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How a vast network of shadow credit financed European growth long before the advent of banking Prevailing wisdom dictates that, without banks, countries would be mired in poverty. Yet somehow much of Europe managed to grow rich long before the diffusion of banks. Dark Matter Credit draws on centuries of cleverly collected loan data from France to reveal how credit abounded well before banks opened their doors. This incisive book shows how a vast system of shadow credit enabled nearly a third of French families to borrow in 1740, and by 1840 funded as much mortgage debt as the American banking system of the 1950s. Dark Matter Credit traces how this extensive private network outcompeted banks and thrived prior to World War I-not just in France but in Britain, Germany, and the United States-until killed off by government intervention after 1918. Overturning common assumptions about banks and economic growth, the book paints a revealing picture of an until-now hidden market of thousands of peer-to-peer loans made possible by a network of brokers who matched lenders with borrowers and certified the borrowers' creditworthiness. A major work of scholarship, Dark Matter Credit challenges widespread misperceptions about French economic history, such as the notion that banks proliferated slowly, and the idea that financial innovation was hobbled by French law. By documenting how intermediaries in the shadow credit market devised effective financial instruments, this compelling book provides new insights into how countries can develop and thrive today.
The European Periphery Debt Crisis (EPDC) has its roots in the structural characteristics of the individual economies affected. This book offers a full diagnosis of the EPDC, its association to the national and international structural characteristics and a full analysis from a risk management point of view of the available policy options.
An in-depth look at how banks and financial institutions manage assets and liabilities Created for banking and finance professionals with a desire to expand their management skillset, this book focuses on how banks manage assets and liabilities, set up governance structures to minimize risks, and approach such critical areas as regulatory disclosures, interest rates, and risk hedging. It was written by the experts at the world-renowned Hong Kong Institute of Bankers, an organization dedicated to providing the international banking community with education and training. * Explains bank regulations and the relationship with monetary authorities, statements, and disclosures * Considers the governance structure of banks and how it can be used to manage assets and liabilities * Offers strategies for managing assets and liabilities in such areas as loan and investment portfolios, deposits, and funds * Explores capital and liquidity, including current standards under Basel II and Basel III, funding needs, and stress testing * Presents guidance on managing interest rate risk, hedging, and securitization
"Modern Banking" is a sequel to the highly successful "Modern Banking in Theory and Practice," first published in 1996. Over the last decade many aspects of banking have changed considerably, though the key features that distinguish banks from other financial institutions remain. Some might question the need for a book on banking rather than one on financial institutions - while banks remain special and unique to the financial sector, books need to be devoted to them.
"Modern Banking" focuses on the theory and practice of banking, and its prospects in the new millennium. The book is written for courses in banking and finance at Masters/MBA level, or undergraduate degrees specialising in this area. Bank practitioners wishing to deepen and broaden their understanding of banking issues may also be attracted to this book. While they often have exceptional and detailed knowledge of the areas they have worked in, busy bankers may be all too unaware of the key broader issues. Consider the fundamental questions: "What is unique about a bank?" and "What differentiates it from other financial institutions?" Answering these questions begins to show how banks should evolve and adapt - or fail. If bankers know the underlying reasons for "why" profitable banks exist, it will help them to devise strategies for sustained growth.
