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With nearly 400 original illustrations, this NMR primer provides an introduction to solution NMR spectroscopy at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and working scientists with backgrounds in chemistry or biochemistry. It presents the underlying physics and mathematics in a way that is both accessible and sufficiently complete to allow a real understanding of modern multi-dimensional experiments, thereby giving readers the tools they need to move to more advanced textbooks and articles. One special feature of this text is a thorough, but accessible, treatment of spin quantum mechanics, including scalar-coupled spins. A novel style of vector diagram is used to represent the quantum correlations between coupled spins and the manipulation of these correlations by pulses and time evolution. This will help to clarify what is arguably the most difficult aspect of NMR for students and practitioners to master. Key Features: - Hundreds of original illustrations show both traditional and non-traditional vector diagrams, that describe the correlations between scalar-coupled spins. The non-traditional vector diagrams are a unique highlight of this text, and are used to illustrate experiments based on scalar coupling and as an aid to product-operator calculations. - Numerical simulations are used to illustrate many important ideas, including standard data processing techniques and the random processes associated with NMR relaxation. - Important mathematical concepts and techniques, such as complex numbers and the Fourier transformation, are introduced where they are required in the text. - Each chapter includes chapter-ending problems and exercises as well as a summary of major points and references for further reading.
A state-of-the-art review of key topics in medical image perception science and practice, including associated techniques, illustrations and examples. This second edition contains extensive updates and substantial new content. Written by key figures in the field, it covers a wide range of topics including signal detection, image interpretation and advanced image analysis (e.g. deep learning) techniques for interpretive and computational perception. It provides an overview of the key techniques of medical image perception and observer performance research, and includes examples and applications across clinical disciplines including radiology, pathology and oncology. A final chapter discusses the future prospects of medical image perception and assesses upcoming challenges and possibilities, enabling readers to identify new areas for research. Written for both newcomers to the field and experienced researchers and clinicians, this book provides a comprehensive reference for those interested in medical image perception as means to advance knowledge and improve human health.
This book presents an overview of the field of bioelectricity by demonstrating the biological significance of electromagnetic fields, electrical properties of tissue, biological effects of electromagnetic energy, and therapeutic applications and health hazards of electromagnetic energy.
A thorough explanation of the tenets of biomechanics
At once a basic and applied science, biomechanics focuses on the mechanical cause-effect relationships that determine the motions of living organisms. "Biomechanics for Dummies" examines the relationship between biological and mechanical worlds. It clarifies a vital topic for students of biomechanics who work in a variety of fields, including biological sciences, exercise and sports science, health sciences, ergonomics and human factors, and engineering and applied science. Following the path of a traditional introductory course, "Biomechanics for Dummies" covers the terminology and fundamentals of biomechanics, bone, joint, and muscle composition and function, motion analysis and control, kinematics and kinetics, fluid mechanics, stress and strain, applications of biomechanics, and black and white medical illustrations.Offers insights and expertise in biomechanics to provide an easy-to-follow, jargon-free guide to the subjectProvides students who major in kinesiology, neuroscience, biomedical engineering, mechanical engineering, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physical education, nutritional science, and many other subjects with a basic knowledge of biomechanics
Students and self-motivated learners interested in biological, applied, exercise, sports, and health sciences should not be without this accessible guide to the fundamentals.
The present book volume presents a holistic view of the aspects of nanobiomaterials incl. their stellar merits and limitations, applications in diverse fields, their futuristic promise in the fields of biomedical science and drug delivery. The federal & regulatory issues on the usage of nanobiomaterials have been assigned due consideration.
This comprehensive book presents a modern concept in biophysics based on recently published research. It highlights various aspects of the biophysical fundamentals and techniques that are currently used to study different physical properties of biomolecules, and relates the biological phenomenon with the underlying physical concepts. The content is divided into nine chapters summarizing the structural details of proteins, including recently discovered novel folds, higher order structures of nucleic acids, as well as lipids and the physical forces governing the macromolecular interactions which are essential for the various biological processes. It also provides insights into the recent advances in biophysical techniques including Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS), Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo Electron Microscopy (cryo EM), supplemented with interesting experimental data. It is a valuable reference resource for anyone with a desire to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of biophysical concepts and techniques of important biomolecules.
What every neuroscientist should know about the mathematical modeling of excitable cells. Combining empirical physiology and nonlinear dynamics, this text provides an introduction to the simulation and modeling of dynamic phenomena in cell biology and neuroscience. It introduces mathematical modeling techniques alongside cellular electrophysiology. Topics include membrane transport and diffusion, the biophysics of excitable membranes, the gating of voltage and ligand-gated ion channels, intracellular calcium signalling, and electrical bursting in neurons and other excitable cell types. It introduces mathematical modeling techniques such as ordinary differential equations, phase plane, and bifurcation analysis of single-compartment neuron models. With analytical and computational problem sets, this book is suitable for life sciences majors, in biology to neuroscience, with one year of calculus, as well as graduate students looking for a primer on membrane excitability and calcium signalling.
