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Focuses on the aggregation of recombinant proteins in bacterial cells in the form of inclusion bodies and on their use in biotechnological and medical applications The first book devoted specifically to the topic of aggregation in bacteria, Protein Aggregation in Bacteria: Functional and Structural Properties of Inclusion Bodies in Bacterial Cells provides a large overview of protein folding and aggregation, including cell biology and methodological aspects. It summarizes, for the first time in one book, ideas and technical approaches that pave the way for a direct use of inclusion bodies in biotechnological and medical applications. Protein Aggregation in Bacteria covers: * Molecular and cellular mechanisms of protein folding, aggregation, and disaggregation in bacteria * Physiological importance and consequences of aggregation for the bacterial cell * Factors inherent to the protein sequence responsible for aggregation and evolutionary mechanisms to keep proteins soluble * Structural properties of proteins expressed as soluble aggregates and as inclusion bodies within bacterial cells both from a methodological point of view and with regard to their similarity with amyloids * Control of the structural and functional properties of aggregated proteins and use thereof in biotechnology and medicine Protein Aggregation in Bacteria is ideal for researchers in protein science, biochemistry, bioengineering, biophysics, microbiology, medicine, and biotechnology, particularly if they are related with the production of recombinant proteins and pharmaceutical science.
This detailed book explores the numerous applications of the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, one of the most commonly used methods to detect protein-protein interactions. Beginning with an overview, the volume then continues by elucidating different methodologies to detect protein-protein interactions in yeast nucleus, membrane, cytoplasm, and bacteria, computational analyses of protein interaction networks, technical variations in yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) systems together with classical and more elaborated yeast methods to detect protein-DNA interactions, as well as protocols to analyze ternary protein interactions and RNA-protein and ligand-protein interactions. The book concludes with a section on methods in plant and mammalian cells that can be used to identify novel protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and test (qualitatively and/or quantitatively) those observed in yeast. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include the kind of detail and key implementation advice that leads to excellent results in the lab. Authoritative and practical, Two-Hybrid Systems: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide to the uses of this exceedingly valuable technique.
Polyphenols and carotenoids are abundant in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and beverages, such as tea, cocoa and wine providing health-related benefits and antioxidant properties. Focusing on non-extractable polyphenols and carotenoids that are present in the diet, this book will improve our knowledge of dietary intakes and physiological properties ensuring a better understanding of their potential health effects. With global appeal, this will be the first book dedicated to raising the profile of this important area. Summarising the current knowledge in the field, the book will direct further research for food chemists, scientists and nutritionists looking for new perspectives.
Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry is the first student textbook on the separation science and mass spectrometry of pharmaceuticals present in biological fluids with an educational presentation of the principles, concepts and applications. It discusses the chemical structures and properties of low- and high-molecular drug substances; the different types of biological samples and fluids that are used; how to prepare the samples by extraction, and how to perform the appropriate analytical measurements by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry: * Is an introductory student textbook discussing the different principles and concepts clearly and comprehensively, with many relevant and educational examples * Focuses on substances that are administered as human drugs, including low-molecular drug substances, peptides, and proteins * Presents both the basic principles that are regularly taught in universities, along with the practical use of bioanalysis as carried out by researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and in hospital laboratories * Is aimed at undergraduate students, scientists, technicians and researchers in industry working in the areas of pharmaceutical analyses, biopharmaceutical analyses, biological and life sciences The book includes multiple examples to illustrate the theory and application, with many practical aspects including calculations, thus helping the student to learn how to convert the data recorded by instruments into the real concentration of the drug substances within the biological sample.
As a reflection of the quantum leap that has been made in the study of glycostructures, the first edition of this book has been completely revised and updated. The editors give up-to-date information on glycostructures, their chemistry and chemical biology in the form of a completely comprehensive survey. Glycostructures play highly diverse and crucial roles in a myriad of organisms and important systems in biology, physiology, medicine, bioengineering and technology. Only in recent years have the tools been developed to partly understand the highly complex functions and the chemistry behind them. While many facts remain undiscovered, this MRW has been contributed to by a large number of the world s leading researchers in the field."
