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Banks are of central importance for economic growth, the allocation of capital, competitiveness, and financial stability. Propelled by technological advances in financial analysis and financial deregulation, the banking industry's investment played a key role in enhancing national economic growth in the early 21st century. The global financial crisis in 2007 revealed the banking world's feet of clay. Since 2007, the turmoil in the global financial system has prompted a fundamental reappraisal of the scale, scope, governance, performance, safety and soundness of banks and other financial institutions. In this Very Short Introduction John Goddard and John Wilson explore the world of banking, describing the role of central banks in national and global economies, and analysing the increasing supervision and regulation imposed on the banking industry. Looking to the future, the authors consider proposals for reform of the banking industry, and the prospects of a resolution of the closely-related banking and sovereign debt crises. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
A practical, informative guide to banks' major weakness Legal Data for Banking defines the legal data domain in the context of financial institutions, and describes how banks can leverage these assets to optimise business lines and effectively manage risk. Legal data is at the heart of post-2009 regulatory reform, and practitioners need to deepen their grasp of legal data management in order to remain compliant with new rules focusing on transparency in trade and risk reporting. This book provides essential information for IT, project management and data governance leaders, with detailed discussion of current and best practices. Many banks are experiencing recurrent pain points related to legal data management issues, so clear explanations of the required processes, systems and strategic governance provide immediately-relevant relief. The recent financial crisis following the collapse of major banks had roots in poor risk data management, and the regulators' unawareness of accumulated systemic risk stemming from contractual obligations between firms. To avoid repeating history, today's banks must be proactive in legal data management; this book provides the critical knowledge practitioners need to put the necessary systems and practices in place. Learn how current legal data management practices are hurting banks Understand the systems, structures and strategies required to manage risk and optimise business lines Delve into the regulations surrounding risk aggregation, netting, collateral enforceability and more Gain practical insight on legal data technology, systems and migration The legal contracts between firms contain significant obligations that underpin the financial markets; failing to recognise these terms as valuable data assets means increased risk exposure and untapped business lines. Legal Data for Banking provides critical information for the banking industry, with actionable guidance for implementation.
Guiding principles for ensuring that central bankers and other unelected policymakers remain stewards of the common good Central bankers have emerged from the financial crisis as the third great pillar of unelected power alongside the judiciary and the military. They pull the regulatory and financial levers of our economic well-being, yet unlike democratically elected leaders, their power does not come directly from the people. Unelected Power lays out the principles needed to ensure that central bankers, technocrats, regulators, and other agents of the administrative state remain stewards of the common good and do not become overmighty citizens. Paul Tucker draws on a wealth of personal experience from his many years in domestic and international policymaking to tackle the big issues raised by unelected power, and enriches his discussion with examples from the United States, Britain, France, Germany, and the European Union. Blending economics, political theory, and public law, Tucker explores the necessary conditions for delegated but politically insulated power to be legitimate in the eyes of constitutional democracy and the rule of law. He explains why the solution must fit with how real-world government is structured, and why technocrats and their political overseers need incentives to make the system work as intended. Tucker explains how the regulatory state need not be a fourth branch of government free to steer by its own lights, and how central bankers can emulate the best of judicial self-restraint and become models of dispersed power. Like it or not, unelected power has become a hallmark of modern government. This critically important book shows how to harness it to the people's purposes.
Providing an introduction to the business of banking, this book covers both theoretical and applied issues relating to the global banking industry. It is organised into four main sections: introduction to banking; central banking and bank regulation; issues in bank management; and comparative banking markets.
Global capital markets have undergone fundamental transformations in recent years and, as a result, have become extraordinarily complex and opaque. Trading space is no longer measured in minutes or seconds but in time units beyond human perception: milliseconds, microseconds, and even nanoseconds. Technological advances have thus scaled up imperceptible and previously irrelevant time differences into operationally manageable and enormously profitable business opportunities for those with the proper high-tech trading tools. These tools include the fastest private communication and trading lines, the most powerful computers and sophisticated algorithms capable of speedily analysing incoming news and trading data and determining optimal trading strategies in microseconds, as well as the possession of gigantic collections of historic and real-time market data. Fragmented capital markets are also becoming a rapidly growing reality in Europe and Asia, and are an established feature of U.S. trading. This raises urgent market governance issues that have largely been overlooked. Global Algorithmic Capital Markets seeks to understand how recent market transformations are affecting core public policy objectives such as investor protection and reduction of systemic risk, as well as fairness, efficiency, and transparency. The operation and health of capital markets affect all of us and have profound implications for equality and justice in society. This unique set of chapters by leading scholars, industry insiders, and regulators discusses ways to strengthen market governance for the benefit of society at whole.
