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Few countries can claim to have endured such a difficult and tortuous history as that of Iraq. Its varied peoples have had to contend with externally imposed state-building at the end of the First World War, through to the rise of authoritarian military regimes, to the all-encompassing power of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. They have endured destructive wars, internationally-imposed sanctions, and a further bout of destabilizing regime change and subsequent state-building from 2003. The recent rise of the Islamic State, the consolidation of the Kurdistan Region, and the response of the Shi'i populace have brought the country to a de facto partition that may bring about Iraq's final demise. The second edition of Iraq: People, History, Politics provides a comprehensive analysis of the political, societal, and economic dynamics that have governed Iraq's modern development. Situating recent events within a longer historical timeframe, this book is a must-read for anyone wanting to understand the deep histories that underpin the contemporary politics of this war-torn and troubled state.
Of the many myths that emerged following the end of the Korean War, the prevailing one in the West was that of the absolute supremacy of US Air Force pilots and aircraft over their Soviet-supplied opponents. The claims of the 10:1 victory-loss ratio achieved by the US Air Force fighter pilots flying the North American F-86 Sabre against their communist adversaries, amongst other such fabrications, went unchallenged until the end of the Cold War, when Soviet records of the conflict were finally opened. From that point onwards, a very different story began to emerge. Far from decisive American victories over an unsophisticated opponent, the aerial battles of the Korean War were, at least in the early years, evenly matched affairs, fought to an approximate 1:1 victory-loss ratio. Though the Soviet victories declined over the following years, this had more to do with home politics than American tactics. In addition to the aerial combat over MiG Alley, this title covers the full range of US Air Force activities over Korea, including the failed strategic bombing campaign and the escalating nuclear threat. Incorporating first-hand accounts from those involved, both US and Russian, this new history of the US Air Force in Korea reveals the full story of this bitter struggle in the Eastern skies.
Innsbruck, Austria, December 1944. The night is bitterly cold as a solitary black car moves silently through the snow-lined streets of the city. Behind the wheel is a Gestapo driver. In the back seat, two young boys huddle together. Brothers, aged four and two. Their destination: Wiesenhof, a Nazi orphanage. There they will be given new names, new identities, new lives. This ensures they will be almost impossible to trace. Berlin, Germany, One month earlier. Urlich von Hassell, former ambassador to Italy and a key member of the German Resistance, is executed for his involvement in an assassination plot against Hitler. As he goes to the gallows, he thinks of his daughter, ensconced in the ancestral castle of her Italian husband, and her two young sons. It is only a matter of time before the Nazis get to her. This is the extraordinary true account of a family ripped apart by persecution and war. When Fey von Hassell is arrested by the Nazis and her two sons taken away from her, she begins a terrifying journey into some of the darkest corners of occupied Europe and to the limits of human endurance. What follows is a heart-breaking tale of loss, betrayal, fortitude and one woman's determination to survive for the sake of her family.
From 25th April 1915 to 9th January 1916, troops from Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Turkey engaged in a bitter struggle for the Gallipoli peninsula. The Allied forces wanted to forge a passage through the Dardanelles in order to create a sea route to Russia and capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. Despite having more troops and being better supplied, the Allies suffered devastating losses in the face of the brave and resourceful Turks. Gallipoli tells the story of this campaign in a unique and comprehensive manner, through three authors who expertly describe their country's role and the impact the conflict had. For the ANZACs Gallipoli was the birthplace of the ANZAC spirit, for the British it was almost the downfall of Winston Churchill and for the Turks it was a defining moment in their history, becoming the basis of the Turkish War of Independence.
"I lived the same life as everyone else, the life of ordinary people, the masses." Sitting in a prison cell in the autumn of 1944, Hans Fallada sums up his life under the National Socialist dictatorship, the time of "inward emigration." Under conditions of close confinement, in constant fear of discovery, he writes himself free from the nightmare of the Nazi years. His frank and sometimes provocative memoirs were thought for many years to have been lost. They are published here for the first time.
