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A systematic study of the process of developing Islamic financial products for banks. Islamic banking began in the 1970s with the aim of providing financial services compatible with Islamic law. Driven by market forces it has grown rapidly in Muslim countries and in international financial sectors. It is projected to grow at an annual rate of 15-20% and a key factor determining this future growth is the availability of new products that will satisfy the needs of various segments of society. While other texts discuss the basic principles and contracts used in Islamic banking and finance, few discuss how these can be used to develop financial products. This book fills that gap, starting with the basic principles that form the building blocks of contemporary Islamic financial products and then discussing the more intricate issues relating to product development processes. Key Features Discusses the different stages of the product development cycle in detail Includes case studies showing the structures of various products Critically evaluates the issues related to product development including the types of products used by Islamic banks and the approaches adopted in developing them The author is well-positioned to write this text, having been an economist at the Islamic Development Bank Group in Saudi Arabia (1999-2007)
Analyzing Banking Risk: A Framework for Assessing Corporate Governance and Risk Management provides a comprehensive overview of topics focusing on assessment, analysis, and management of financial risks in banking. The publication emphasizes risk management principles and stresses that key players in the corporate governance process are accountable for managing the different dimensions of financial and other risks.This fourth edition remains faithful to the objectives of the original publication. It covers new business aspects affecting banking risks, such as mobile banking and regulatory changes over the past decade-specifically those related to Basel III capital adequacy concepts-as well as new operational risk management topics such as cybercrime, money laundering, and outsourcing.This publication will be of interest to a wide body of users of bank financial data. The target audience includes the persons responsible for the analysis of banks and for the senior management or organizations directing their efforts. Because the publication provides an overview of the spectrum of corporate governance and risk management, it is not aimed at technical specialists of any particular risk management area.
Set against a backdrop of financial-sector reforms in India, this analysis explores theories and empirical evidence regarding the behavior of commercial banks and their reactions to centralized monetary policy. A comprehensive account of the credit channels of monetary transmission is presented along with observations of the modified IS-LM model within the independent banking sector. Progressive issues such as future consolidation of the banking sector are also addressed. Ultimately, not all commercial banks react uniformly to monetary policy, as ownership, size, liquidity, and capitalization play key roles in determining individual responses.
Continuous-Time Models in Corporate Finance synthesizes four decades of research to show how stochastic calculus can be used in corporate finance. Combining mathematical rigor with economic intuition, Santiago Moreno-Bromberg and Jean-Charles Rochet analyze corporate decisions such as dividend distribution, the issuance of securities, and capital structure and default. They pay particular attention to financial intermediaries, including banks and insurance companies. The authors begin by recalling the ways that option-pricing techniques can be employed for the pricing of corporate debt and equity. They then present the dynamic model of the trade-off between taxes and bankruptcy costs and derive implications for optimal capital structure. The core chapter introduces the workhorse liquidity-management model--where liquidity and risk management decisions are made in order to minimize the costs of external finance. This model is used to study corporate finance decisions and specific features of banks and insurance companies. The book concludes by presenting the dynamic agency model, where financial frictions stem from the lack of interest alignment between a firm's manager and its financiers. The appendix contains an overview of the main mathematical tools used throughout the book. Requiring some familiarity with stochastic calculus methods, Continuous-Time Models in Corporate Finance will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who want to develop dynamic models of firms' financial decisions.
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the important aspects of investment theory, security analysis, and portfolio selection, with a quantitative emphasis not to be found in most other investment texts.The statistical analysis framework of markets and institutions in the book meets the need for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in quantitative disciplines, who wish to apply their craft to the world of investments. In addition, entrepreneurs will find the volume to be especially useful. It also contains a clearly detailed explanation of many recent developments in portfolio and capital market theory as well as a thorough procedural discussion of security analysis. Professionals preparing for the CPA, CFA, and or CFP examinations will also benefit from a close scrutiny of the many problems following each chapter.The level of difficulty progresses through the textbook with more advanced treatment appearing in the latter sections of each chapter, and the last chapters of the volume.