"Modern Banking" concludes with a set of case studies that give practical insight into the key issues covered in the book: The core banking functions Different types of banks and diversification of bank activities Risk management: issues and techniques Global regulation: Basel 1 and Basel 2. Bank regulation in the UK, US, EU, and Japan Banking in emerging markets Bankfailure and financial crises Competitive issues, from cost efficiency to mergers and acquisitions Case Studies including: Goldman Sachs, Bankers Trust/Deutsche Bank, Sumitomo Mitsui, Bancomer
Go inside the research to see the global consequences of unethical banking The Next Revolution in our Credit-Driven Economy: The Advent of Financial Technology integrates market theory and practice to help investors identify growth opportunities, and to help regulators create a sustainable economic environment. Author Paul Schulte, former economic analyst with the National Security Council, draws upon his own decade-spanning research to demonstrate how unethical banking practices provide the brute force that drives political and economic crises worldwide. By unbundling how credit markets work, this authoritative guide provides deep insight into crisis avoidance and detection, successful investment climates, and the groundwork that must be in place for policy makers to build a sound basis for economic growth. Clear, succinct case studies provide examples of policy and its effects on economic stability, giving you a stronger understanding of the network of forces that determine how loan/deposit ratios behave around the world. Countries that lend more than they save consistently get into trouble, with catastrophic consequences for the rich and middle class as well as the politicians. This book shows how credit excesses bring about price collapse in stocks, currencies, and real estate, and provides direction for change in the context of global economics. * Dive deep into the mechanisms underlying the credit markets * Learn how unregulated borrowing leads to socioeconomic crises * Examine real-world policy options through global case studies * Discover how credit rises are best detected and avoided An economic climate in which even the smallest hiccup can have long-lasting consequences should be the ideal impetus for a close scrutiny of global banking practices and economic policy. The Next Revolution in our Credit-Driven Economy takes you behind the scenes for a new perspective, and a more informed look at where the world needs to begin changing. The second half of the book will take a look at the revolution driving financial technology. Companies in Silicon Valley and giants like Alibaba are challenging the landscape for banking. This has profound implications for policy makers, banks and for a new class of entrepreneurs who are developing software which is taking away market share from bank and challenging decades-old financial empires. The book will explore the reasons why many global banks remain flat-footed. It will go into detail about the new companies and software that are moving in the Far East and with innovations in securities, bonds, foreign exchange, retail lending and SME lending. Lastly the book will look at the strategy behind Alibaba and how it will challenge many companies from a powerful base inside China.
The appropriate role of mathematics in economics has been controversial for two hundred years, and has been a matter of ongoing debate as economics became more mathematical after the Second World War. Controversy has been heightened after extensive criticisms of models used for analysis, prediction and risk assessment prior to the great financial crash of 2008. In this topical collection, Professor Hodgson brings together the seminal classic and recent essays published since 1945 on the role of mathematics in economics, by leading authors including six Nobel Laureates, and from a variety of perspectives.
This book provides a compelling account of the rigging of benchmarks during and after the financial crisis of 2007-08. Written in clear language accessible to the non-specialist, it provides the historical context necessary for understanding the benchmarks - LIBOR, FOREX and the Gold and Silver Fixes - and shows how and why they have to be reformed in the face of rapid technological changes in markets. Though banks have been fined and a few traders have been jailed, justice will not be done until senior bankers are made responsible for their actions. Provocative and rigorously argued, this book makes concrete recommendations for improving the security of the financial services industry and holding bankers to account. -- .
Microcredit banking is the brainchild of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Muhammad Yunus Professor of Economics at Chittagong University, Bangladesh and Chair of Grameen Bank. From small beginnings, the Microcredit movement has become worldwide. Professor Yunus determined to find a new way to make loans to impoverished peasants who commercial banks would not give credit to as they could not provide the security for the loan. Yunus devised a method to provide microloans to individuals who formed themselves into "small groups" aiming at mutual support. The loan was provided to the group for each to benefit in sequence. The group, based on trust, originally worked together so that the loan was repaid by the first recipient and then given in turn to the other members. The self-esteem of the recipients was raised by the success of the group members in repaying the loan becoming shareholders of the Grameen Bank. From small beginnings, Grameen Bank has grown into a successful organisation with world-wide connections to other microcredit enterprises. This book looks in depth at the psycho-socio-dynamics of poverty, at mobilising constructive forces of groups to empower borrowers to become effective agents. The volume is grounded upon consideration of poverty as a psychological as much as an economic condition, and discusses microcredit as an innovative tool to overcome poverty in that perspective. It will pay special attention to the Grameen model considered through the special relational technology associated with it, which draws upon solidarity-lending groups and community interaction.