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of central banks, and aims to demystify them for the general public, which is the only way to have a rational debate about them and ultimately to make them truly accountable. The book originates from the author's graduate lectures on Central Banking at the University of Frankfurt J.W. Goethe. It contains an overview of all the key questions surrounding central banks and their role in the economy. It leads the reader from the more established concepts (including monetary theory and historical experience), necessary to have a good grasp of modern central banking, to the more open and problematic questions, which are being debated within academic and financial market circles. This structure enables readers without specific knowledge of central banks or monetary economics to understand the current challenges. The book has three defining characteristics, which set it apart from competing titles: first, it is pitched at the general public and uses simple and entertaining language. Second, it is rooted in, and makes frequent reference to, recent academic research, based on content for a graduate level course. Third, the author thinks 'out of the box' in order to describe the possible evolution of central banks (including the prospect of their disappearance), and not only the status quo.
From bestselling author Glen Arnold, this is a jargon-busting book that describes how financial markets work, where they are located and how they impact on everyday life. It assumes no specialised prior knowledge of finance theory and provides an authoritative and comprehensive run-down of the workings of the modern financial system. Using real world examples from media such as the "Financial Times," Arnold gives an international perspective on the financial markets with frequent comparisons in the workings of major financial centres such as the Bank of England and the City, the Federal Reserve System and Wall Street, the Japanese Central Bank, the European Central Bank and IMF and World Bank.
Traditional money and banking textbooks are long, expensive, and full of so much institutional and technical modeling detail that students cannot understand the big picture. Thomas F. Cargill presents a new alternative: a short, inexpensive book without the 'bells and whistles' that teaches students the fundamentals in a clear, narrative form. In an engaging writing style, Cargill explains the three core components of money and banking, and their interactions: 1) the financial system, 2) government regulation and supervision, and 3) central bank policy. Cargill focuses on the interaction between government financial policy and central bank policy and offers a critique of the central bank's role in the economy, the tools it uses, how these tools affect the economy, and how effective these policies have been, providing a more balanced perspective of government policy failure versus market failure than traditional textbooks.
Pieces of paper that claimed to be good for two dollars upon redemption at a distant bank. Foreign coins that fluctuated in value from town to town. Stock certificates issued by turnpike or canal companies-worth something...or perhaps nothing. IOUs from farmers or tradesmen, passed around by people who could not know the person who first issued them. Money and banking in antebellum America offered a glaring example of free-market capitalism run amok-unregulated, exuberant, and heading pell-mell toward the next "panic" of burst bubbles and hard times. In Other People's Money, Sharon Ann Murphy explains how banking and money worked before the federal government, spurred by the chaos of the Civil War, created the national system of US paper currency. Murphy traces the evolution of banking in America from the founding of the nation, when politicians debated the constitutionality of chartering a national bank, to Andrew Jackson's role in the Bank War of the early 1830s, to the problems of financing a large-scale war. She reveals how, ultimately, the monetary and banking structures that emerged from the Civil War also provided the basis for our modern financial system, from its formation under the Federal Reserve in 1913 to the present. Touching on the significant role that numerous historical figures played in shaping American banking-including Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Louis Brandeis- Other People's Money is an engaging guide to the heated political fights that surrounded banking in early America as well as to the economic causes and consequences of the financial system that emerged from the turmoil. By helping readers understand the financial history of this period and the way banking shaped the society in which ordinary Americans lived and worked, this book broadens and deepens our knowledge of the Early American Republic.
This book provides detailed systematic micro-level analysis of the historical development of the Chinese banking industry, focusing in particular on the development of the Bank of China (BOC) in the period 1905 to 1949. Banking reform is a key area of China's economic transformation, and this book, bringing a vast amount of material to a Western audience for the first time, provides a detailed evidence of the key challenges faced by a major Chinese bank. The book: addresses important issues in its evolution, including corporate governance government intervention, foreign competition and white-collar crime evaluates how the challenges in these areas were met considers the results of its efforts draws lessons for policy making today.
