming from the stone age to the space age within 200 years of Captain Cook setting foot there... Who really got to New Zealand first? Which version of the Treaty of Waitangi is the most accurate? What impact did a massive asteroid strike in the 15th century have on human settlement in the South Pacific? IT'S A STORY THAT WILL SURPRISE YOU The biggest known earthquake-caused tsunami can create 60 metre walls of water - around six times larger than the Japan tsunami. This New Zealand one created by what is now known as the Mahuika comet strike - after the Maori god of fire - was what scientists call a "mega-tsunami," 220 metres tall, 22 times higher than the Japanese tsunami, as it thundered up the South Island's east coast. Waves that high have been known to penetrate up to 45km inland in other parts of the world. To put this in perspective, if you were dining in the revolving restaurant at Auckland's Sky Tower, 190 metres off the ground, you would still be 30 metres (100ft) underwater. A STORY TOLD WITH HUMOUR: When dawn broke the following morning, more canoes pulled alongside and translator Tupaea remarked to Cook the overnight guests were yelling over the rails to their friends, "It's OK to come on board, the white men don't eat people " "From which," Cook wryly and cautiously noted in his journal, "it should seem that these people have such a Custom among them." IN THE VOICES OF THOSE WHO WERE THERE: "About dinner time three canoes came alongside of much the most simple construction of any we have seen, being no more than the trunks of trees hollowed out by fire without the least carving or even the addition of a washboard on their gunnels. "The people in them were almost naked and blacker than any we had seen - only 21 in all - yet these few despicable gentry sang their song of defiance and promised us as heartily as the most respectable of their countrymen that they would kill us all." A STORY OF MISPLACED TRUST: Turning to Lieutenant Roux, du Fresne added: "How can you expect me to have a bad opinion of a people who show me so much friendship? As I only do good to them, assuredly they will do me no evil." AND THE CLASH OF CULTURES: By seven pm, word came through from the ships that "a great many more canoes, full of natives, had landed on the island." This was an all-out war involving, on one side, a battalion-strength team of Maori warriors drawn apparently from numerous tribes (about as many warriors as the current New Zealand Army can comfortably muster for any single military tour at the moment), and on the other 50 armed Frenchmen, most of them sailors. One side, of course, had gunpowder. The other side desperately wanted gunpowder. AND LESSONS LEARNED THE HARD WAY: Northland Maori in particular were beginning to amass quite a collection of captured weaponry, from the tempered steel of cutlasses and swords to the power of the mighty musket. The cardinal rule - never bang a casket of gunpowder - had been tested and learnt by the Ngati Uru of Whangaroa - and Maoridom's inevitable catch-up with European technology and power was well underway. There was, however, an even more potent force sailing over the horizon: missionaries. IN SHORT, IT'S OUR STORY...a story of migrants, the people they met, the future they forged.
There are few Aboriginal icons in white Australian history. From the explorer to the pioneer, the swagman to the drover's wife, Europeans predominate. Perhaps the only exception is the redoubtable tracker who, with skills passed down by generation after generation for over 65,000 years, read the signs and traced the movement of people across the land. The saviour of many and cursed by the wayward, trackers live in the collective memory as one of the few examples where Aboriginal people's skills were sought after in colonial society. In New South Wales alone, thousands of Aboriginal men and a smaller number of women toiled for the authorities post-1862, tracking the lost and confused, seeking out the thieves and their ill-gotten booty and bringing criminals to justice. More often than not the role of tracker went unacknowledged. Little about the complexity and diversity of their work is known, how it grew out of traditional society and was sustained by the vast family networks of Aboriginal families that endure to this day. Pathfinders brings the work of trackers to the forefront of New South Wales law enforcement history, ensuring their contribution is properly acknowledged.
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