The confessional mode did not come naturally to Fallada the writer of fiction, but in the mental and emotional distress of 1944, self-reflection became a survival strategy. In the "house of the dead" he exacts his political revenge on paper. "I know that I am crazy. I'm risking not only my own life, I'm also risking the lives of many of the people I am writing about," he notes, driven by the compulsion to write. And write he does: about spying and denunciation, about the threat to his livelihood and his literary work, about the fate of many friends and contemporaries such as Ernst Rowohlt and Emil Jannings. To conceal his intentions and to save paper, he uses abbreviations. His notes, constantly exposed to the gaze of the prison warders, become a kind of secret code. He finally succeeds in smuggling the manuscript out of the prison, although it remained unpublished for half a century.
These revealing memoirs by one of the best-known German writers of the 20th century will be of great interest to all readers of modern literature.
In the summer of 1967, the Marines in I Corps, South Vietnam's northernmost military region, were doing everything they could to lighten the pressure on the besieged Con Thien Combat Base. Still fresh after months of relatively light action around Khe Sanh, the 3d Battalion, 26th Marines, was sent to the Con Thien region to secure the combat bases' endangered main supply route. On 7 September 1967, its first full day in the new area of operations, separate elements of the battalion were attacked by at least two battalions of North Vietnamese infantry, and both were nearly overrun in night-long battles. On 10 September, while advancing to a new sector near Con Thien, the 3d Battalion, 26th Marines, was attacked by at least a full North Vietnamese regiment, the same NVA unit that had attacked it two days earlier. Divided into two separate defensive perimeters, the Marines battled through the afternoon and evening against repeated assaults by waves of NVA regulars intent upon achieving a major victory. In a battle described as 'Custer's Last Stand-With Air Support', the Americans prevailed by the narrowest of margins. Ambush Valley is an unforgettable account of bravery and survival under impossible conditions. It is told entirely in the words of the men who faced the ordeal together - an unprecedented mosaic of action and emotion woven into an incredibly clear and vivid combat narrative by one of today's most effective military historians. Ambush Valley achieves a new standard for oral history. It is a war story not to be missed.
Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of the First World War offers a history of the war from a predominantly political angle and concerns itself with the story of the state. It explores the multifaceted history of state power and highlights the ways in which different political systems responded to, and were deformed by, the near-unbearable pressures of war. Every state involved faced issues of military-civilian relations, parliamentary reviews of military policy, and the growth of war economies; and yet their particular form and significance varied in every national case. Written by a global team of historical experts, this volume sets new standards in the political history of the waging of war in an authoritative new narrative which addresses problems of logistics, morale, innovation in tactics and weapons systems, the use and abuse of science; all of which were ubiquitous during the conflict.
Courage. Endurance. Mateship. Sacrifice. These values, engraved in stone at the Isurava war memorial, have become synonymous with the Australian experience during the Kokoda campaign of 1942. The story of Kokoda and of the fighting in Papua has been told and retold in books, films and documentaries, but these popular narratives rarely explore beyond this one campaign. Kokoda: Beyond the Legend critically assesses not only the campaigns in Papua and their context in the wider lengthy Pacific war, but also the actions of senior Australian, American and Japanese military leaders. Moving beyond the legend, this book addresses the central question of why Kokoda holds such a significant place in Australian military history. In this book, Karl James brings together eminent military scholars to reassess the principal battles from both Allied and Japanese perspectives, providing readers with a more complete understanding of one of the major turning points in the Second World War.
