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In 1945 Britain was the world's leading designer and builder of aircraft - a world-class achievement that was not mere rhetoric. And what aircraft they were. The sleek Comet, the first jet airliner. The awesome delta-winged Vulcan, an intercontinental bomber that could be thrown about the sky like a fighter. The Hawker Hunter, the most beautiful fighter-jet ever built and the Lightning, which could zoom ten miles above the clouds in a couple of minutes and whose pilots rated flying it as better than sex.How did Britain so lose the plot that today there is not a single aircraft manufacturer of any significance in the country? What became of the great industry of de Havilland or Handley Page? And what was it like to be alive in that marvellous post-war moment when innovative new British aircraft made their debut, and pilots were the rock stars of the age?James Hamilton-Paterson captures that season of glory in a compelling book that fuses his own memories of being a schoolboy plane spotter with a ruefully realistic history of British decline - its loss of self confidence and power. It is the story of great and charismatic machines and the men who flew them: heroes such as Bill Waterton, Neville Duke, John Derry and Bill Beaumont who took inconceivable risks, so that we could fly without a second thought.
"When I went to work for Lockheed-Georgia Company in September of 1952 I had no idea that this would end up being my life's work." With these words, Harry Hudson, the first African American supervisor at Lockheed Aircraft's Georgia facility, begins his account of a thirty-six-year career that spanned the postwar civil rights movement and the Cold War. Hudson was not a civil rights activist, yet he knew he was helping to break down racial barriers that had long confined African Americans to lower-skilled, nonsupervisory jobs. His previously unpublished memoir is an inside account of both the racial integration of corporate America and the struggles common to anyone climbing the postwar corporate ladder. At Lockheed-Georgia, Hudson went on to become the first black supervisor to manage an integrated crew and then the first black purchasing agent. There were other "firsts" along the path to these achievements, and Working for Equality is rich in details of Hudson's work on the assembly line and in the back office. In both circumstances, he contended with being not only a black man but a light-skinned black man as he dealt with production goals, personnel disputes, and other workday challenges. Randall Patton's introduction places Hudson's story within the broader struggle of workplace desegregation in America. Although Hudson is frank about his experiences in a predominantly white workforce, Patton notes that he remained "an organization man" who "expressed pride in his contributions to Lockheed [and] the nation's defense effort."
This textbook provides a detailed overview of industry-specific business management and technology management practices in aerospace for relevant bachelors and MBA programs. The Aerospace Business: Management and Technology sequentially addresses familiar management disciplines such as production management, labor relations, program management, business law, quality assurance, engineering management, supply-chain management, marketing, and finance, among others. In this context it analyzes and discusses the distinctive perspective and requirements of the aerospace industry. The book also includes subjects of special interest such as government intervention in the sector and strategies to deal with the environmental impact of aircraft. As each chapter deals with a separate management discipline, the material reviews the historical background, technical peculiarities, and financial factors that led the aerospace industry to evolve its own distinct practices and tradition. Theoretical bases of the practices are explained, and the chapters provide actual examples from the industry to illustrate application of the theories. The material is compiled, organized, and analyzed in ways that often provide original perspectives of the subject matter. University students, particularly in programs oriented towards aviation and aerospace management, will find the book to be directly applicable to their studies. It is also extremely appropriate for aerospace MBA and executive MBA programs, and would suit specialized corporate or government training programs related to aerospace.
The book offers a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted matters that arise in the process of financing commercial aircraft. It reviews the different topics on a high-level basis, and then explains the terminology used for each particular area of specialization.