This handbook, now in a new, second edition, is an essential resource for scientists with an interest in the role of glycosyltransferases and related genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. The first edition of the Handbook of Glycosyltransferases and Related Genes, published in 2002, contained descriptions of more than 100 mammalian genes by over 100 scientists who originally isolated and/or cloned these genes. Since then, there has been a growing body of evidence concerning the roles of glycosyltransferases, and additional glycosyltransferases have been identified. Now more than 200 glycosyltransferases have been isolated from mammalian tissue, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the total human genome. Some have been found to be involved in development and reproduction, signal transduction, cell death, higher nervous functioning, immunity, and other important biological processes. Glycosyltransferases have also been implicated in the development of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), neuromuscular diseases, and infectious diseases. A functional glycomics approach using gene targeting in mice and analytical methods utilizing glycan arrays, lectin arrays, HPLC, and mass spectrometry identified the target glycoprotein(s) on which glycans are attached by the catalytic reaction of glycosyltransferases. Most of the target proteins have been shown to be cell surface membrane proteins such as growth factor receptors and transporters. The three-dimensional structures of some glycosyltransferases have also been characterized, making it possible to classify them into retaining and inverting enzymes. Such structural information is also included in this invaluable new edition.
Discussing recent advances in the field of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) research from a multidisciplinary perspective, Matrix Metalloproteinase Biologyis a collection of chapters written by leaders in the field of MMPs. The book focuses on the challenges of understanding the mechanisms substrate degradation by MMPs, as well as how these enzymes are able to degrade large, highly ordered substrates such as collagen. All topics addressed are considered in relation to disease progression including roles in cancer metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. The text first provides an overview of MMPs, focusing on the history, the development and failures of small molecule inhibitors in clinical trials, and work with TIMPS, the endogenous inhibitors of MMPs. These introductory chapters establish the foundation for later discussion of the recent progress on the design of different types of inhibitors, including novel antibody based therapeutics. The following section emphasizes research using novel methods to further the study of the MMPs. The third and final section focuses on in vivo research, particularly with respect to cancer models, degradation of the extracellular matrix, and MMP involvement in other disease states. Written and edited by leaders in the field, Matrix Metalloproteinase Biology addresses the rapidly growth in MMP research, and will be an invaluable resource to advanced students and researchers studying cell and molecular biology.
There is great interest in the preparation of synthetic receptor-based recognition units for cheap, robust, economic, and selective chemical sensors. Molecular imprinting provides the technology to prepare these synthetic units. There are still more and more syntheses of artificial molecular recognition constructs using analytes or their close structural analogues as templates for molecular imprinting. Stability of complexes of these constructs with the target analytes are often similar to those of biological receptors. Therefore, subsequent polymerization of these complexes results in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that have a selectivity close to that revealed by natural receptors. The book summarizes the latest developments and applications of molecular imprinting for selective chemical sensing with each chapter devoted to different analytical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers. Specific chapters include: designing of molecular cavities aided by computational modelling, application of molecularly imprinted polymers for separation as well as sensing of pharmaceuticals and nucleotides. The book is suitable for academics, postgraduates, and industrial researchers active in analytical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, molecular recognition, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy.
The identification and quantification of material present and collected at a crime scene are critical requirements in investigative analyses. Forensic analysts use a variety of tools and techniques to achieve this, many of which use light. Light is not always the forensic analyst's friend however, as light can degrade samples and alter results. This book details the analysis of a range of molecular systems by light-based techniques relevant to forensic science, as well as the negative effects of light in the degradation of forensic evidence, such as the breakage of DNA linkages during DNA profiling. The introductory chapters explain how chemiluminescence and fluorescence can be used to visualise samples and the advantages and limitations of available technologies. They also discuss the limitations of our knowledge about how light could alter the physical nature of materials, for example by breaking DNA linkages during DNA profiling or by modifying molecular structures of polymers and illicit drugs. The book then explains how to detect, analyse and interpret evidence from materials such as illicit drugs, agents of bioterrorism, and textiles, using light-based techniques from microscopy to surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Edited by active photobiological and forensic scientists, this book will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of photochemistry, photobiology, toxicology and forensic science.