The New Middlewomen describes a unique approach to the delivery of financial services to poor people, which can enable any existing commercial bank profitably to mobilize poor people's savings and provide loans to them, without the need for special systems or new institutions. The book demonstrates how banks, alone or in collaboration with NGOs, can organize groups of people into "micro-banks" to reach a totally new and profitable market. These groups act as genuine independent banking intermediaries: they decide how much to save, to whom to lend, for what purpose and at what rates of interest. Like any supplier of consumer goods or services, the banker can confidently and profitably delegate the final stage of the distribution task to a local intermediary. The New Middlewomen is the result of extensive research funded by the British Department for International Development and the Ford Foundation in Kenya and India, and will be essential reading for bankers who wish to support the poor profitably and all those with an interest in micro-finance issues.
Central banks have become the go-to institution of modern economies. In the wake of the 2007 financial crisis, they injected trillions of dollars of liquidity - through a process known as quantitative easing - first to prevent financial meltdown and later to stimulate the economy. The untold story behind these measures, and behind the changing roles of central banks generally, is that they have come at a considerable cost. Central banks argue we had no choice. This book offers a powerfully original examination of why this claim is false. Using examples from Europe and the US, the authors present and analyse three specific concerns about the way central banks in developed economies operate today. Firstly, they show how unconventional monetary policies have created significant unintended negative consequences in terms of inequalities in income and wealth. They go on to argue that central banks may have become independent of governments, but have instead become worryingly dependent on financial markets. They then proceed to analyse how central bankers, despite being the undisputed experts on monetary policy, can still err and suffer from multiple forms of bias. This book is a sobering and urgent wake-up call for policy-makers and anyone interested in how our monetary and financial system really works.
Most banking institutions suffer from numerous inefficiencies, such as poor planning; inadequate coordination and communication; ineffective processes, tools, and workflow; and excessive bureaucracy. Lean for Banks describes in easy language how to use Lean and Six Sigma management practices to significantly improve the efficiency of bank operations. This book shows how to use Lean and Six Sigma management practices to improve the normal daily work in a bank, typically executed in the so-called "back offices." This work involves about 90 percent of bank employees and generates 90 percent of costs. Lean for Banks explains how to organize bank operations better, increase work productivity and quality by working smarter and not harder, make fewer mistakes and decrease rework, and elevate jobs from mundane and repetitive to creative and pleasantly challenging. Most importantly, it shows how to increase the satisfaction of bank customers and in turn enhance bank competitiveness and market share. Lean for Banks is intended for all levels of bank employees: back-office workers, first-level supervisors, middle- and higher-level managers, and corporate executives. It is also intended for all levels of students at schools that teach banking skills-short courses intended for tellers, college courses in advanced banking operations, and continuing education for bank managers and line employees. This book is an entry-level text on Lean and should give readers enough understanding to prepare them for active participation in Lean deployment activities.
Priests of Prosperity explores the unsung revolutionary campaign to transform postcommunist central banks from command-economy cash cows into Western-style monetary guardians. Juliet Johnson conducted more than 160 interviews in seventeen countries with central bankers, international assistance providers, policymakers, and private-sector finance professionals over the course of fifteen years. She argues that a powerful transnational central banking community concentrated in Western Europe and North America integrated postcommunist central bankers into its network, shaped their ideas about the role of central banks, and helped them develop modern tools of central banking. Johnson's detailed comparative studies of central bank development in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan take readers from the birth of the campaign in the late 1980s to the challenges faced by central bankers after the global financial crisis. As the comfortable certainties of the past collapse around them, today's central bankers in the postcommunist world and beyond find themselves torn between allegiance to their transnational community and its principles on the one hand and their increasingly complex and politicized national roles on the other. Priests of Prosperity will appeal to a diverse audience of scholars in political science, finance, economics, geography, and sociology as well as to central bankers and other policymakers interested in the future of international finance, global governance, and economic development.