Oh, the humanity!" Radio reporter Herbert Morrison's words on witnessing the destruction of the Hindenburg are etched in our collective memory. Yet, while the Hindenburg ,like the Titanic ,is a symbol of the technological hubris of a bygone era, we seem to have forgotten the lessons that can be learned from the infamous 1937 zeppelin disaster.Zeppelins were steerable balloons of highly flammable, explosive gas, but the sheer magic of seeing one of these behemoths afloat in the sky cast an irresistible spell over all those who saw them. In Monsters , Ed Regis explores the question of how a technology now so completely invalidated (and so fundamentally unsafe) ever managed to reach the high-risk level of development that it did. Through the story of the zeppelin's development, Regis examines the perils of what he calls pathological technologies",inventions whose sizeable risks are routinely minimized as a result of their almost mystical allure.Such foolishness is not limited to the industrial age: newer examples of pathological technologies include the US government's planned use of hydrogen bombs for large-scale geoengineering projects the phenomenally risky, expensive, and ultimately abandoned Superconducting Super Collider and the exotic interstellar propulsion systems proposed for DARPA's present-day 100 Year Starship project. In case after case, the romantic appeal of foolishly ambitious technologies has blinded us to their shortcomings, dangers, and costs.Both a history of technological folly and a powerful cautionary tale for future technologies and other grandiose schemes, Monsters is essential reading for experts and citizens hoping to see new technologies through clear eyes.
The Gloster Aircraft Company had its foundation in 1917 and in 1934 the company was taken over by Hawker Aircraft, though it continued to produce aircraft under its own name. In that same year the company produced the famous Gladiator biplane. Having no modern designs of its own in production, Gloster undertook manufacture for the parent company Hawker. During the Second World War it built more than 6,000 Hurricanes and Typhoons. The Gloster Meteor was the first operational Allied jet fighter aircraft of the Second World War, commencing operations in mid-1944, only some weeks later than the world's first operational jet, the German Messerschmitt Me 262. In 1945 a Meteor gained a World Airspeed Record of 606 mph. Meteors remained in service with several air forces and saw action in the Korean War. In 1952, the two seat, delta winged Gloster Javelin was developed as an all-weather fighter that could fly above 50,000 feet. In 1961, the company was merged with Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Limited to form Whitworth Gloster Aircraft Limited. Following re-organisation, the firm became part of the Avro Whitworth Division of Hawker Siddeley Aviation in 1963, and the name Gloster disappeared.
Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies - everything from iPhones and medical technologies, to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines. While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply. Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" halted exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tension between the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies. Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of economic statecraft, and must be regarded as a part of the larger discourse of global power relations. Importantly, this book also argues that the failure of political actors in the United States and Europe to pass policy to address future supply, or the scientific and business communities to devise sustainable rare earth production outside of China, points to future resource competition. Focusing on China's monopoly over the rare earth industry, this book examines the impacts of growing worldwide resource competition and the complexities policymakers face as they develop strategies and responses in an increasingly globalized world.
First published in 1956, but still relevant and thought-provoking today, this book is an absolute revelation on test flying with the British aircraft organisations and manufacturers in the 1950s. Written from the pilots viewpoint, with refreshing candour and honesty which allegedly cost him his job at the Daily Express this account details what really went on behind the scenes in the defence world. Waterton pulls no punches in recounting the non co-operation of civil servants and designers in improving/altering recognised faults (often minor) when developing aircraft to the cost of lives lost. Mainly centring on his work with the mighty Gloster Meteor and the Javelin interceptors, this is an astonishing insight into the workings of the aircraft industry. Uncomfortable reading for many, it was seen by his supporters as a wake-up call at a time when British ingenuity and prowess were being overtaken by the Americans and Russians.
This book is about change, about its challenges and the talent necessary to drive it through. Specifically, it is about transforming the world's most important and event-shaping industry - aviation. Giovanni Bisignani became Director General of IATA (International Air Transport Association) in June 2002, just after 9/11, which created one of the greatest threats ever to the aviation industry. IATA is the central body of the world's airlines, responsible for its financial ($300 billion/year) clearing system, ticketing, government lobbying, passenger safety policies, landing rights and the future of commercial flying. During his 10 years as Director General, Bisignani implemented and oversaw enormous and controversial changes in aviation. This book is the inside story of the struggle for survival in one of the world's most dynamic industries.
Much of the fascination which Soviet aircraft and its associated aerospace industry holds for the analyst, enthusiast or ordinary member of the public, stems from the thick fog of secrecy that enveloped the industry throughout the 'Cold War' until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990/91. Until then details which in case of Western designs could be found from the nearest reference book was in the case of Russian aircraft often a matter of conjecture and an inaccurate article written by a western journalist. This author has been fortunate to have obtained much original and previously unpublished information from the former Soviet Union for this unique volume on the history of the Soviet Aircraft Industry Since 1909. It gives the reader a clear understanding of the unique characteristics of Soviet-designed aircraft, in particular military types that at times caused great concern in the West with regards to the technical advances inherent in their design. The book is as much a history of the USSR as it is its, aerospace industry, culminating as it does with President Putin's Russian Federation.