This book is the first volume of two volumes on cyclodextrins published in the series Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. After a brief description of the cyclodextrin fundamentals, the first chapter by Gregorio Crini et al. provides an overview of cyclodextrin research during the last 5 years. The second chapter by Michal Rezanka discusses the synthesis of novel cyclodextrin systems by selective modifications. Then Eric Monflier et al. describes the synthesis of nanostructured porous materials based on cyclodextrins, and applications in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. The use of thermal analyses for assessing cyclodextrin inclusion complexes is reviewed in chapter 4 by Daniel Hadaruga et al. Experimental methods for measuring binding constants of cyclodextrin inclusion compounds are presented by David Landy. The second volume reviews cyclodextrin applications in medicine, food, environment and liquid crystals.
The Sample Preparation Techniques for Environmental, Plant, and Animal Samples handbook is a collection of best practices, recipes and theoretical information aimed at anyone who works with any type of molecular biology, proteomics, or metabolomics research involving diffi cult and tough-to-process samples, and thus is exposed to the seemingly unbreakable bottleneck of sample preparation. Th is book is most useful to researchers preparing nucleic acids and proteins from environmental (e.g., soil, marine, and wastewater, feces) and tough microbiological (e.g., spores, yeasts, gram positive bacteria) samples, as well as solid tissue samples from plants and animals. This book is the first comprehensive piece of literature dealing with applications of bead beating technology and other types of mechanical homogenization sample preparation.
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) is one of the most widely used in foods, herbal medicine and one of the extensively researched medicinal plants of the world. In traditional medicine licorice roots have been used against treating many ailments including lung diseases, arthritis, kidney diseases, eczema, heart diseases, gastric ulcer, low blood pressure, allergies, liver toxicity, and certain microbial infections. Licorice extract contains sugars, starch, bitters, resins, essential oils, tannins, inorganic salts and low levels of nitrogenous constituents such as proteins, individual amino acids, and nucleic acids. A large number of biologically active compounds have been isolated from Glycyrrhiza species, where triterpene, saponins and flavonoids are the main constitutes which show broad biological activities. The present book will discuss the botany, the commercial interests as well as the recent studies on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of licorice. It will also describe the side effects and toxicity of licorice and its bioactive components, an underrepresented subjects of importance. It will be the first book to present global perspectives of licorice in detail. It will serve as a carefully researched introduction for students, healthcare practitioners, botanists and plant biochemists; full of historical background and bridges the gap between botany, ecology, pharmacology, as well as treatment of diseases.
This handbook compiles authoritative information about fungal metabolites and their chemistry and biotechnology. The first in the reference work series "Phytochemicals", and written by a team of international expert authors, this book provides reference information ranging from the description of fungal natural products, over their use e.g. as anticancer agents, to microbial synthesis, even spanning to the production of secondary metabolites on industrial scale. On the other hand it also describes global health issues related to aflatoxin production in foods and agriculture, including perspectives for detoxification. The handbook characterizes different compound classes derived from fungal secondary metabolites, like ergot alkaloids and aflatoxins. The discussion puts a special emphasis on how potentially useful compounds can be obtained and what applications they can find, on the one hand, and how potential dangers can be encountered on the other hand. The comprehensive chapters in this handbook will thus appeal to readers from diverse backgrounds in chemistry, biology, life sciences, and even medicine, who are working or planning to work with fungal (secondary) metabolites and their application. They provide the readers with rich sources of reference information on important topics in this field.