This edited volume discusses the complexity of tumor microenvironments during cancer development, progression and treatment. Each chapter presents a different mathematical model designed to investigate the interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma and stromal cells. The topics covered in this book include the quantitative image analysis of a tumor microenvironment, the microenvironmental barriers in oxygen and drug delivery to tumors, the development of tumor microenvironmental niches and sanctuaries, intravenous transport of the circulating tumor cells, the role of the tumor microenvironment in chemotherapeutic interventions, the interactions between tumor cells, the extracellular matrix, the interstitial fluid, and the immune and stromal cells. Mathematical models discussed here embrace both continuous and agent-based approaches, as well as mathematical frameworks of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and optimal control theory. The topics in each chapter will be of interest to a biological community wishing to apply the mathematical methods to interpret their experimental data, and to a biomathematical audience interested in exploring how mathematical models can be used to address complex questions in cancer biology.
Current techniques for studying biological macromolecules and their interactions are based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to more recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. Reflecting the advances made in biophysics research over the past decade, and now including a new section on medical imaging, this new edition describes the physical methods used in modern biology. All key techniques are covered, including mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy and imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance. Each method is explained in detail using examples of real-world applications. Short asides are provided throughout to ensure that explanations are accessible to life scientists, physicists and those with medical backgrounds. The book remains an unparalleled and comprehensive resource for graduate students of biophysics and medical physics in science and medical schools, as well as for research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques from across this interdisciplinary field.
Does modern economic theory violate some basic, fundamental laws of physics? That is the question that award-winning environmental and energy writer Nathanial Gronewold sets out to answer in Anthill Economics. Gronewold points out that the modern school of economics is missing a significant piece of the puzzle: energy. And not just oil, or natural gas or wind power, but rather the fundamental importance of energy in transforming matter into food, shelter, and material possessions. Ecologists have been using the principles of biophysics -population density, energy return on investment, and habitation patterns -to study ecosystems for centuries. But what if those same principles hold the key to the global human economy? After all, at its core, the global economy is simply humanity's ecosystem. Anthill Economics puts forth an innovative and cross-disciplinary approach, asserting that biophysical laws are just as fundamental to the global economy as they are to zoology and entomology. The rollercoaster-like rise and fall of caribou population on a remote island can teach us about resource allocation and global inequality. The behavior of squirrels gathering nuts is a lesson in economic energy return on investment and wage stagnation. Could human traffic patterns mimic the daily pulse of ants in the forests marching in and out of their own central business districts? And, will global warming change these patterns for humans and insects alike? This clearly written book full of illuminating ecological analogies gives readers an informed and entertaining introduction to the cutting-edge field of biophysical economics -also known as thermoeconomics -that seeks to provide a more complete understanding of the global economy. The result is a radical new way of looking at the world and how the laws of physics and nature can be used to more precisely understand human demographics, population patterns, and economics.
Seeking Symmetry: Finding patterns in human health offers a guide through the overwhelming mass of data generated by contemporary science. Starved for the knowledge that would best help us stay healthy, we are simultaneously glutted with an overload of information about the human body. Amidst ubiquitous talk that patient-centered care and lifestyle changes are the keys to personal health, self-neglect and medical overtreatment nevertheless prevail. The body is rich with symmetries, many of them unknown to us who live in these bodies. Symmetry-seeking reveals certain patterns for understanding the information we have about the body, patterns whose roots lie in embryonic development and in evolution. The book's exploration will guide readers through the parts of their own bodies and introduce tangible, visible examples of symmetry, not only right and left but up and down, male and female, inside and out, as well as symmetries between humans and other species. It presents the symmetries of the body's internal structures that, despite their complexity, are nevertheless simple to understand when viewed with an eye for pattern. Through both words and images, this book will illustrate the most foundational of the principles, structures, and processes that decide how bodies function. A core purpose of the book is to present this knowledge through a lens that makes the information meaningful, by modeling the habit of symmetry-seeking.
Originally developed for the author's course at Union College, this text is directed at life science students who need to understand the connections of fundamental physics to modern biology and medicine. To aid learning, each chapter contains open-ended questions, multiple-choice questions and quantitative problems.