The biomedical industry, which includes biopharmaceuticals, genomics and stem cell therapies, and medical devices, is among the fastest growing worldwide. While it has been an economic development target of many national governments, Asia is currently on track to reach the epicenter of this growth. What accounts for the rapid and sustained economic growth of biomedicals in Asia? To answer this question, Kathryn Ibata-Arens integrates global and national data with original fieldwork to present a conceptual framework that considers how national governments have managed key factors, like innovative capacity, government policy, and firm-level strategies. Taking China, India, Japan, and Singapore in turn, she compares each country's underlying competitive advantages. What emerges is an argument that countries pursuing networked technonationalism (NTN) effectively upgrade their capacity for innovation and encourage entrepreneurial activity in targeted industries. In contrast to countries that engage in classic technonationalism-like Japan's developmental state approach-networked technonationalists are global minded to outside markets, while remaining nationalistic within the domestic economy. By bringing together aggregate data at the global and national level with original fieldwork and drawing on rich cases, Ibata-Arens telegraphs implications for innovation policy and entrepreneurship strategy in Asia-and beyond.
This book provides a general introduction into aviation operations, covering all the relevant elements of this field and the interrelations between them. Numerous books have been written about aviation, but most are written by and for specialists, and assume a profound understanding of the fundamentals. This textbook provides the basics for understanding these fundamentals. It explains how the commercial aviation sector is structured and how technological, economic and political forces define its development and the prosperity of its players. Aviation operations have become an important field of expertise. Airlines, airports and aviation suppliers, the players in aviation, need expertise on how aircraft can be profitably exploited by connecting airports with the aim of adding value to society. This book covers all relevant aspects of aviation operations, including contemporary challenges, like capacity constraints and sustainability. This textbook delivers a fundamental understanding of the commercial aviation sector at a level ideal for first-year university students and can be a tool for lecturers in developing an aviation operations curriculum. It may also be of interest to people already employed within aviation, often specialists, seeking an accurate overview of all relevant fields of operations.
Somerset has played an important part in the history of British aviation. Aircraft have been built in the county since the time of the First World War and the county's airfields played an important part during the Second World War. The growth of Westland, at Yeovil and Weston Super Mare, has seen Somerset become a world-renowned centre for the design and construction of rotary-wing craft. Before their reliance on helicopters, Westland made such famous aircraft as the Lysander and Whirlwind, as well as the Wapiti and Wildebeast. Airports at Weston Super Mare and Whitchurch became important for passenger travel while the Royal Naval Air Service's Yeovilton airfield is also home to the Fleet Air Arm Museum and Weston to the Helicopter Museum. In times past, the aviation industry was important to the county and today, while still important, aviation heritage brings many tourists to Somerset. Colin Cruddas tells the story in words and pictures of the airfields, manufacturers and aircraft that were made or flown over the county of Somerset.
First flown in 1969, Concorde was the first supersonic aircraft to go into commercial service in 1976 and made her final flight in 2003. She was operated primarily by British Airways and Air France. British Airways' Concordes made just under 50,000 flights and flew more than 2.5m passengers supersonically. A typical London to New York crossing would take a little less than three and a half hours compared to around eight hours for a `subsonic flight'. In November 1986 a Concorde flew around the world, covering 28,238 miles in 29 hours, 59 minutes. Today, Concordes can be viewed at museums across the UK and in France, including at IWM Duxford, Brooklands and Fleet Air Arm Museum, as well as at Heathrow, Manchester and Paris-Orly airports. However, there have been recent reports suggest that a Concorde may start operating commercially again. Through a series of key documents the book tells the story of how the aircraft was designed and developed as well as ground-breaking moments in her commercial history.