The horizontalist perspective is an extension of the post-Keynesian approach, that has hitherto focused on a theory of credit and money. This book extends horizontalism beyond its traditional boundaries and makes it consistent with the post-Keynesian theories of output and the open economy. The authors compare and contrast the horizontalist position with various orthodox and non-orthodox views on money. They argue that horizontalism is perfectly compatible with liquidity preference, credit constraints, and a flexible interest-rate mark-up, and address recent developments in banking that reinforce the validity of a horizontal schedule of credit-money. The overall intention is to place horizontalism within the current heterodox tradition as a general theory of the creation of money that is consistent with the post-Keynesian view on macroeconomic policy. Credit, Interest Rates and the Open Economy is essential reading for those who wish to expand their theoretical understanding of international financial issues and will be of great interest to those involved in macroeconomics, money and banking and radical economics.
This book sheds new light on the role of speculative bubbles in the stock market and argues that, provided they are sustainable, bubbles may in fact have a positive effect on the market. In many developed countries, speculative bubbles in stock markets seem to have emerged as a persistent phenomenon. This book offers new perspectives on the role bubbles play in recent economic development. The author refutes the traditional argument that speculative bubbles necessarily increase instability or develop at the expense of real activities. He argues that, when profitable investment projects are scarce, bubbles on the stock market may provide additional investment opportunities with the potential to increase aggregate profits and to improve economic welfare. However, he allows that this potentially positive effect can only occur if bubbles are sustainable and do not burst. Highly sophisticated financial systems are needed in order to allow for positive effects to develop or, as recent experience in Asia has shown, the destabilizing effects will outweigh the potential benefits. The book takes a groundbreaking view on speculative bubbles and will be invaluable to academics and practitioners with an interest in financial economics.
This book summarizes Chinese banks' achievements in global markets and examines the differences between Chinese and foreign banks. It also explores the future roadmap of internationalization and the risks involved in the process, in order to provide reference resource for Chinese banks. Based on the CBII (Chinese Bank Internationalization Index), which was first released in 2015, the book introduces the Banks' Internationalization Index ("BII") and expands the BII by examining two groups of data, including the number of overseas branches, overseas assets and revenue. In addition it analyzes representative Chinese banks' internationalization, using 16 of the Global Systemically Important Banks (G-SIBs) as benchmarks.
This text examines the policies and projects of the Inter-American Development Bank, which has recently received criticism from a number of organizations and environmental groups. Drawing on case studies from Latin America, the author attempts to answer some basic questions, such as whether the IDB has been an effective agent of development, or a mere clone of the World Bank, susceptible to that agency's weaknesses as well as its strengths. She also assesses the bank's ability to take on the emerging challenges on the development agenda, including such issues as governance, military spending, and the need for gender-sensitive development strategies.
Deep, insightful analysis of controversial risk management issues in Islamic banking Mapping the Risks And Risk Management Practices In Islamic Banking is a comprehensive analysis of the current state of risk management practices within the Islamic banking industry, with recommendations for policy makers, bankers, and industry stakeholders. Going beyond the academic, this book presents the opinions and perceptions of industry financiers and bankers, alongside primary information and data collected by Islamic finance professionals to deconstruct and analyze the sector's current risk management practices. You'll get up to date on the latest attitudes and trends, and delve into the current issues surrounding risk management in Islamic banks. With a focus on practical applications, this authoritative guide discusses the unique risks facing Islamic banks, from the perspective of a wide range of practitioners. Risk management is one of the biggest, most controversial issues in Islamic finance, yet it remains under-researched. Many uncertainties exist for which the answers are still unclear, yet will play a large role in shaping the industry's future. This book digs deep into current ideas and practices to discover what's being done, what needs to be done, and what needs to stop happening to keep the future of Islamic finance strong. * Explore both Islamic and traditional attitudes toward risk * Examine current Islamic risk management practices * Understand the latest industry issues and trends * Consider the diverse range of risks unique to the Islamic banking sector Effective risk management in Islamic banking deserves priority attention. Unless the industry develops its own genuine risk management architecture, it cannot achieve its full potential and the viability needed for a more resilient financial system than the debunked Wall Street model. Mapping the Risks and Risk Management Practices in Islamic Banking provides a deep, authoritative analysis of where the industry is today and where it needs to develop.
