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Shades of the Prison House explores the history of imprisonment in the British Isles from Anglo-Saxon times to the present day. Over the centuries, prisons - from castle dungeons to "lockups" to "penitentiaries" to gaols - have changed radically in name, conditions, attributes and functions, as well as in their character and rationale. Prisons have served many aims: detention, deterrence, punishment, reformation and rehabilitation, all in varying degrees. Yet while prisons and their purposes have been transformed, the same debates on imprisonment have continually recurred. Concerns about overcrowding and over-pampering, security and safety have been expressed from the very beginning, and modern notions that prison might serve a purpose other than containment or punishment were espoused long before the eighteenth century. Drawing on letters, treatises, personal accounts, histories, legal and official reports and studies of prison architecture and design, this book tells the story of prisons, prison life and those who experienced it, be they prisoners, governors, chaplains, warders, reformers or advocates. As entertaining as it is informative, the book examines the nature and quality of imprisonment over the last fifteen hundred years, before surveying present problems and concluding with thoughts on future directions. HARRY POTTER is a former fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge and a practising barrister specialising in criminal defence. Author of Law, Liberty and the Constitution: A Brief History of the Common Law (Boydell Press, 2015), he wrote and presented an award-winning series on the same subject for the BBC. He has also authored Edinburgh under Siege: 1571-1573 (2003), Blood Feud: The Stewarts and Gordons at War in the Age of Mary Queen of Scots (2002), Hanging and Heresy (1994) and Hanging in Judgment: Religion and the Death Penalty in England from the Bloody Code to Abolition (1993). Before being called to the Bar, he worked as a prison chaplain, largely with long-term and life-sentence prisoners.
What constituted a secret or a scandal in times gone by? This entertaining title in this new series gives an overview of the times and attitudes to `secrets', and what was meant by a `scandal'. The series uncovers revelations of spies and plots, financial scandals, secrets of the royal bedchambers, dynastic tangles, and the exploits of both villains and so-called saints. Noble lords and ladies sampled the same pleasures and sometimes met the same ghastly fate as common criminals. Enemies of the state plotted and were plotted against, while a horrible fate awaited those found guilty of treason, hanged, drawn and quartered to the jeers of the mob. Assassins lurked in alleys, ghoulish body snatchers opened graves in the dead of night... This highly illustrated guide includes places associated with the stories.
The Apostolic Penitentiary was and remains the highest office in the Catholic Church concerned with sin and matters of conscience. The papacy reserved to itself absolution from certain grave sins, and successive popes empowered the cardinal penitentiary in charge of the office to absolve sinners in these reserved cases, which included violence against or by the clergy and abandonment of the religious life. The cardinal was also authorised to grant other favours that were a papal monopoly, including dispensations, notably for marriages between close relatives normally forbidden by church law, and special licences, for example allowing confession to a personal chaplain rather than one's parish priest. Petitioners from across Western Europe requested such favours in their thousands and their supplications shed important new light on religious, social and even political history, covering themes as varied as marriage, sexual deviance, violence, the religious life, popular piety, illegitimacy, and pilgrimage. This valuable evidence, recorded in the registers of the Apostolic Penitentiary held in the Vatican Archives, has only been available to researchers since 1983. This edition makes accessible for the first time over 4,000 supplications concerning England and Wales in the office's fifty earliest surviving registers; they are presented with notes and introduction and other apparatus. Peter D. Clarke is Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Southampton; Patrick N.R. Zutshi is Keeper of Manuscripts and University Archives, Cambridge University Library, and a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
The second edition of this popular Years of... title provides core coverage of English history from the emergence of the Tudor dynasty during the Wars of the Roses through to the death of Elizabeth I. The authors analyse the reigns of the respective Tudor monarchs and examine important themes including the Tudor Rebellions, economy and society, culture and society, religion in Tudor England, and relations with Scotland, Wales and Ireland during the period. The chapters are detailed yet accessible, and feature up-to-date and stimulating selections of visual and written source material.
‘But Lord, what a sad sight it was by moonlight to see the whole City almost on fire’
The 1660s represent a turning point in English history, and for the main events – the Restoration, the Dutch War, the Great Plague and the Fire of London – Pepys provides a definitive eyewitness account. As well as recording public and historical events, Pepys paints a vivid picture of his personal life, from his socializing and amorous entanglements, to theatre going and his work at the Navy Board. Unequalled for its frankness, high spirits and sharp observations, the diary is both a literary masterpiece and a marvellous portrait of seventeenth-century life.
PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED AS THE SHORTER PEPYS
A Common Man's Survival After Being Captured at the Battle of Dunbar and Sold into Servitude in America In the winter of 1650-51, one hundred fifty ragged and hungry Scottish prisoners of war arrived at Massachusetts Bay Colony, where they were sold as indentured laborers for 20 to 30 pounds each. Among them was Thomas Doughty, a common foot soldier who had survived the Battle of Dunbar, a forced marched of 100 miles without food or water, imprisonment in Durham Cathedral, and a difficult Atlantic crossing. An ordinary individual who experienced extraordinary events, Doughty was among some 420 Scottish soldiers who were captured during the War of the Three Kingdoms, transported to America, and sold between 1650 and 1651. Their experiences offer a fresh perspective on seventeenth--century life. The Involuntary American: A Scottish Prisoner's Journey to the New World by Carol Gardner describes Doughty's life as a soldier, prisoner of war, exile, servant, lumberman, miller, and ultimately free landowner. It follows him and his peers through critical events: the apex of the Little Ice Age, the War of the Three Kingdoms, the colonization of New England, the burgeoning transatlantic trade in servants and slaves, King Philip's and King William's wars, and the Salem witch crisis. First-person accounts of individuals who lived through those events--Scottish, English, Puritan, Native American, wealthy, poor, working class, educated or not-- provide rich period detail and a variety of perspectives. The Involuntary American demonstrates how even indi-viduals of humble circumstances were swept into the mael-strom of the First Global Age. It expands our understanding of immigration to the colonies, colonial servitude, the link-ages and tensions between Europe, Massachusetts Bay, and America's northeastern frontier, and of New England socie-ty in the early colonial period.
For centuries, most textile manufacturing relied on people working in their own homes. All that changed in 1761 when Richard Arkwright began construction of the first water-powered cotton mill in Derbyshire. The complex woollen industry was transformed as mills spread cross the north of England and into Scotland, with tasks taken out of the cottage and into the factory. This informative guide tracks the development of the textile manufacturing industry, from industrial power looms meeting with Luddite resistance, to the distinctive silk weaving workrooms. Mill towns sprung up around places of work, including special apprentice houses for children. Conditions were harsh and often dangerous, both in the mills and in woollen towns living under permanent palls of smoke. Packed with photographs and illustrations, this is a classic Pitkin guide to the everyday lives of the workers in this mills and towns, from their work to their time off. There was a time when Britain sent textiles around the world: this is the story of the workforce, mainly women and children, who made this possible - and created the factory age. Includes a list of mills, museums and visitor centres to visit.
Over the past two thousand years London has developed from a small town, fitting snugly within its walls, into one of the world's largest and most dynamic cities. This beautifully illustrated book charts that growth and the city's transformation through hundreds of maps culled from the collection of the British Library's Map Library. These visual records range from sweeping images of the entire city to nuanced studies of its elements and neighborhoods. Including official documents, individual endeavors, hand-drawn renditions, and technologically advanced replicas, these maps represent a variety of perspectives. Utilitarian maps show the city as it is and serve to elucidate its inner workings, while carefully wrought plans show the city as it was envisioned--whether those plans were executed or not. The maps and panoramas collected here are more than topographical records. They all convey unique insight into the concerns, assumptions, ambitions, and prejudices of Londoners at the time the maps were created. In addition to offering readers a tour of London past and present, this book reveals the inside story of the creation, growth, and change of one of the world's greatest cities.
In 1538 John Russell, secretary to the Council of the Welsh Marches, acquired the dissolved priory of Little Malvern, where his descendants, the Beringtons, still live. This selection from the family letters in the Worcestershire Record Office vividly illustrates the impact on Worcestershire of the Reformation and the Civil War. Among much else, it includes correspondence with Thomas Cromwell and Lord Chancellor Audley (who was John Russell's brother-in-law); Elizabethan medical prescriptions and business letters; correspondence about evading the penal laws against Catholics; a mock-heroic Latin skit on James I; a personal letter from one of the Jesuits executed at the time of the Oates Plot, and an official certificate that Little Malvern had been (unsuccessfully) searched for priests. The letters themselves are accompanied by an introduction and explanatory notes. Michael Hodgetts has written extensively on Recusant History and is an acknowledged expert on English Catholic families and their houses.