This innovative and clearly written book examines the process of diversification as a strategy to promote innovation and growth within firms and to foster structural change in industry. Through a comparative case study of the aerospace industry, using cases of diversification at Dassault (France), Saab (Sweden) and Daewoo (South Korea), the author examines interactions between the firm and the state, and critically evaluates the role of national and sectoral institutions during the diversification process. He then uses these findings to propose a new, original model for diversification. Key features include: * an exploration of the ways in which the systems of innovation approach can be used to analyse strategies in firms * new insights into the concept of 'institutions' * an examination of the relationship between the behaviour of diversifying firms and institutions * path-breaking research on the South Korean aerospace industry. The combination of an up-to-date and thorough analysis of the general literature on diversification and its shortcomings, as well as three detailed case studies, will render this work invaluable to those interested in management studies and systems of innovation, and anyone working in the aircraft industry.
IN 1945 confidence in British aviation was sky-high. Yet decades later, the industry had not lived up to its potential. What happened? The years that followed the war saw the Brabazon Committee issue flawed proposals for civil aviation planning. Enforced cancellations restricted the advancement of military aircraft, compounded later on by Defence Minister Duncan Sandys abandoning aircraft to fixate solely on missiles. Commercially, Britain's small and neglected domestic market hindered the development of civilian airliners. In the production of notorious aircraft, the inauspicious Comet came from de Havilland's attempts to gain an edge over its American competitors. The iconic Harrier jump jet and an indigenous crop of helicopters were squandered, while unrealistic performance requirements brought about the cancellation of TSR2. Peter Reese explores how repeated financial crises, a lack of rigour and fatal self-satisfaction led British aviation to miss vital opportunities across this turbulent period in Britain's skies.
Whether drinking Red Bull, relieving chronic pain with oxycodone, or experimenting with Ecstasy, Americans participate in a culture of self-medication, using psychoactive substances to enhance or manage our moods. A "drug-free America" seems to be a fantasyland that most people don't want to inhabit. High: Drugs, Desire, and a Nation of Users asks fundamental questions about US drug policies and social norms. Why do we endorse the use of some drugs and criminalize others? Why do we accept the necessity of a doctor-prescribed opiate but not the same thing bought off the street? This divided approach shapes public policy, the justice system, research, social services, and health care. And despite the decades-old war on drugs, drug use remains relatively unchanged. Ingrid Walker speaks to the silencing effects of both criminalization and medicalization, incorporating first-person narratives to show a wide variety of user experiences with drugs. By challenging current thinking about drugs and users, Walker calls for a next wave of drug policy reform in the United States, beginning with recognizing the full spectrum of drug use practices.
This book presents a little-known aspect of America's aircraft development of World War II in emphasizing unique and non-production aircraft or modifications for the purpose of research and experimentation in support of aircraft development, advancing technology, or meeting narrow combat needs. It describes some important areas of American aviation weapons maturation under the pressure of war with emphasis on advanced technology and experimental aircraft configurations. The great value of the work is illumination of little known or minimally documented projects that significantly advanced the science of aeronautics, propulsion, aircraft systems, and ordnance, but did not go into production. Each chapter introduces another topic by examining the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the war, advantages pursued, and results achieved during the conflict. This last is the vehicle to examine the secret modifications or experiments that are little known. Consequently, this is an important single-source for a fascinating and diverse collection of wartime efforts never before brought together under a single cover. The "war stories" are those of military staffs, engineering teams, and test pilots struggling against short schedules and tight resource constraints to push the bounds of technology. These epic and sometimes life-threatening endeavors were as vital as actual combat operations.
During World War II, the aviation industry stood among the largest industrial branches of the Third Reich. The manufacture of aircraft and air force equipment represented approximately 40% of total German war production and involved the employment of two million people. Thus, aviation factories became the place where scores of people experienced the war. Based on German records, Allied intelligence reports, and eyewitness reports, this study explores the military, political, scientific, and social aspects of Germany's World War II aviation industry, such as production, research and development, Allied attacks, the use of foreign workers and slave labor, and daily life and working conditions in the factories. Testimony from Holocaust survivors who worked in the factories adds a strong human component to the technological facade of the German aviation industry, providing a compelling new perspective on the history of the Third Reich.