A number of changes have been made to the supervision and regulation of banks as a result of the recent financial meltdown. Some are for the better, such as the Basel III rules for increasing the quality and quantity of capital in banks, but legal changes on both sides of the Atlantic now make it much more difficult to resolve failing banks by means of taxpayer funded bail-outs and could hinder bank resolution in future financial crises. In this book, Johan A. Lybeck uses case studies from Europe and the United States to examine and grade a number of bank resolutions in the last financial crisis and establish which were successful, which failed, and why. Using in-depth analysis of recent legislation, he explains how a bank resolution can be successful, and emphasizes the need for taxpayer-funded bail-outs to create a viable banking system that will promote economic and financial stability.
Bad Banks is a gripping account of the problems and scandals that continue to bedevil the world's banking system some eight years after the credit crunch. It follows the fortunes and misfortunes of individual banks, from RBS to Lloyds. It exposes instances of mis-selling, money laundering, interest rate fixing and incompetence. And it considers the bigger picture: how the failings of the world's banking system are threatening to undermine our future economic security. Alex Brummer, the City Editor of the Daily Mail, has had access to all the major players, from HBOS's Andy Hornby, to former Governor of the Bank of England Sir Mervyn King, to the ex-Chief Executive of Barclays, Bob Diamond, to Lloyds' Antonio Horta-Osorio. His book is an insightful - and terrifying - account of institutions once renowned for their probity, but now all too often a byword for incompetence, and worse.
At the beginning of the transition process, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe faced the task of creating a functioning financial system where none had existed before. A decade later, high-level practitioners and well-known experts take stock of banking and monetary policy in the region, centering on: the governance of banks; the spread of financial crisis; and, perspectives for monetary policy and banking sector development.
Market life is increasingly conducted in the shadow of global events like 9/11, the Sub-Prime crisis and Brexit. Within International political economy (IPE) two broad positions can be discerned: either the event is 'just an event', a superficial spectacle in an otherwise straightforward story of power and hierarchy; or the event is large enough to be considered a 'crisis'. While sympathetic to such arguments, this book develops a more performative politics of the global event, arguing that the very idea of the event must be placed in question. How is the event constructed? How are market subjects performed in relation to the event? This book argues that emotional and psychological discourses of 'trauma' and 'resilience' provide an important affective register for understanding how the global event is 'known', how it is governed, and how the affective dimensions of market life might be lived. By identifying the contingent rise of these discourses, the author de-stabilises and re-politicises the apparent existential veracity of the global event. The critical possibilities and limits of the affective turn in market life can then be rendered according to classic questions of IPE: who wins, who loses, and how might it be changed? An important work for advanced scholars and students of international political economy, 'everyday and cultural political economy', crisis and resilience, as well as broader debates on globalisation.
"Again, Moorad Choudhry takes his readers beyond the older books in the market that simply list a string of facts, and into a world of highly practical and up-to-the-minute concepts and strategies. Bank asset-liability management is about knowing when and how to use all the tools available...This book tackles the whole spectrum." --Peter Eisenhardt, Head of Short Term Fixed Income Origination, Debt Capital Markets, Bank of America, N.A.