Islamic banking and economics (IBE) is a fast-growing subject of vital interest in both East and West as Muslims change their attitudes towards investments and find ways to invest their funds according to the Islamic faith. Along with the rapid developments in Islamic banking there has been a concomitant increase in the quantity of relevant IBE material generated. Since IBE is a highly specialized cross-disciplinary field involving economics, business, marketing, religion, philosophy and culture, it is difficult for researchers to locate and obtain information without having to go through several secondary sources such as indexing and abstracting services. In this electronic age, it is essential for researchers to be aware of the various forms of information available for consultation. Yet, until now, the few previous works on IBE information sources have been limited to the coverage of materials available during the early 1980s, before the most recent period of expansion, and in addition the materials cited were often unpublished and therefore unobtainable. In answer to a long-felt need, "Information Sources on Islamic Banking and Economics" provides a detailed bibliography of IBE sources concentrating on the period 1980-1990 with some data from 1991 and 1992, and with the additional unique feature of setting out, for the first time, the information infrastructure of the IBE discipline. A comprehensive author index and a keyword subject index for important terms are provided, and only published - and therefore easily obtainable - items have been included. This book is essential reading for all researchers, economists, bankers and others who need information on the increasingly important field of Islamic banking and economics, and related areas.
This book focuses on the core issues in money and banking. By using simple applications for anyone that understands basic economics, the lessons in the book provide any student or reader with a background in how financial markets work, how banks as businesses function, how central banks make decisions, and how monetary policy affects the global economy.
Money and Banking is split into sections based on subject matter, specifically definitions and introductions, financial markets, microeconomic issues, macroeconomy policy, and international finance. It also covers:
- derivative and currency markets
- the microeconomics of banking
- trade and currency movements
- asymmetric information and derivative markets
- the future of financial markets and their participants
By providing a mix of microeconomic and macroeconomic applications, focusing on both international examples and open economy macroeconomics, this book reduces the minutiae seen in competing books. Each chapter provides summaries of what should be learned along the way and why the chapter's topic is important, regardless of current events. For undergraduate business, economics or social science students otherwise, this book is a concise source of information on money, banking and financial markets.
With Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) sponsors constantly making new types of ETFs available, there is now a variety of ETFs that provide investors with an opportunity to develop diversified investment portfolios. Their sophistication has also grown to include a breed of ETFs that do not passively track the performance of an underlying index. With this assortment of newer ETFs, and more on the way, market strategists are now capable of devising all-ETF portfolios based on a multitude of asset allocation schemes that respond to the need of their clients. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the changes brought about by ETFs. It describes and analyses recent changes alongside their impact on investment portfolios, and discusses the continuing success of index-based ETFs and the reasons underlying their long-lasting achievements. The book offers an objective discourse on the newly minted smart beta ETFs and some of the issues surrounding them, and provides an overview of how the increasingly widespread ETF-based portfolio hedging strategies are constructed and implemented. Paying particular attention to the importance of asset allocation and the essential role it plays in portfolio construction, this book explores the role played by ETFs in changing investors' attitudes toward home bias, covering both established and emerging frontier markets. The author leverages his extensive background to integrate best professional practices and academic rigor for an increased understanding of the ever-evolving world of ETFs.
This book examines monetary policy, central banking and exchange rate regimes in the Middle East and North Africa. Part I covers central banking and monetary policy, while Part II covers monetary policy and exchange rate regimes. Some chapters focus on the monetary frameworks of particular countries, including Lebanon, Algeria, Syria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Turkey, outlining the different systems operated in each case, considering their successes and failures, and discussing important issues such as government policy, macroeconomic performance, inflation and inflation targeting, central bank independence and the impact of broader political economic developments on the conduct of monetary policy. Other chapters cover thematic issues across the whole region, including: central bank independence, operations of debtor central banks, the effect of exchange rates on inflation, and the effect on countries trade of alternative exchange rate regimes. Drawing on the insights of scholars and policy-makers, this book is a vital resource for anyone wanting to understand the economies of the Middle East and North Africa.
