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This book provides the first comprehensive coverage of the quickly evolving research field of membrane contact sites (MCS). A total of 16 chapters explain their organization and role and unveil the significance of MCS for various diseases. MCS, the intracellular structures where organellar membranes come in close contact with one another, mediate the exchange of proteins, lipids, and ions. Via these functions, MCS are critical for the survival and the growth of the cell. Owing to that central role in the functioning of cells, MCS dysfunctions lead to important defects of human physiology, influence viral and bacterial infection, and cause disease such as inflammation, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. To approach such a multifaceted topic, this volume assembles a series of chapters dealing with the full array of research about MCS and their respective roles for diseases. Most chapters also introduce the history and the state of the art of MCS research, which will initiate discussion points for the respective types of MCS for years to come. This work will appeal to all cell biologists as well as researchers on diseases that are impacted by MCS dysfunction. Additionally, it will stimulate graduate students and postdocs who will energize, drive, and develop the research field in the near future.
This book re-evaluates epidemiological and occupational health studies, experimental studies in animals and in vitro experiments relating to the toxicity of 27 metal and metalloid elements for which evidence of carcinogenicity has been presented. Human carcinogenic risk is substantiated in relation to arsenic, beryllium, thorium, chromium, radioactive elements, probably lead, and some nickel and cobalt compounds, and respirable silica particles, but the carcinogenicity of iron, aluminium, titanium, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, mercury, precious metals, and certain related compounds in humans is unresolved. The toxicity and carcinogenicity of each element is specific but correlates poorly with its position in the Periodic Table. Carcinogenicity differs according to the valency of the ion and its ability to interact with and penetrate membranes in target cells and to bind, denature or induce mutations by genotoxic or epigenetic mechanisms. This important text comprehensively examines each of the elements providing detailed information on the carcinogenicity and toxicity and detailing the most up-to-date research in this area. The book will be an essential tool for toxicologists, medicinal and biochemists, and environmental scientists working in both industry and academia.
In a world with access to unlimited amounts of data, how can users who need to make critical scientific and technical decisions find high quality, reliable data? Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics remains a hallmark of quality. For over 100 years, the Handbook has provided property data on chemical compounds and all physical particles that have been reported in the literature, carefully reviewed by subject experts. Every year older collections are updated with the latest values and new areas will be added as science progresses.
Cold adaptation includes a complex range of structural and functional adaptations at the level of all cellular constituents, and these adaptations render cold-adapted organisms particularly useful for biotechnological applications. This book presents the most recent knowledge of (i) boundary conditions for microbial life in the cold, (ii) microbial diversity in various cold ecosystems, (iii) molecular cold adaptation mechanisms and (iv) the resulting biotechnological perspectives.
This book highlights the latest advances made in the niche area of Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox processes in plants. It offers a valuable guide for researchers and students alike, providing insights into sensing, detox scavenging, the role in oxidative deterioration, and signaling associated with redox-regulatory processes in plants. The book also dramatically demonstrates how these amazingly resourceful molecular species and radicals are poised at the core of a sophisticated network of signaling pathways, and act as vital regulators of plants' cell physiology and cellular responses to the environment. The molecular language associated with ROS-mediated signal transduction, which produces modulations in gene expression that determine plants' stress acclamatory performance, is also discussed. The book subsequently provides information on current trends in redox proteomics and genomics, which include efforts to gain a fuller understanding of these redox players' role in cellular processes, and to further the application of this knowledge to technology and agriculture. Given its scope and format, the book offers a valuable asset for students of Plant Sciences, Agriculture, and Molecular Biology, as well as readers engaged in research on and teaching ROS Biology.
Biomolecular Free Radical Toxicity: Causes and Prevention provides
a comprehensive overview of biomolecular injury. By discussing
recent research and providing interpretations of the available
data, this unique and timely book explores the causes of
biomolecular injury and the possible routes to its prevention.
Split into three sections, the book covers:
A Practical Guide to Monoclonal Antibodies J. Eryl Liddell and A. Cryer Department of Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Cardiff, UK
This book has evolved as a result of the success of the post-experience courses in monoclonal antibody technology run by the Department of Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Cardiff. The authors have designed it to provide all the information required by a competent scientist to produce monoclonal antibodies, from basic tissue culture techniques, through immunisation strategies and screening test design, to the production of hybridoma cell lines and basic antibody characterisation, purification and labelling. The protocols are presented in a clearly distinguishable format for use at the laboratory bench. The concluding chapter provides an overview of the current status of human hybridoma production and antibody engineering using techniques of molecular biology. This book is essential reading for graduates in the biological sciences and in medicine who are involved in the making and using of monoclonal antibodies in commercial, university and medical laboratories.