"Like the author's book "The Bond and Money Markets: Strategy, Trading, Analysis," this is again a superb example how a financial book should be written.... The book comes highly recommended." --Tibor Szigeti, Fixed Income Analytics, Bloomberg L.P., London
"An informative account of banking ALM from the point of view of the market practitioner." --Shahid Ikram, Head of UK Sovereign bonds and G7 hedge fund, Morley Fund Management LT
"A highly readable text which serves as an essential primer for both market practitioners and academics alike to help understand the rapidly evolving risk management techniques used by Treasury and Money Market desks." --Adam Sutton, Head of European Repo, Global Funding Desk, Bank of America, London
""Bank Asset and Liability Management" offers a clear, insightful perspective of the global banking and liquidity markets...This book is a great reference tool for all finance professionals. Really, really impressive." --Bhavin Parmar, Securities Finance Trader, ABN Amro Bank N.V., London
"A brilliant and comprehensive account of all the various disciplines that make up the art of bank asset-liability management. A fantastic work! Every bank should have a copy of this book." --Mohamoud Barre Dualeh, PrivateBanking Unit, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, UAE
"This latest publication is an essential read for anyone involved in the industry. Moorad delivers financial theories in a practical and entertaining package." --Mark Williams (Director) and Wei Lieh Goh, Hedge Fund Derivatives, KBC Financial Products, London
For nearly two decades, countless non-profits in the U.S. were forced to pay big banks enormous sums of money to settle or terminate bilateral contracts known as Interest Rate Swaps (IRSs). Officials at non-profits had entered into these costly contracts unaware that each contract has only one winner, and that big banks did not intend to be the losers.The effects of such monetary transfers have been catastrophic. Money-strapped non-profits had to dismiss schoolteachers, shut off water supply to thousands of poor households, and downsize many other essential public services. Local and state governments, public school districts, universities, hospitals and transit authorities from New York to Los Angeles have been among the largest hit.This book presents selected cases and highlights the lack of evidence that decision makers at non-profits had fully understood the terms and complexities of IRSs. The evident unequal bargaining power thus gives rise to the high likelihood of unconscionable contracting. Additionally, for terminating these contracts, big banks collected huge sums of money for services that had not been, and will never be, rendered. Accordingly, questions arise as to whether these termination payments are tantamount to unjust enrichment.Related Link(s)
This book is a cutting-edge exploration of the UK commercial banking industry, as reflected primarily in the experience of the four main clearing banks: Barclays, Lloyds, Midland and NatWest. What will the industry look like in the future? What strategies, cultures and organisational forms will distinguish the survivors from the non-survivors? Will the dominant form be the highly diversified, global, financial supermarket, the so-called universal bank, the more focused niche player, both, or some other type? To answer these questions, David Rogers draws upon very high level access to the leading players in this evolving industry.
The financial crisis of 2008 aroused widespread interest in banking and financial history among policy makers, academics, journalists, and even bankers, in addition to the wider public. References in the press to the term 'Great Depression' spiked after the failure of Lehman Brothers in November 2008, with similar surges in references to 'economic history' at various times during the financial turbulence. In an attempt to better understand the magnitude of the shock, there was a demand for historical parallels. How severe was the financial crash? Was it, in fact, the most severe financial crisis since the Great Depression? Were its causes unique or part of a well-known historical pattern? And have financial crises always led to severe depressions? Historical reflection on the recent financial crises and the long-term development of the financial system go hand in hand. This volume provides the material for such a reflection by presenting the state of the art in banking and financial history. Nineteen highly regarded experts present chapters on the economic and financial side of banking and financial activities, primarily though not solely in advanced economies, in a long-term comparative perspective. In addition to paying attention to general issues, not least those related to theoretical and methodological aspects of the discipline, the volume approaches the banking and financial world from four distinct but interrelated angles: financial institutions, financial markets, financial regulation, and financial crises.
This book originated from a 2010 conference marking the fortieth anniversary of the publication of the landmark "Phelps volume," "Microeconomic Foundations of Employment and Inflation Theory," a book that is often credited with pioneering the currently dominant approach to macroeconomic analysis. However, in their provocative introductory essay, Roman Frydman and Edmund Phelps argue that the vast majority of macroeconomic and finance models developed over the last four decades derailed, rather than built on, the Phelps volume's "microfoundations" approach. Whereas the contributors to the 1970 volume recognized the fundamental importance of according market participants' expectations an autonomous role, contemporary models rely on the rational expectations hypothesis (REH), which rules out such a role by design.
The financial crisis that began in 2007, preceded by a spectacular boom and bust in asset prices that REH models implied could never happen, has spurred a quest for fresh approaches to macroeconomic analysis. While the alternatives to REH presented in "Rethinking Expectations" differ from the approach taken in the original Phelps volume, they are notable for returning to its major theme: understanding aggregate outcomes requires according expectations an autonomous role. In the introductory essay, Frydman and Phelps interpret the various efforts to reconstruct the field--some of which promise to chart its direction for decades to come.