Battlefield Essex is the eighth book on the county we have produced in the Essex Hundred series and we are pleased to say most are still in print and available from book shops or cyber retailers. Although part of the title is called Battlefield, it is not a military reference book. In the last 2,000 years there have been a number of bloody battles on Essex soil, but there too have been several conflicts that although sometimes violent didn't involve the loss of life. In many cases these conflicts have been hyped in contemporary media as a 'battles' and the term has stuck. The prime example of this was the long running dispute in the 1920s in Thaxted in what was known the 'Battle of the Flags'. To our knowledge although there was damage to property, no one was killed or even seriously injured during this battle. Apart from the battles, Essex has been a front line county in England since the time of the Saxons and the Viking raiders 1,500 years ago, so accordingly it is proper to examine the various defences put in place to thwart potential invaders and to look at whether these forts and other defensive measures set up were much of a deterrent.Fortunately in recent times what might be called 'foreign' invaders have never set foot in Essex Nevertheless the county, with its munitions factories, arms development and weapons testing facilities, has played a major part in defence of the realm during the course of both World Wars, as well as suffering from the effects of enemy bombings. As the tide of the World War II swung in favour of the allies, Essex became a launching pad to strike the enemy. The US Air Force arrived in strength and stately homes were requisitioned by the military to train clandestine forces for missions in occupied Europe. Following the end of World War II, (a hot war), a cold war commenced almost immediately and a site near Ongar became a key installation for planning the aftermath of a nuclear strike. In writing this book it was never our intention to create an academic reference work. In Battlefield Essex as in our other Essex Hundred titles, we have done our best to record some of the memorable events, people and places that have played a role in the development of the county of Essex.
War is often described as an extension of politics by violent means. With contributions from twenty-eight eminent historians, Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of the Second World War examines the relationship between ideology and politics in the war's origins, dynamics and consequences. Part I examines the ideologies of the combatants and shows how the war can be understood as a struggle of words, ideas and values with the rival powers expressing divergent claims to justice and controlling news from the front in order to sustain moral and influence international opinion. Part II looks at politics from the perspective of pre-war and wartime diplomacy as well as examining the way in which neutrals were treated and behaved. The volume concludes by assessing the impact of states, politics and ideology on the fate of individuals as occupied and liberated peoples, collaborators and resistors, and as British and French colonial subjects.
"An engaging, balanced and thoroughly researched history. It is often a moving and amusing tale containing plenty of mavericks and colourful episodes." (Lawrence James, The Times) Auntie's War is a love letter to radio. The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British institution unlike any other, and its story during the Second World War is also our story. This was Britain's first total war, engaging the whole nation, and the wireless played a crucial role in it. For the first time, news of the conflict reached every living room - sometimes almost as it happened; and at key moments: - Chamberlain's announcement of war - The Blitz - The D-Day landings - De Gaulle's broadcasts from exile - Churchill's fighting speeches Radio offered an incomparable tool for propaganda; it was how coded messages, both political and personal, were sent across Europe, and it was a means of sending less than truthful information to the enemy. Edward Stourton is a sharp-eyed, wry and affectionate companion on the BBC's wartime journey, investigating archives, diaries, letters and memoirs to examine what the BBC was and what it stood for. Auntie's War is an incomparable insight into why we have the broadcast culture we do today. A BBC RADIO 4: BOOK OF THE WEEK
For most of the 2nd World War the RAF flew small aircraft into Occupied France at night, landing and taking off in total secrecy. Their mission was to transport agents to and from France to support the activities of the French Resistance and SOE. The chronicle of these operations tells an extraordinary adventure story, full of danger for both agent and aviator. Hugh Verity flew many of the missions recounted in We Landed by Moonlight and was probably the most outstanding pick-up pilot of them all.
Former British soldier Jim Matthews gives up a lucrative career teaching English in Saudi Arabia, and returns to northern Syria to fight ISIS alongside the Kurdish forces. But why, after years as a revolutionary, left-leaning, anti-war protestor does he find himself pulled once more into a conflict zone. Does he miss war? Jim is attracted by what he calls the Kurd's `Democratic Confederalism', "a grassroots political system, where everyone had fair and equal representation in social decision-making." But he is never quite convinced of his own reasons for going to Iraq. He is no cold avenger, righter of wrongs or money-grabbing mercenary. In fact, he remains apart from those around him and more in conflict with himself, even when recalling his activities in Palestine. For Jim the real conflict is within himself. An intelligent and evocatively written memoir, that makes the war zones and broken, twisted, dusty battlefields and border towns of northern Syria spring to life.