This fully updated and expanded second edition of a highly popular text book focuses on the structure and mechanism in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Carbohydrates play important roles in biological systems as energy sources, as structural materials, and as informational structures (when they are often attached to proteins or lipids). Their chemical reactivity and conformational behaviour is governed by mechanistic and stereochemical rules, which apply as much to enzymic as to non-enzymic reactivity. The same principles of reactivity and conformation govern changes brought about in the process industries, such as pulp, paper and food. Extensively referenced with citations and a detailed index, the book contains everything the reader needs to know to start a carbohydrate research project with one of the real strengths being the treatment and integration of the important physical-chemical principles and methods (though lead references only are given to the finer points of carbohydrate synthesis). The book is suitable for both researchers who are new to the subject and those more established as well as a readership from diverse backgrounds and interests, including chemists, biochemists, food scientists and technologists involved with the processing of polysaccharides in the paper, textile, cosmetics, biofuels and other industries.
This book examines the environmental sources, geochemistry and human effects of trace elements. Topics discussed include an assessment of cancer and non-cancer health risk caused by trace element content in Belgrade; flow opto-sensing applied to the analysis of trace elements; trace metals in fruits and vegetables and their effect on human health; excessive livestock mineral supplementation on environmental pollution; assessing the geochemistry of trace elements in canal sediments; and trace element deficiencies in crops.
This book has been written by nearly twenty relevant authors in the field of ionic liquids. This book is a summary which will appeal not only to students and professionals, but also to non-qualified people interested in chemistry in general. Certainly, the readers of this book can take a pleasant stroll through the marvellous world of ionic liquids and some of their most important and novel applications. Their characteristics and applications are presented from the most general to the most specific points of view. In addition, these points are presented with more than sufficient scientific and technical references which can easily be found in the literature.
Connect biochemistry to clinical practice!" Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry links biochemistry to physiology and pathophysiology, allowing students to apply fundamental concepts to the practice of medicine - from diagnosing patients to recommending effective treatments. Intuitively organized chapters center on hypothetical patient vignettes, highlighting the material's clinical applications; helpful icons allow for smooth navigation, making complex concepts easier to grasp. Full-color illustrations make chemical structures and biochemical pathways easy to visualize. Patient vignettes connect biochemistry to human health and disease. Clinical Notes explain patient signs or symptoms, and Method Notes relate biochemistry to the laboratory tests ordered during diagnosis. Clinical Comments link biochemical dynamics to treatment options and patient outcomes. Biochemical Comments explore directions for new research. Key Concepts and Summary Disease tables highlight the take-home messages in each chapter. Questions and answers at the end of each chapter - 470 total inside the book, with 560 more online - probe students' mastery of key concepts. Additional handy resources available online make it easy to review all diseases and all methods covered throughout the book and to find references for further information and study
This fundamental book presents the most comprehensive summary of the current state in chemistry of cage metal complexes. After their previous book "The Encapsulation Phenomenon" (www.springer.com/978-3-319-27737-0) the authors in this book focus on the encapsulation of metal ions by different types of three-dimensional mono- and polynucleating caging ligands. Within these cage metal complexes, (metal) ions can be isolated from external factors. The book provides both a classification of the cage compounds and summaries of synthetic approaches. On that basis the authors then describe the unique chemical and physical properties and the resulting reactivity of the cage compounds, as well as practical and potential applications as potent topological drugs and prodrugs, antifibrillogenic agents, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic compounds, paramagnetic probes, single-molecule magnets, electrocatalysts for hydrogen production, (photo)electronic devices, and many more. Readers will find a well-structured and concise overview, with particular emphasis on a review of synthesis and reactivity of various cage metal complexes, summarizing over 400 literature references, clearly presented in over 300 color schemes and figures.