During the recent financial crisis, the conflict between sovereign states and banks over who controls the creation of money was thrown into sharp relief. This collection investigates the relationship between states and banks, arguing that conflicts between the two over control of money produces critical junctures. Drawing on Max Weber's concept of 'mobile capital', the book examines the mobility of capital networks in contexts of funding warfare, global bubbles and dangerous instability disengaged from social-economic activity. It proposes that mobile capital is a primary feature of capitalism and nation states, and furthermore, argues that the perennial, hierarchical struggles between states and global banks is intrinsic to capitalism. Featuring authors writing from an impressively diverse range of academic backgrounds (including sociology, geography, economics and politics), Critical Junctures in Mobile Capital presents a variety of analyses using current or past examples from different countries, federations, and of differing forms of mobile capital.
A distinguished Yale economist and legal scholar's argument that law, of all things, has the potential to rescue us from the next economic crisis. After the economic crisis of 2008, private-sector spending took nearly a decade to recover. Yair Listokin thinks we can respond more quickly to the next meltdown by reviving and refashioning a policy approach whose proven success is too rarely acknowledged. Harking back to New Deal regulatory agencies, Listokin proposes that we take seriously law's ability to function as a macroeconomic tool, capable of stimulating demand when needed and relieving demand when it threatens to overheat economies. Listokin makes his case by looking at both positive and cautionary examples, going back to the New Deal and including the Keystone Pipeline, the constitutionally fraught bond-buying program unveiled by the European Central Bank at the nadir of the Eurozone crisis, the ongoing Greek crisis, and the experience of U.S. price controls in the 1970s. History has taught us that law is an unwieldy instrument of macroeconomic policy, but Listokin argues that under certain conditions it offers a vital alternative to the monetary and fiscal policy tools that stretch the legitimacy of technocratic central banks near their breaking point while leaving the rest of us waiting and wallowing.
This valuable book discusses in detail, through a blend of theory and empirical research, the processes of innovation and the diffusion of new financial instruments. The contributors explore theoretical issues such as the relationship between financial innovation and market structure and the legal protection of financial innovation. They examine various topics on retail banking, from payment services and procedures, trading online, internet banking and profitability of retail banking to microfinance. This comprehensive book also focuses on innovation in corporate banking, such as credit derivatives and their implications for the relationship between banks and markets in financial systems. This book will be invaluable to postgraduate students, researchers and academics with an interest in economics and finance and financial innovation in particular.
The independence of the Federal Reserve is considered a cornerstone of its identity, crucial for keeping monetary policy decisions free of electoral politics. But do we really understand what is meant by "Federal Reserve independence"? Using scores of examples from the Fed's rich history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve shows that much common wisdom about the nation's central bank is inaccurate. Legal scholar and financial historian Peter Conti-Brown provides an in-depth look at the Fed's place in government, its internal governance structure, and its relationships to such individuals and groups as the president, Congress, economists, and bankers. Exploring how the Fed regulates the global economy and handles its own internal politics, and how the law does--and does not--define the Fed's power, Conti-Brown captures and clarifies the central bank's defining complexities. He examines the foundations of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which established a system of central banks, and the ways that subsequent generations have redefined the organization. Challenging the notion that the Fed Chair controls the organization as an all-powerful technocrat, he explains how institutions and individuals--within and outside of government--shape Fed policy. Conti-Brown demonstrates that the evolving mission of the Fed--including systemic risk regulation, wider bank supervision, and as a guardian against inflation and deflation--requires a reevaluation of the very way the nation's central bank is structured. Investigating how the Fed influences and is influenced by ideologies, personalities, law, and history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve offers a clear picture of this uniquely important institution.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was established as an independent government corporation under the authority of the Banking Act of 1933. The FDIC is funded through insurance assessments collected from its member depository institutions and held in what is now known as the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). The proceeds in the DIF are used to pay depositors if member institutions fail. The credit union system has undergone a period of financial turmoil since the financial crisis began in 2007, resulting in an estimated $5 billion to $10 billion in losses to the 7,400 credit unions and the institutions that support them, known as corporate credit unions of corporates. This book provides an overview of the FDIC, recent status of DIF, and efforts to reduce the loss exposure and total risk to the fund. Also discussed is the recent status of the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) with a focus on assessments and actions undertaken to support the funds during the recent period of financial distress and other initiatives to maintain liquidity.