Amid the twists and turns of her survival to this day, the story of the light cruiser HMS Caroline spans a century and more. This book focuses on her early career, the role she played as just one of many components making up the Grand Fleet in time of war. We look at her routine participation in contraband control and, most dramatically, her appearance at the Battle of Jutland, when providence smiled upon her and guaranteed a safe emergence from that intense cauldron of explosion and fire. How does the life of a warship usually finish if it is not sunk in action? It can be the sad destiny of great warships to find themselves one day `surplus to requirements'. They might have performed gloriously in battle in defence of the realm. They might have made headlines by saving life where natural disaster strikes. Yet still the breaker's yard beckons. Most men-of-war become out of date, too costly to run, as their usefulness wanes. However, some ships find a last minute reprieve by being sold to foreign countries. And yet a very special few survive in home waters for future generations. Among these is HMS Caroline.
While small wars are not new, how they should be fought by a modern industrial nation is still very much a matter for debate. It is thus worth paying heed now, to the experiences of another power which once encountered the same problems. This pocket manual examines German analysis of the problem, covering experiences from the Napoleonic era to the Third Reich, based upon the historical analysis, Kleinkrieg, provided to the German High Command by Arthur Ehrhardt in 1935 (republished in 1942 and 1944), and the Bandenbekampfung (Fighting the Guerrilla Bands) document provided to Germany's OKW in 1944. In both, conditions that were specific to broader military operations were separated from circumstances in occupation campaigns, and the new background in the German experience in suppressing rebellion in World War II is presented. Avoiding ideological biases, this manual examines the purely military problem as seen by professionals. Rediscovered and presented in English, these German thoughts on how best to fight small wars have been edited and annotated by Charles D. Melson, former Chief Historian for the US Marine Corps.
Winston Churchill's six-volume history of the cataclysm that swept the world remains the definitive history of the Second World War. Lucid, dramatic, remarkable both for its breadth and sweep and for its sense of personal involvement, it is universally acknowledged as a magnificent reconstruction and is an enduring, compelling work that led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Their Finest Hour enthrallingly recounts key events and battles from May to December 1940 as Britain stood isolated while Nazi Germany pursued its seemingly unconquerable war path the fall of France, Dunkirk and the Battle of Britain, the horrors of the Blitz and Hitler's plans to invade and crush Russia, his sole ally in Europe.
Released to coincide with a major BBC TV documentary series on the crusades presented by the author. In the eleventh century, a vast Christian army, summoned to holy war by the pope, rampaged through the Muslim world of the eastern Mediterranean, seizing possession of Jerusalem, a city revered by both faiths. Over the two hundred years that followed this First Crusade, Islam and the West fought for dominion of the Holy Land, clashing in a succession of chillingly brutal wars, both firm in the belief that they were at God's work. For the first time, this book tells the story of this epic struggle from the perspective of both Christians and Muslims, reconstructing the experiences and attitudes of those on either side of the conflict. Mixing pulsing narrative and piercing insight, it exposes the full horror, passion and barbaric grandeur of the crusading era. One of the world's foremost authorities on the subject, Thomas Asbridge offers a vivid and penetrating history of the crusades, setting a new standard for modern scholarship. Drawing upon painstaking original research and an intimate knowledge of the Near East, he uncovers what drove Muslims and Christians alike to embrace the ideals of jihadand crusade, revealing how these holy wars reshaped the medieval world and why they continue to echo in human memory to this day.