Lipidomics is the study of the lipid molecules that are found in animal, plant, and bacterial cells. Recent research in this field has been driven by the development of sensitive new mass spectrometric tools and protocols, leading to the identification and quantification of thousands of lipids and their roles in metabolic processes. Designed for students of biochemistry, cell biology, pharmacology, nutrition, cosmetics, and medicine, Introduction to Lipidomics: From Bacteria to Man organizes the vast diversity of lipid molecules around simple analytical concepts, which are also understandable to students and readers from other scientific fields. It describes the structure, history, and function of lipids that play a key role in energy metabolism, cell signaling, and the formation of membranes of living cells. Each lipid section in the book contains a brief account of its discovery, biological functions, and possible pharmacological properties. An appendix is devoted to the chronology of lipid discoveries and associated techniques, supplemented by a bibliography of the major lipid groups and a review of lipid Web sites. The first comprehensive book on lipidomics, this long-awaited work inventories the huge variety of lipid molecules from animal, plant, and bacterial cells. It includes marine ecosystems, little-known structures from bibliographic data, cultural references, and context. A true text rather than just a catalog, it is highly informative and educational while simultaneously being anecdotal and interesting.
This thesis presents the development of theranostic gold nanostars (GNS) for multimodality cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that a novel two-pronged treatment, combining immune-checkpoint inhibition and GNS-mediated photothermal nanotherapy, can not only eradicate primary treated tumors but also trigger immune responses to treat distant untreated tumors in a mouse animal model. Cancer has become a significant threat to human health with more than eight million deaths each year, and novel methods for cancer management to improve patients' overall survival are urgently needed. The developed multifunctional GNS nanoprobe with tip-enhanced plasmonics in the near-infrared region can be combined with (1) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), (2) two-photon photoluminescence (TPL), (3) X-ray computed tomography (CT), (4) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (5) positron emission tomography (PET), and (6) photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer imaging and treatment. The ability of the GNS nanoprobe to detect submillimeter intracranial brain tumors was demonstrated using PET scan - a superior non-invasive imaging modality - in a mouse animal model. In addition, delayed rechallenge with repeated cancer cell injection in cured mice did not lead to new tumor formation, indicating generation of a memorized immune response to cancer. The biocompatible gold nanostars with superior capabilities for cancer imaging and treatment have great potential for translational medicine applications.
Experts from around the world review the current field of the immunobiology of heat shock proteins, and provide a comprehensive account of how these molecules are spearheading efforts in the understanding of various pathways of the immune system. This one-stop resource contains numerous images to both help illustrate the research on heat shock proteins, and better clarify the field for the non-expert. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were discovered in 1962 and were quickly recognized for their role in protecting cells from stress. Twenty years later, the immunogenicity of a select few HSPs was described, and for the past 30 years, these findings have been applied to numerous branches of immunology, including tumor immunology and immunosurveillance, immunotherapy, etiology of autoimmunity, immunotherapy of infectious diseases, and expression of innate receptors. While HSPs can be used to manipulate immune responses by exogenous administration, they appear to be involved in initiation of de novo immune responses to cancer and likely in the maintenance of immune homeostasis.
This volume explores the latest methods used to study AMPK by computational, biochemical, biophysical, cellular, and ex vivo and in vivo approaches. The chapters in this book cover specific topics, such as methods to measure change in cellular energy metabolism and analyze metabolic pathways regulated by AMPK; bioinformatics tools to identify AMPK targets; knockdown of AMPK by CRISPR-Cas9; production and crystallization of full-length human AMP-activated protein kinase; cell-free assays to measure the effects of regulatory ligands on AMPK; use of sensors of AMPK activity; AMPK protein interaction by yeast two-hybrid; the role of AMPK in inflammation and autophagy; analyzing the AMPK function in C. elegans and mammals (with special focus on skeletal muscle, blood vessels, kidneys, pancreatic islets and hypothalamus); and human 2 AMPK mutations. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting edge and thorough, AMPK: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and established investigators who are interested in the richly diverse AMPK field.