The contributors include Philippe Aghion, Sheila Dow, George W. Evans, Roger E. A. Farmer, Roman Frydman, Michael D. Goldberg, Roger Guesnerie, Seppo Honkapohja, Katarina Juselius, Enisse Kharroubi, Blake LeBaron, Edmund S. Phelps, John B. Taylor, Michael Woodford, and Gylfi Zoega.
Universal access to financial services is within reach, thanks to new technologies, transformative business models, and ambitious reforms. However, technology is not a silver bullet and these case studies explore what other strategic elements need to be in place for a country to increase financial access.
In the modern era, China's rural credit landscape is transforming at a dizzying rate, but, in terms of financial development, these changes represent a second attempt in the past 100 years to reform China's credit institutions and provide credit access to farmers. The first period was during the Republican era, between 1912 and 1949, which saw the first attempts at formalizing rural credit with the Industrial and Agricultural Banks. This book uses primary data and papers to present a full picture of the difficult conditions China faced during the Republican era in order to explain the myriad reforms to the country's rural credit system. Fu and Turvey build a narrative around these developments based on the foundation of thousands of years of dynastic rule in order to explore the specific impacts of drought, floods, famine, communist insurgencies, Japanese expansionism, and more on credit access, supply and demand. They consider powerful personalities-such as J.B. Taylor, John Lossing Buck, Paul Hsu and Timothy Richards-and influential institutions-from Nanking and Nankai Universities to the China International Famine Relief Commission-that sought ways to end the cycle that trapped the vast majority of Chinese farmers in poverty. This rich, wide-ranging, and stimulating work will appeal both to readers focused on present day China and those who want to understand China's rural economy and credit policies in a historical context.
What role have the financial elites in European societies and markets played over time? What was their contribution to the recent financial collapse, and how does this compare to previous crises? How have financial elites adjusted to, or influenced, the evolution of the financial system's regulatory framework over time? Financial Elites and European Banking: Historical Perspectives is a collection of essays dedicated to the European financial elites and the current debate on the role of experts within society. The ambiguities of the globalized economy over the last thirty years, epitomized by growing levels of inequality, have generated a feeling of distrust towards experts. Financial elites have become one of the most scrutinized targets of negative public opinion, triggered by the financial crisis, the high compensations enjoyed both before and after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and the obscure nature of their activity. Financial Elites in European Banking presents historical comparisons and country and cross-country case studies on financial elites' adaption and contribution to the transformation of regulatory and cultural context in the wake of a crisis.
"The IMF and the World Bank have integrated a large number of countries into the world economy by requiring governments to open up to global trade, investment, and capital. They have not done this out of pure economic zeal. Politics and their own rules and habits explain much of why they have presented globalization as a solution to challenges they have faced in the world economy."-from the IntroductionThe greatest success of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank has been as globalizers. But at whose cost? Would borrowing countries be better off without the IMF and World Bank? This book takes readers inside these institutions and the governments they work with. Ngaire Woods brilliantly decodes what they do and why they do it, using original research, extensive interviews carried out across many countries and institutions, and scholarship from the fields of economics, law, and politics.The Globalizers focuses on both the political context of IMF and World Bank actions and their impact on the countries in which they intervene. After describing the important debates between U.S. planners and the Allies in the 1944 foundation at Bretton Woods, she analyzes understandings of their missions over the last quarter century. She traces the impact of the Bank and the Fund in the recent economic history of Mexico, of post-Soviet Russia, and in the independent states of Africa. Woods concludes by proposing a range of reforms that would make the World Bank and the IMF more effective, equitable, and just.
This book explores the way in which banks were regulated in the UK in the period from 1946 until 1971. It focuses upon a group of 11 banks known as the London clearing banks. These banks included the 'Big Five' - Barclays, Lloyds, Midland, National Provincial and Westminster - and were the equivalent to today's retail banks. The time period in question is an intriguing one in the history of banking and bank regulation in that the banking system was very stable, but the regulatory framework was less dependent upon codified forms of regulation than it is today. Having explored the nature of clearing bank regulation, Arch goes on to consider the rationale behind it, as well as its consequences. She concludes by reflecting upon the nature of bank regulation since the global financial crisis. This title is essential reading for academics with an interest in banking history and bank regulation, for practicing bank regulators and for regulatory policymakers.