In 2006 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Muhammad Yunus for his work on microfinance, dramatically changing attitudes towards capital markets. Suresh Sundaresan has assembled an impressive set of scholars and practitioners in this book to bring together recent practical innovations and policy questions in the realm of microfinance. The contributions emphasize practical solutions to problems facing the field by examining capital markets, providing a framework for thinking about regulation, and raising questions about gender empowerment. They examine recent developments in the field, research findings, and the challenges that lie ahead. This book takes a solid step toward a systematic analysis of the implications of microfinance for the role and regulation of capital markets. The authors address integration of capital markets with microfinance, technological innovations such as the use of mobile phone technology, the consequences of women's access to micro-loan borrowings, and the regulatory challenges and opportunities emerging as the landscape of microfinance dramatically evolves. Practitioners, policy makers, and academics in the fields of developmental economics, finance, gender studies and public and development policy will enjoy this analytically rigorous work.
Profound transformations have taken place both in the US and the global economy, most especially in the realm of finance. Financial markets and transactions have been growing continuously in size and in importance while finance in general has acquired an increasingly prominent position in the economy. Ozgur Orhangazi brings together a comprehensive analysis of financialization in the US economy that encompasses historical, theoretical, and empirical sides of the issues. He explores the origins and consequences of the dramatic rise of financial markets in the US economy and focuses on the impacts of this process of 'financialization' on the operations of the non-financial corporate sector.The book starts with a brief review of what financialization means and then documents the facts about financialization before moving on to provide a historical perspective on the evolution of financialization and its proximate causes. Next, the book compares various theoretical and empirical perspectives in an attempt to clarify the limits of our knowledge and outline what we know about the phenomenon and what we do not. In the second part, the author further explores the relationship between the financial and nonfinancial sectors of the economy and focuses on the effects of financialization on capital accumulation.The author provides a framework for analyzing the relationship between financialization and capital accumulation and offers evidence that the increase in nonfinancial corporations' (NFCs) financial investment rates and payments to financial markets have had negative effects on the real investment rates of NFCs. Scholars and students working on the issues of financialization or interested in financial markets, investment, and capital accumulation will find this a valuable addition to their collection, as will the serious general reader who wants to learn more about the causes and effects of the transformation of financial markets.
The world of banking is changing dramatically as a result of regulation, technology and society. New developments in the past three years include advances in regulatory change, the impact of China and India; from the latest technologies to impact bank services, to the latest experiments with a cashless society.
"The Future of Banking in a Globalised World" provides an entertaining yet informative look at the world of banking and chronicles the radical changes that have occurred in the industry over the past three years. Renowned analyst and international speaker, Chris Skinner assesses the trends that have occurred during the past three years and looks at predictions for the future of banking.
Issues discussed include:
- The impact of emerging markets such as China and India
- Regulatory changes including Europe's Financial Services Action Plan, MiFID, SEPA, as well as the impact of Basel II and Sarbanes-Oxley
- The latest technologies to impact Bank services from algorithmic trading through Web 2.0
- The displacement of Cash and Cards through Contactless, Mobile and Biometric Payments
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