A comprehensive overview of current empirical valence bond (EVB) theory and applications, one of the most powerful tools for studying chemical processes in the condensed phase and in enzymes. * Discusses the application of EVB models to a broad range of molecular systems of chemical and biological interest, including reaction dynamics, design of artificial catalysts, and the study of complex biological problems * Edited by a rising star in the field of computational enzymology * Foreword by Nobel laureate Arieh Warshel, who first developed the EVB approach
Organic chemistry is required coursework for degrees in life, food, and medical sciences. To help the students discouraged by the belief that this topic cannot be mastered without significant memorization, Arrow Pushing in Organic Chemistry serves as a handy supplement for understanding the subject. Includes new chapters, an expanded index, and additional problem sets complete with detailed solutions Focuses on understanding the mechanics and logic of organic reaction mechanisms Introduces ionic and non-ionic reactive species and reaction mechanisms Teaches strategies to predict reactive species, sites of reactions, and reaction products Provides a solid foundation upon which organic chemistry students can advance with confidence
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 7 The importance of protein-protein interactions in biological systems is a rapidly emerging research theme and the revolution taking place in our understanding of plant genomics is enabling us to make exciting discoveries that have implications for both the fundamental and applied plant sciences. This volume provides, at research and professional level, an overview of our current understanding of the significance of protein-protein interactions in plant biology, drawing comparisons with similar interactions in animal cells. The unique biochemistry associated with photosynthesis in higher plants is also addressed. This is a volume for plant biochemists, cell biologists, molecular biologists and physiologists.
Cellular Signal Processing offers a unifying view of cell signaling based on the concept that protein interactions act as sophisticated data processing networks that govern intracellular and extracellular communication. It is intended for use in signal transduction courses for undergraduate and graduate students working in biology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, and pharmacology, as well as medical students. The text is organized by three key topics central to signal transduction: the protein network, its energy supply, and its evolution. It covers all important aspects of cell signaling, ranging from prokaryotic signal transduction to neuronal signaling, and also highlights the clinical aspects of cell signaling in health and disease. This new edition includes expanded coverage of prokaryotes, as well as content on new developments in systems biology, epigenetics, redox signaling, and small, non-coding RNA signaling.
Although introduction of amino acid chelates in mineral nutrition initially met considerable skepticism and controversy, the greater absorption and bioavailability of amino acid chelated minerals compared to nonchelated minerals have been well-documented for decades. Amino Acid Chelation in Human and Animal Nutrition compiles published chemical, nutritional, and clinical studies with new unpublished research. It interprets the combined data for the first time to explain why the body responds to an amino acid chelate differently than it does to inorganic metal salts. Focusing on digestion, the book follows how chelates are absorbed from the stomach and intestines into the mucosal tissue, their movement from the mucosal tissue into the blood, and uptake into tissue and organ cells. Amino Acid Chelation in Human and Animal Nutrition compares amino acid chelate absorption and metabolism and that of inorganic salts of the same minerals. This book mainly focuses on the ingestion of amino acid metal chelates as a way to optimize mineral absorption, but it also provides a fundamental discussion of chelation chemistry. The author includes his own results, as well as alternate interpretations of the results of numerous studies of animal and human amino acid mineral chelate digestion and absorption. The views published in this book are solely the author's views and do not reflect the views of his company, Albion Laboratories.
Insects are more similar in structure and physiology to mammals than plants or fungi. Consequently, insecticides are often of greater toxicity to mammals than herbicides. This is particularly the case with neurotoxins. However, some insecticides are targeted at structures or hormonal systems specific to insects (insect growth regulators/chitin synthesis inhibitors) so are less harmful but can still be mildly haematotoxic. There are, therefore, issues specific to insecticides, which do not occur with other pesticides - hence the need for a book specifically on insecticide toxicology in mammals. The book starts with general issues relating to the mammalian toxicity of insecticides, including target/non-target specificity, nomenclature and metabolism of insecticides. It then goes on to discuss specific types of insecticides including: organochlorines; anticholinesterases; pyrethrum and synthetic pyrethroids; nicotine and the neonicotinoids; insect growth regulators/ecdysone agonists/chitin synthesis inhibitors; insecticides of natural origin; biological insecticides; and insecticides used in veterinary medicine.
For four decades, this extraordinary textbook played a pivotal role in the way biochemistry is taught, offering exceptionally clear writing, and innovative graphics, coverage of the latest research techniques and advances, and a signature emphasis on physiological and medical relevance. Those defining features are at the heart of this new edition. Paired for the first time with SaplingPlus the most innovative digital solution for biochemistry students. Offering the best combination of resources to help students visualise material and develop successful problem-solving skills in an effort to help students master complex concepts in isolation, and draw on that mastery to make connections across concepts.
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