The ultimate guide for bank management: how to survive and thrive throughout the business cycle
An essential guide for bankers and students of finance everywhere, "The Principles of Banking" reiterates that the primary requirement of banking--sound capital and liquidity risk management--had been forgotten in the years prior to the financial crash. Serving as a policy guide for market practitioners and regulators at all levels, the book explains the keys to success that bankers need to follow during good times in order to be prepared for the bad, providing in-depth guidance and technical analysis of exactly what constitutes good banking practice.
Accessible to professionals and students alike, "The Principles of Banking" covers issues of practical importance to bank practitioners, including asset-liability management, liquidity risk, internal transfer pricing, capital management, stress testing, and more. With an emphasis on viewing business cycles as patterns of stable and stressful market behavior, and rich with worked examples illustrating the key principles of bank asset-liability management, the book is an essential policy guide for today and tomorrow. It also offers readers access to an accompanying website holding policy templates and teaching aids.Illustrates how unsound banking practices that were evident in previous bank crashes were repeated during the creation of the 2007-2008 financial market crisisProvides a template that can be used to create a sound liquidity and asset-liability management framework at any bankAn essential resource for the international banking community as it seeks to re-establish its credibility, as well as for students of financeExplains the original principles of banking, including sound lending policy and liquidity management, and why these need to be restated in order to avoid another bank crisis at the time of the next economic recessionCovers topics of particular importance to students and academia, many of which are marginally--if ever--addressed in current text books on financeOffers readers access to a companion website featuring invaluable learning and teaching aids
Written by a banking practitioner with extensive professional and teaching experience in the field, "The Principles of Banking" explains exactly how to get back to basics in risk management in the banking community, essential if we are to maintain a sustainable banking industry.
""engaging and interesting and, more importantly, easily understood, allowing a clear picture to emerge of how the principle or concept under discussion is to be applied in the real world."" - Graeme Wolvaardt, Head of Market & Liquidity Risk Control, Europe Arab Bank Plc
The Foreclosure Echo tells the story of the ordinary people whose quest for the American dream was crushed in the foreclosure crisis when they were threatened with losing their homes. The authors, Linda E. Fisher and Judith Fox - each with decades of experience defending low-to-moderate-income people from foreclosure and predatory lending practices - have employed a range of legal, economic, and social-science research to document these stories, showing not only how people experienced the crisis, but also how lenders and public institutions failed to protect them. The book also describes the ongoing effects of the crisis - including vacant land and abandoned buildings - and how these conditions have exacerbated the economic plight of millions of people who lost their homes and have increased inequality across the country. This book should be read by anyone who wants to understand the fallout of the last financial crisis and learn what we can do now to avoid another one.
In recent years, a great deal of scholarly and popular ink has been spilled on the subject of globalization. Relatively few scholars have addressed the political sociology of globalization, and specifically, the emergence of global class formations and a nascent global governance framework. This book is a contribution towards redressing this imbalance. The book traces the emergence of the World Bank as a key driver of globalization, and as a central source of an evolving form of elite-driven transnational governance which the author describes as 'global managerialism'. The book argues that the Bank has expanded its sphere of activity far beyond provision of low-cost capital for development projects, and plays a central role in pursuing global economic and social policy homogenization. The World Bank and Global Managerialism features a new theoretical approach to globalization, developed through an analytical exposition of the key stages in the institution's growth since its creation at the Bretton Woods conference of 1944. The author details the contemporary Bank's central policy framework, which includes the intertwining of public and private initiatives and the extension of global governance into ever-wider policy and geographic spheres. He also argues that contemporary globalization marks the emergence of a transnational elite, straddling the corporate, government, and civil society sectors. The book provides two detailed case studies that demonstrate the practical analytical utility of the theory of global managerialism. The theoretical approach provides a robust but flexible framework for understanding contemporary global development. It is essential reading for courses in areas such as International Organizations, Global Political Economy, and Globalization and its Discontents, and is also relevant to students of development policy and international economic architecture, among others.
The debate on whether or not the International Monetary Fund and World Bank and their intervention strategies are a positive force for change in the developing world continues to rage. Featuring both macroeconomic and microeconomic approaches, this book brings together an international team of contributors and centres upon three broad themes: the ideology of the IMF and World Bank poverty reduction conditionality. In exploring these themes, this book will be a valuable reference for postgraduate students and professionals in the fields of development studies and political economy.