Banking in India has a long history and it has evolved over the years passing through various phases. The beginning of modern day banking in India can be traced to 18th century when English traders came to India. The English Agency Houses in Calcutta and Bombay began to conduct banking business besides their commercial activities. Banking in India during the pre-Independence period was largely characterised by the existence of private banks organised as joint stock companies. Most banks were small and had private shareholding of the closely-held variety. They were largely localised and many of them failed. At the time of Independence in 1947, the Indian banking system was weak. The entire banking sector was in the private sector and the credit requirements of agriculture and other needy sectors were ignored. With a view to better aligning the banking system to the needs of planning and economic policy, the policy of social control over the banking sector began in 1967. The year 1969 was a landmark in the history of commercial banking in India. In July of that year, the Government nationalised 14 major commercial banks of the country. In April 1980, Government nationalised 6 more commercial banks. The period beginning from the early 1990s witnessed the transformation of the banking sector as a result of financial sector reforms that were introduced as a part of structural reforms initiated in 1991. This book integrates and brings together the history of modern banking in India, with focus on recent developments in the context of liberalisation and privatisation wave sweeping across world economies.
Womens lack of economic empowerment not only impedes growth and poverty reduction, but also negatively impacts education and health outcomes for children. Thus, it is extremely important to ensure that women are economically empowered. Financial inclusion may be defined as the process of ensuring access to financial services and timely and adequate credit where needed by vulnerable groups, such as women, at an affordable cost. Self-help Group (SHG)-Bank Linkage Programme was launched in 1992 as a flagship programme by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). The objective is to meet the financial needs of the poor by linking SHGs with the formal credit agencies. Financial inclusion of the women can be best ensured through SHGs. The present volume contains 10 papers, authored by experts in the field, which provide valuable insights into the importance and functioning of SHGs to ensure financial inclusion and hence economic empowerment of women.
Building upon a wide range of literatures, this book argues that international regulatory institutions become stronger when oligopolistic institutional arrangements decay and competitive pressures intensify. This is shown to be the case for global finance by the study of two inter-state institutions - the Basle Committee on Banking Supervision and the International Organization of Securities Commissions, and of the international banking and securities industries which they seek to regulate. There is also the development of the concept of "private" regimes.
The global financial crisis in 2008 brought central banking to the centre stage, prompting questions about the role of national central banks and - in Europe - of the multi-country European Central Bank. What can central banks do, and what are their limitations? How have they performed? Currency, Credit and Crisis seeks to provide a coherent perspective on the functions of a central bank in a small country by assessing the way in which Ireland's financial crisis from 2010 to 2013 was handled. Drawing on his experiences as Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland and in research and policy work at the World Bank, Patrick Honohan offers a detailed analytical narrative of the origins of the crisis and of policy makers' conduct during its most fraught moments.
The biggest corporate failure ever in British history occurred in 2008 with very little forewarning. The management of HBOS, a major national bank with a long history of prudence prior to the merger in 2001, were allowed to act incompetently. Auditors and regulators failed to act, ignoring a key senior whistleblower, and the 'competitive' stock market failed to spot management failure in time. This book is the first academic study of this collapse, uncovering some surprising evidence on the power and politics of large financial institutions. It details the processes and degrees to which financial challenge and regulation are undermined by this power. The research exposes a pro-active process of regulatory risk management by these institutions; the ease with which auditors and regulators can be captured; and how politicians and investors can be all too happy to hop on the stock market and management spin ride - with other people's money. The study questions the ideology and politics which supported and encouraged the management hubris, raising profound questions about the 'politics' of the academic disciplines of banking, finance and accounting today, and the theories they underpin. This account of management gone wrong is essential reading for students, researchers and professionals involved in banking, finance, credit infrastructure, economics and management studies.
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