Cancer deaths per capita have decreased in recent years, but the improvement is attributed to prevention, not treatment. The difficulty in treating cancer may be due to its 'complexity', in the mathematical physics sense of the word. Tumors evolve and spread in response to internal and external factors that involve feedback mechanisms and nonlinear behavior. Investigations of the nonlinear interactions among cells, and between cells and their environment, are crucial for developing a sufficiently detailed understanding of the system's emergent phenomenology to be able to control the behavior. In the case of cancer, controlling the system's behavior will mean the ability to treat and cure the disease. Physicists have been studying various complex, nonlinear systems for many years using a variety of techniques. These investigations have provided insights that allow physicists to make unique contributions towards the treatment of cancer.This interdisciplinary book presents recent advancements in physicists' research on cancer. The work presented in this volume uses a variety of physical, biochemical, mathematical, theoretical, and computational techniques to gain a deeper molecular and cellular understanding of the horrific disease that is cancer.
Uniting the conceptual foundations of the physical sciences and biology, this groundbreaking multidisciplinary book explores the origin of life as a planetary process. Combining geology, geochemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, evolution and statistical physics to create an inclusive picture of the living state, the authors develop the argument that the emergence of life was a necessary cascade of non-equilibrium phase transitions that opened new channels for chemical energy flow on Earth. This full colour and logically structured book introduces the main areas of significance and provides a well-ordered and accessible introduction to multiple literatures outside the confines of disciplinary specializations, as well as including an extensive bibliography to provide context and further reading. For researchers, professionals entering the field or specialists looking for a coherent overview, this text brings together diverse perspectives to form a unified picture of the origin of life and the ongoing organization of the biosphere.
This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual inspection of images and who wish to learn more about the diagnostic potential of quantitative and biophysics-based medical imaging markers and the challenges that the paucity of such markers poses for next-generation imaging technologies.
Why are we alive? Most things in the universe aren't. And if you trace the evolutionary history of plants and animals back far enough, you will find that, at some point, neither were we. Scientists have wrestled with this problem for centuries, and no one has been able to offer a credible theory. But in 2013, at just 30 years old, biophysicist Jeremy England published a paper that has utterly upended the ongoing study of life's origins. In Every Life Is on Fire, he describes, for the first time, his highly publicized theory known as dissipative adaptation. In any disordered system, matter clumps together and breaks apart, mostly randomly, without consequence. But some of the clumps that form are momentarily better at doing one specific job: dissipating energy. These structures are less likely to fall apart. Over time, they become better at both withstanding the disorder surrounding them and creating copies of themselves. From this deep insight, grounded in thermodynamics, England is able to isolate the emergence of the first life-like behaviors. Scientists have always thought that life began as a stroke of spectacular luck. But in fact, life may be inevitable, a product of the iron physical laws of the universe. England is both a world-class physicist and an ordained rabbi, and so his enquiry doesn't end with the physics of life. We ask questions like "How did life begin?" not just for the fun of scientific inquiry, but because we want a deeper understanding of who we are and why we're here. Even if physics can explain how life-like behaviors emerged, England doubts that reducing life down to the energy flows of a bunch of microscopic particles can ever give us a satisfying answer to what it means to be alive?. He believes that life is fundamentally a philosophical distinction, not a natural one. So before we can seriously look for life's physical origins, we must first make basic choices about what we think life means. This is something researchers often fail to recognize, and it is why, throughout In Every Life Is on Fire, England informs the premises of his theory with a careful exploration of what life is for. For anyone who reads this book, no matter their creed, In Every Life Is On Fire offers a rare work of popular science that explores not just what science does, but how it imbues our lives with meaning.
Combining state-of-the-art research with a strong pedagogic approach, this text provides a detailed and complete guide to the theory, practice and applications of optical tweezers. In-depth derivation of the theory of optical trapping and numerical modelling of optical forces are supported by a complete step-by-step design and construction guide for building optical tweezers, with detailed tutorials on collecting and analysing data. Also included are comprehensive reviews of optical tweezers research in fields ranging from cell biology to quantum physics. Featuring numerous exercises and problems throughout, this is an ideal self-contained learning package for advanced lecture and laboratory courses, and an invaluable guide to practitioners wanting to enter the field of optical manipulation. The text is supplemented by www.opticaltweezers.org, a forum for discussion and a source of additional material including free-to-download, customisable research-grade software (OTS) for calculation of optical forces, digital video microscopy, optical tweezers calibration and holographic optical tweezers.
This textbook presents a broad overview of topics concerning cellular electrophysiology - covering topics ranging from bioelectric phenomena recognized as far back as ancient Egypt to popular topics on the dangers of electrosmog. Without sacrificing scientific precision, this clear and concise work presents on the one hand the different methods and applications, on the other hand the biophysical fundamentals of ion-channel and carrier proteins. Numerous and carefully selected illustrations and diagrams supplement the text, while questions at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding. Each section also includes references to relevant original literature for further reading. The book offers a valuable resource for students of biology, chemistry and physics with a special interest in biophysics.
Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.