Clarence "Cap" Cornish was an Indiana pilot whose life spanned all but five years of the Century of Flight. Born in Canada in 1898, Cornish grew up in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He began flying at the age of nineteen, piloting a "Jenny" aircraft during World War I, and continued to fly for the next seventy-eight years. In 1995, at the age of ninety-seven, he was recognized by Guinness World Records as the world's oldest actively flying pilot.The mid-1920s to the mid-1950s were Cornish's most active years in aviation. During that period, sod runways gave way to asphalt and concrete; navigation evolved from the iron rail compass to radar; runways that once had been outlined at night with cans of oil topped off with flaming gasoline now shimmered with multicolored electric lights; instead of being crammed next to mailbags in open-air cockpits, passengers sat comfortably in streamlined, pressurized cabins. In the early phase of that era, Cornish performed aerobatics and won air races. He went on to run a full-service flying business, served as chief pilot for the Fort Wayne "News-Sentinel," managed the city's municipal airport, helped monitor and maintain safe skies above the continental United States during World War II, and directed Indiana's first Aeronautics Commission.Dedicating his life to flight and its many ramifications, Cornish helped guide the sensible development of aviation as it grew from infancy to maturity. Through his many personal experiences, the story of flight nationally is played out.
In the years after World War II, the airline stewardess became one of the most celebrated symbols of American womanhood. Stewardesses appeared on magazine covers, on lecture circuits, and in ad campaigns for everything from milk to cigarettes. Airlines enlisted them to pose for publicity shots, mingle with international dignitaries, and even serve (in sequined minidresses) as the official hostesses at Richard Nixon's inaugural ball. Embodying mainstream America's perfect woman, the stewardess was an ambassador of femininity and the American way both at home and abroad. Young, beautiful, unmarried, intelligent, charming, and nurturing, she inspired young girls everywhere to set their sights on the sky. In The Jet Sex, Victoria Vantoch explores in rich detail how multiple forces-business strategy, advertising, race, sexuality, and Cold War politics-cultivated an image of the stewardess that reflected America's vision of itself, from the wholesome girl-next-door of the 1940s to the cosmopolitan glamour girl of the Jet Age to the sexy playmate of the 1960s. Though airlines marketed her as the consummate hostess-an expert at pampering her mostly male passengers, while mixing martinis and allaying their fears of flying-she bridged the gap between the idealized 1950s housewife and the emerging "working woman." On the international stage, this select cadre of women served as ambassadors of their nation in the propaganda clashes of the Cold War. The stylish Pucci-clad American stewardess represented the United States as middle class and consumer oriented-hallmarks of capitalism's success and a stark contrast to her counterpart at Aeroflot, the Soviet national airline. As the apotheosis of feminine charm and American careerism, the stewardess subtly bucked traditional gender roles and paved the way for the women's movement. Drawing on industry archives and hundreds of interviews, this vibrant cultural history offers a fresh perspective on the sweeping changes in twentieth-century American life.
Listen to a short interview with Jeffrey A. Engel Host: Chris Gondek ] Producer: Heron & Crane
In a gripping story of international power and deception, Jeffrey Engel reveals the "special relationship" between the United States and Great Britain in a new and far more competitive light. As allies, they fought communism. As rivals, they locked horns over which would lead the Cold War fight. In the quest for sovereignty and hegemony, one important key was airpower, which created jobs, forged ties with the developing world, and, perhaps most importantly in a nuclear world, ensured military superiority.
Only the United States and Britain were capable of supplying the post-war world's ravenous appetite for aircraft. The Americans hoped to use this dominance as a bludgeon not only against the Soviets and Chinese, but also against any ally that deviated from Washington's rigid brand of anticommunism. Eager to repair an economy shattered by war and never as committed to unflinching anticommunism as their American allies, the British hoped to sell planes even beyond the Iron Curtain, reaping profits, improving East-West relations, and garnering the strength to withstand American hegemony.
Engel traces the bitter fights between these intimate allies from Europe to Latin America to Asia as each sought control over the sale of aircraft and technology throughout the world. The Anglo-American competition for aviation supremacy affected the global balance of power and the fates of developing nations such as India, Pakistan, and China. But without aviation, Engel argues, Britain would never have had the strength to function as a brake upon American power, the way trusted allies should.
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