Based on detailed analysis of thousands of confidential World Bank documents, this book demonstrates that the World Bank lies at the centre of the major changes in global education of our time. It outlines the evolution of World Bank lending policies in education, and assesses the policy impact of the Bank's educational projects, looking at how it has: shaped the economic and social policies of many governments, including policies that affect education been an influential proponent of the rapid expansion of formal education systems around the world, financing much of that expansion been instrumental in forging those policies that see education as a precursor to modernisation served as a major purveyor of Western ideas about how education and the economy are, or should be, related. Following on from the success of the first edition, this revised edition covers topical issues of globalisation and looks into the political debate concerning aid to developing countries. It will be of enormous value to those studying, or working in, educational policy in developing countries, international organisations and financial institutions, and aid agencies.
The Bank of England and the Government Debt recounts the surprising history of the Bank of England's activities in the government securities market in the mid-twentieth century. The Bank's governor, Montagu Norman, had a decisive influence on government debt management policy until he retired in 1944, and established an auxiliary market in government securities outside the Stock Exchange during the Second World War. From the early 1950s, the Bank, concerned about inadequate market liquidity, became an increasingly active market-maker in government securities, rescuing the commercial market-makers in the Stock Exchange several times. The Bank's market-making activities often conflicted with its monetary policy objectives, and in 1971, it curtailed them substantially, while avoiding the damaging effects on liquidity in the government securities market that it had feared. Drawing heavily on archival research, William A. Allen sheds light on little-known aspects of central banking and monetary policy.
The independence of the Federal Reserve is considered a cornerstone of its identity, crucial for keeping monetary policy decisions free of electoral politics. But do we really understand what is meant by "Federal Reserve independence"? Using scores of examples from the Fed's rich history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve shows that much common wisdom about the nation's central bank is inaccurate. Legal scholar and financial historian Peter Conti-Brown provides an in-depth look at the Fed's place in government, its internal governance structure, and its relationships to such individuals and groups as the president, Congress, economists, and bankers. Exploring how the Fed regulates the global economy and handles its own internal politics, and how the law does--and does not--define the Fed's power, Conti-Brown captures and clarifies the central bank's defining complexities. He examines the foundations of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which established a system of central banks, and the ways that subsequent generations have redefined the organization. Challenging the notion that the Fed Chair controls the organization as an all-powerful technocrat, he explains how institutions and individuals--within and outside of government--shape Fed policy. Conti-Brown demonstrates that the evolving mission of the Fed--including systemic risk regulation, wider bank supervision, and as a guardian against inflation and deflation--requires a reevaluation of the very way the nation's central bank is structured. Investigating how the Fed influences and is influenced by ideologies, personalities, law, and history, The Power and Independence of the Federal Reserve offers a uniquely clear and timely picture of one of the most important institutions in the United States and the world.
The United States has two separate banking systems today-one serving the well-to-do and another exploiting everyone else. How the Other Half Banks contributes to the growing conversation on American inequality by highlighting one of its prime causes: unequal credit. Mehrsa Baradaran examines how a significant portion of the population, deserted by banks, is forced to wander through a Wild West of payday lenders and check-cashing services to cover emergency expenses and pay for necessities-all thanks to deregulation that began in the 1970s and continues decades later. "Baradaran argues persuasively that the banking industry, fattened on public subsidies (including too-big-to-fail bailouts), owes low-income families a better deal...How the Other Half Banks is well researched and clearly written...The bankers who fully understand the system are heavily invested in it. Books like this are written for the rest of us." -Nancy Folbre, New York Times Book Review "How the Other Half Banks tells an important story, one in which we have allowed the profit motives of banks to trump the public interest." -Lisa J. Servon, American Prospect
Named a Best Book of 2018 by the Financial Times and Fortune, this New
York Times-bestseller exposes how a 'modern Gatsby' swindled over $5
billion with the aid of Goldman Sachs in 'the heist of the century'.
This is the first book to describe the history of the innovation of the bank card, from development to commercialisation. It describes the strategies employed by innovators in order to achieve competitive advantage, and the use of technology to manage implementation. Interviews and questionnaire surveys are conducted with all the major player in the bank card industry -- Barclays, Citibank, American Express, Diners Club, Visa International, Mondex International and Europay. The result is a clear and penetrating insight into all aspects of the bank card market.
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