This monograph is the first easy-to-read-and-understand book on prion proteins' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and on prions' molecular modelling (MM) constructions. It enables researchers to see what is crucial to the conformational change from normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to diseased infectious prions (PrPSc), using MD and MM techniques. As we all know, prion diseases, caused by the body's own proteins, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases effecting humans and almost all animals for a major public health concern. Prion contains no nucleic acids and it is a misshapen or conformation-changed protein that acts like an infectious agent; thus prion diseases are called "protein structural conformational" diseases. PrPC is predominant in -helices but PrPSc are rich in -sheets in the form as amyloid fibrils; so very amenable to be studied by MD techniques. Through MD, studies on the protein structures and the structural conversion are very important for revealing secrets of prion diseases and for structure-based drug design or discovery. Rabbits, dogs, horses and buffaloes are reported to be the few low susceptibility species to prion diseases; this book's MD studies on these species are clearly helpful to understand the mechanism underlying the resistance to prion diseases. PrP(1-120) usually has no clear molecular structures; this book also studies this unstructured region through MD and especially MM techniques from the global optimization point of view. This book is ideal for practitioners in computing of biophysics, biochemistry, biomedicine, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, materials science and engineering, applied mathematics and theoretical physics, information technology, operations research, biostatistics, etc. As an accessible introduction to these fields, this book is also ideal as a teaching material for students.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
A thoroughly updated and extended new edition of this well-regarded introduction to the basic concepts of biological physics for students in the health and life sciences. Designed to provide a solid foundation in physics for students following health science courses, the text is divided into six sections: Mechanics, Solids and Fluids, Thermodynamics, Electricity and DC Circuits, Optics, and Radiation and Health. Filled with illustrative examples, Introduction to Biological Physics for the Health and Life Sciences, Second Edition features a wealth of concepts, diagrams, ideas and challenges, carefully selected to reference the biomedical sciences. Resources within the text include interspersed problems, objectives to guide learning, and descriptions of key concepts and equations, as well as further practice problems. NEW CHAPTERS INCLUDE: Optical Instruments Advanced Geometric Optics Thermodynamic Processes Heat Engines and Entropy Thermodynamic Potentials This comprehensive text offers an important resource for health and life science majors with little background in mathematics or physics. It is also an excellent reference for anyone wishing to gain a broad background in the subject. Topics covered include: Kinematics Force and Newton's Laws of Motion Energy Waves Sound and Hearing Elasticity Fluid Dynamics Temperature and the Zeroth Law Ideal Gases Phase and Temperature Change Water Vapour Thermodynamics and the Body Static Electricity Electric Force and Field Capacitance Direct Currents and DC Circuits The Eye and Vision Optical Instruments Atoms and Atomic Physics The Nucleus and Nuclear Physics Ionising Radiation Medical imaging Magnetism and MRI Instructor's support material available through companion website, www.wiley.com/go/biological_physics
This book talks about photoplethysmography (PPG) techniques based on computer-aided data processing. In particular, it presents the results of a co-operative Indo-German project on the topic between Indian Institute of Technology at Chennai and RWTH Aachen University. Measuring system design, experimental details and some preliminary results obtained so far within the framework of this project are presented here. From the investigations carried out so far using the PPG sensors in conjunction with breathing sensors, it has been possible to monitor the 0.125 to 0.15 Hz rhythms in the arterial volumetric changes and to study the influence of breathing on them. These rhythms, which according to medical experts have relevance to psychosomatic conditions e.g. stress or relaxation, can also be addressed to by ancient Indian practices like yoga and meditation. This book presents the results of studying the effects of Indian relaxation techniques like pranayama, meditation, etc. in comparison to western relaxation techniques like autogenic training. So far it has been established that the Indian techniques of relaxation like yoga and meditation are very effective in generating low frequency rhythms in the skin perfusion as monitored by optical sensors. According to medical experts, these low frequency rhythms have a very important bearing on the human physiology and have potential therapeutic implications. This book is meant to provide an overview of the current state-of-knowledge and encourage the next generation of scientists/engineers to carry this work forward, especially on the novel PPG application fields that are of growing importance like pain and stress assessment, detection of peripheral venous saturation and local arterio-venous oxygen consumption as well as contactless space resolved skin perfusion studies with modern camera based PPG technology.
This detailed collection explores techniques involved in the main strategies of nanopore sensing, such as translocation, analyte trapping, and interactions with external binding sites. Opening with a section on nanopore design and nanopore production, the book continues with parts devoted to various biological nanopores, nanopore engineering, and their uses in single molecule sensing, computational methods to study intrinsic nanopore behavior, characterizing the specific translocation activity of a vesicle particle through a nanopore, as well as the use of the technique droplet interface bilayer (DIB) in nanopore and membrane biophysical studies. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Nanopore Technology: Methods and Protocols, with its focus on nanopore technology and biomolecule characterization, will hold the interest of the biophysicists, biochemists, bioengineers, and molecular biologists who are working toward further understanding this key field of research.
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