The Great War is an immense, confusing and overwhelming historical conflict - the ideal case study for teaching game theory and international relations. Using thirteen historical puzzles, from the outbreak of the war and the stability of attrition, to unrestricted submarine warfare and American entry into the war, this book provides students with a rigorous yet accessible training in game theory. Each chapter shows, through guided exercises, how game theoretical models can explain otherwise challenging strategic puzzles, shedding light on the role of individual leaders in world politics, cooperation between coalitions partners, the effectiveness of international law, the termination of conflict, and the challenges of making peace. Its analytical history of World War I also surveys cutting edge political science research on international relations and the causes of war. Written by a leading game theorist known for his expertise of the war, this textbook includes useful student features such as chapter key terms, contemporary maps, a timeline of events, a list of key characters and additional end-of-chapter game-theoretic exercises.
At its peak in January 1945, 10,000 people worked at Bletchley Park, reading 4000 messages a day, decrypting German and Japanese communications and helping the Allies to victory. But while we know that Bletchley was the centre of Britain's World War II code-breaking, how did its efforts actually change the course of the war? Enigma: How Breaking the Code Helped Win World War II tells the story of Bletchley's role in defeating U-boats in the Atlantic, breaking the Japanese codes, helping the Allies to victory in North Africa, deciphering the German military intelligence code, learning of most German positions in western Europe before the Normandy Landings, defeating the Italian Navy in the Mediterranean, and helping sink the German battleship Scharnhorst off Norway. In tracing these events, the book also delves into the stories of major Bletchley characters, `boffins' such as Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman, and `Debs' such as Joan Clarke and Margaret Rock. An accessible work of military history that ranges across air, land and naval warfare, the book also touches on the story of early computer science. Illustrated with 120 black-&-white and colour photographs, artworks and maps, Enigma: How Breaking the Code Helped Win World War II is an authoritative and novel perspective on WWII history.
A poignant description of one of Europe's most well known war cemeteries. Based on interviews and personal experiences, this work includes images, including photographs by Corporal Eric Gunton of Number 32 Graves Registration Unit, who photographed the cemetery as it took shape. Look out for more Pitkin Guides on the very best of British and French history, heritage and travel.
Impeccably detailed and beautifully written, The Lost Olympian of the Somme is the story of an Olympic gold medallist and forgotten war hero. Frederick Kelly's first-hand account offers a startling personal insight into the Great War and offers a unique look into the Royal Navy's Hood Battalion. An innovative new division of sailors that served on land as soldiers, Kelly's battalion included some of the leading artistic and intellectual minds of the day: The Hon. Charles Lister, Arthur 'Ock' Asquith (the Prime Minister's son), and the poet Rupert Brooke, whose final hours Kelly witnessed. Olympic champion, composer, pianist, intellectual and leader of men - this is Frederick Kelly's incredible story.
How did German intelligence agents in the First World War use dead fish to pass on vital information to their operatives? What did an advertisement for a dog in The Times have to do with the movement of British troops into Egypt? And why did British personnel become suspicious about the trousers hanging on a Belgian woman's washing line? During the First World War, spymasters and their networks of secret agents developed many ingenious - and occasionally hilarious - methods of communication. Puffs of smoke from a chimney, stacks of bread in a bakery window, even knitted woollen jumpers were all used to convey secret messages decipherable only by well-trained eyes. Melanie King retells the astonishing story of these and many other tricks of the espionage trade, now long forgotten, through the memoirs of eight spies. Among them are British intelligence officers working undercover in France and Germany, including a former officer from the Metropolitan Police who once hunted Jack the Ripper. There is also the German Secret Service officer, codenamed Agricola, who spied on the Eastern Front, an American newspaperman and an Austrian agent who disguised himself as everything from a Jewish pedlar to a Russian officer. Drawing on the words of many of the spies themselves, Secrets in a Dead Fish is a fascinating compendium of clever and original ruses that casts new light into the murky world of espionage during the First World War.
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