This volume of the established Subcellular Biochemistry series presents 20 chapters dealing with a broad range of interesting protein complexes. It will enable researchers to readily appreciate the major contribution from both X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy in this field of study. The biological significance of these structural studies is emphasised throughout the book. The diversity of the material included here indicates the breadth of this field and the tremendous progress that has been made in recent years. The book is directed primarily to advanced students and researchers in structural biology, and others in the biochemical sciences. It will be supplemented by other related books within the Subcellular Biochemistry series. One of the Editors (JM-W) is actively involved in structural biology and the other (JRH), as a retired academic and the Series Editor of Subcellular Biochemistry, has long experience at editing multi-author books.
Among the many GPCRs discovered, the calcitonin family of receptors comprise of members that regulate a number of physiological processes and are involved in many pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding how these receptors function is a critical question in the field. When Foord and his colleagues discovered that a single transmembrane protein called Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) could modulate the surface expression of GPCRs of the calcitonin family, it widely opened the field of receptor life cycle. Hundreds of studies have confirmed the importance of RAMPs in the life cycle of this receptor family. Receptor biology is a rapidly expanding field and with the advances in cell and molecular biology and in vivo techniques, it is very likely that the field of RAMPs will explode further and many unanswered questions will be answered with in the next few years.
Since the first edition in 1948, "Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology" has become a flagship publication for Wiley. In the course of its nearly six decades in print, it has evolved into a standard reference for the fields of occupational health and toxicology. The volumes on Industrial Hygiene are cornerstone reference works for chemists, engineers, toxicologists, and occupational safety personnel.
Since the 5th edition was published, the field of IH has changed with personnel often working for multinational firms, self-employed, at small consulting firms. Their environment has changed and expanded, and thus also the types of information and resources required have changed. The traditional areas of interest to occupational health and safety professionals include anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of potential hazards. In addition to these, the 6th edition provides information and reliable resources to prepare for natural disasters, exposures to biological agents and potential acts of terrorism.
The number one bestselling textbook for the introductory biochemistry course because it brings clarity and coherence to an often unwieldy discipline, offering a thoroughly updated survey of biochemistry's enduring principles, definitive discoveries, and groundbreaking new advances with each edition. This new Seventh Edition maintains the qualities that have distinguished the text since Albert Lehninger's original edition-clear writing, careful explanations of difficult concepts, helpful problem-solving support, and insightful communication of contemporary biochemistry's core ideas, new techniques, and pivotal discoveries. Again, David Nelson and Michael Cox introduce students to an extraordinary amount of exciting new findings without an overwhelming amount of extra discussion or detail. With this edition, W.H. Freeman and Sapling Learning have teamed up to provide the book's richest, most completely integrated text/media learning experience yet, through an extraordinary new online resource; SaplingPlus. See `Instructor Resources' and `Student Resources' for further information.
This book focuses on some of the most significant advances in enzyme engineering that have been achieved through directed evolution and hybrid approaches. On the 25th anniversary of the discovery of directed evolution, this volume is a tribute to the pioneers of this thrilling research field, and at the same time provides a comprehensive overview of current research and the state of the art. Directed molecular evolution has become the most reliable and robust method to tailor enzymes, metabolic pathways or even whole microorganisms with improved traits. By mirroring the Darwinian algorithm of natural selection on a laboratory scale, new biomolecules of invaluable biotechnological interest can now be engineered in a manner that surpasses the boundaries of nature. The volume is divided into two sections, the first of which provides an update on recent successful cases of enzyme ensembles from different areas of the biotechnological spectrum, including tryptophan synthases, unspecific peroxygenases, phytases, therapeutic enzymes, stereoselective enzymes and CO2-fixing enzymes. This section also provides information on the directed evolution of whole cells. The second section of the book summarizes a variety of the most applicable methods for library creation, together with the future trends aimed at bringing together directed evolution and in silico/computational enzyme design and ancestral resurrection.
Covering a key topic due to growing research into the role of signaling mechanisms in toxicology, this book focuses on practical approaches for informatics, big data, and complex data sets. Combines fundamentals / basics with experimental applications that can help those involved in preclinical drug studies and translational research Includes detailed presentations of study methodology and data collection, analysis, and interpretation Discusses tools like experimental design, sample handling, analytical measurement techniques
Aquaporins are channel proteins that facilitate the diffusion of water and small uncharged solutes across cellular membranes. Plant aquaporins form a large family of highly divergent proteins that are involved in many different physiological processes. This book will summarize the recent advances regarding plant aquaporins, their phylogeny, structure, substrate specificity, mechanisms of regulation and roles in various important physiological processes related to the control of water flow and small solute distribution at the cell, tissue and plant level in an ever-changing environment.
Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.
Enzymes are giant macromolecules which catalyse biochemical reactions. They are remarkable in many ways. Their three-dimensional structures are highly complex, yet they are formed by spontaneous folding of a linear polypeptide chain. Their catalytic properties are far more impressive than synthetic catalysts which operate under more extreme conditions. Each enzyme catalyses a single chemical reaction on a particular chemical substrate with very high enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity at rates which approach "catalytic perfection." Living cells are capable of carrying out a huge repertoire of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, some of which have little or no precedent in organic chemistry.
The popular textbook "Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry "has been thoroughly updated to include information on the most recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action, with additional recent examples from the literature used to illustrate key points. A major new feature is the inclusion of two-colour figures, and the addition of over 40 new figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text, in order to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function.
This new edition provides a concise but comprehensive account from the perspective of organic chemistry, what enzymes are, how they work, and how they catalyse many of the major classes of enzymatic reactions, and will continue to prove invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio-organic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.
This book focuses on recent topics in metallomics, a study of the metallome, or metal-containing biomolecules. Metals can induce various physiological and toxicological effects in a very small amounts, in other words, the concentrations of biometals are very low in organisms. Thus, analytical techniques for a trace amount of metal are crucial to understand the biological and toxicological functions of metals.This volume begins with an overview of metallomics including the history and development of the field. Subsequent parts provide basic and advanced techniques for metallomics. Speciation and imaging of metals are basic approaches to reveal the function of the metallome. The applications of speciation using an HPLC hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) and flow cytometry ICP-MS are described. As advanced approaches, the applications using a micro-flow injection-ICP-MS, an ICP-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, an ICP-sector field mass spectrometer, and an ICP-multi-collector mass spectrometer are mentioned. For the imaging of metals, basic principles and applications of several techniques such as scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy and ICP-MS equipped with laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) are presented. Speciation analyses using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are also introduced. The last part highlights the medical and pharmaceutical applications of metallomics. Molecular biological approaches to reveal the effects of toxic metals, metal functions in brain and neurodegenerative diseases, and metallodrugs are explained. The topic of metal transporters is also presented.
Natural products chemistry -- the chemistry of metabolite products of plants, animals and microorganisms -- is involved in the investigation of biological phenomena ranging from drug mechanisms to gametophytes and receptors and drug metabolism in the human body to protein and enzyme chemistry. Introduction to Natural Products Chemistry has collected the most important research results of natural product chemistry in China. It overviews the basic principles of isolation, structure, and characteristics of natural products and illustrates current research techniques of structure elucidation with real-life examples of wet chemistry and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS and NMR, especially 2d-NMR, HMBC and HMQC), bioactivity, biosynthesis, and chemical synthesis. Specifically, this book covers: * Extraction and isolation of natural products * Chemistry of fungal products * Alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenes and saponins * Amino acids and peptides * Flavonoids, anthraquinones, coumarins and lignansa * Marine natural products * Structural modification of active principles from traditional * Chinese medicine * Chemical synthesis of natural products Although natural products chemistry has produced enormous results and made great contributions to human health, industry, and agriculture, only a fraction of natural resources have been rigorously studied. Chinese natural products are a gold mine for further exploration with modern technology and methods. This book represents the continuing collaboration between the fields of natural products chemistry, medicine, biology, and agriculture which will continue to discover and implement novel chemical products from natural sources.
It is well established that among the many known and tested immunomodulators, polysaccharides isolated from various natural sources occupy a prominent position. beta-Glucans belong to a group of biologically active natural compounds called biological response modifiers. These substances represent highly conserved structural components of cell walls in yeast, fungi, grain and seaweed. Its role as an immunomodulator has been well documented for over 50 years. Initial interest in the immunomodulatory properties of polysaccharides was raised after experiments revealed that a crude yeast cell preparation stimulated macrophages via activation of complement. Glucan represents a type of immunostimulant that is active over the full spectrum of biological species, which allowed glucan to be used as a potent immunostimulator in commercially important species such as shrimps, fish or pigs. In the last decade, a renewed interest in human application has brought about some important studies on orally-administered glucan resulting in 18 currently running clinical trials.Fortunately, in the last years, research in reputable laboratories has reached a phase when the basic mechanisms of beta-glucan effects are known and the relationship between structure and activity were clearly established. It seems now that beta-glucans will finally take a position which was ascribed to them more than fifty years ago.
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