The Wars of the Roses ushered out the Middle Ages and beckoned in the Tudor period. This guide explains the complex truth behind the bloody struggles for power that ensued during the Wars of the Roses. A family tree enables the reader to see the relationship between the Houses of Lancaster and York.
'He had brought nothing but trouble to the navy: how would he fare as King?' Known as the 'Sailor King', William IV was sent to join the navy by his father to discipline him, but instead became notorious for his calamitous years of service, his debts and his relationship with the actress Mrs Jordan. Yet, as Roger Knight's biography shows, William also helped see the country through the great constitutional crisis of its age, enabling the smooth succession of his niece Victoria.
Historic places across the country have shaped England and the world beyond. They are hotbeds of invention, industry and creativity and they bring our nation's story to life. In 2017 Historic England, supported by specialist insurers Ecclesiastical launched the Irreplaceable: A History of England in 100 Places campaign, designed to celebrate England's remarkable places. Guided by public nominations and a panel of expert judges, including Professor Robert Winston, Mary Beard, George Clarke, David Olusoga, Baroness Tanni Grey Thompson and Bettany Hughes, we compiled a list of 100 places where remarkable things have happened and shaped our collective identity as the country we are today. The book, like the campaign, is divided into ten categories ranging from Music & Literature, through Science & Discovery to Power, Protest & Progress. The final 100 selected places are all contained within this gloriously illustrated book. From the observatory in Greenwich where the modern measurement of time began, to England's oldest inn carved into the sandstone in Nottingham, the choices are surprising, intriguing and enlightening. Some are well-known and others are less familiar, but all deserve to be celebrated as landmarks in England's history. The book explains why each of these 100 places is so important. The result is a unique history of England chosen and told by the people who live here.
For aristocrats and gentry in 18th-century Ireland, the townhouses and country estates they resided in were carefully constructed to accommodate their cultivated lifestyles. Based on new research from Irish national collections and correspondence culled from papers in private keeping, this publication provides a vivid and engaging look at the various ways in which families tailored their homes to their personal needs and preferences. Halls were designed in order to simultaneously support a variety of activities, including dining, music, and games, while closed porches allowed visitors to arrive fully protected from the country's harsh weather. These grand houses were arranged in accordance with their residents' daily procedures, demonstrating a distinction between public and private spaces, and even keeping in mind the roles and arrangements of the servants in their purposeful layouts. With careful consideration given to both the practicality of everyday routine and the occasional special event, this book illustrates how the lives and residential structures of these aristocrats were inextricably woven together.
Irish troops had fought for Louis XIV in the 1670s, under Irish officers who had little choice but to fight in foreign service, with the blessing of Charles II. With the accession of James II, and the religious politics of who might earn the English crown, they became embroiled in the Jacobite succession crisis, fighting in Ireland, then sent to France under Lord Mountcashel in 1689\. With the fall of Limerick in 1691, Patrick Sarsfield led the second 'flight' of 'Wild Geese' to the continent, to fight in a war for the French, against the Grand Alliance of Europe, in the vain hope that their loyalty might warrant French support in a return to Ireland under a Jacobite king. From the Nine Years War, through the War of the Spanish Succession, and beyond, their descendents would be present at Fontenoy, Culloden and in the Americas, forever destined to fight for a cause and land which had changed beyond recognition. D.P.Graham explains the origins of the brigade and its regiments, the personalities who led them and formed their reputation, and the circumstances of their final dissolution in the aftermath of French Revolution.
This book: covers the essential content in the new specifications in a rigorous and engaging way, using detailed narrative, sources, timelines, key words, helpful activities and extension material helps develop conceptual understanding of areas such as evidence, interpretations, causation and change, through targeted activities provides assessment support for A level with sample answers, sources, practice questions and guidance to help you tackle the new-style exam questions. It also comes with three years' access to ActiveBook, an online, digital version of your textbook to help you personalise your learning as you go through the course - perfect for revision.
Discover the fascinating lives of the figures that have shaped Ireland from the early nineteenth century to the present day. Explore the rich history of the island's cultural, social and political landscape, with more than 100 obituaries carefully curated from The Times archive. The Irish have contributed richly to the world, most notably in literature, but also in the arts, law, politics, religion, scholarship, science, soldiering and sport. In this volume, The Times brings together a unique and fascinating collection of obituaries. The list includes people who have made the greatest impact in their fields, others who have led particularly interesting or influential lives, and a selection of notable Irish figures in the history of The Times. The obituaries have been compiled and edited by Dubliner Charles Lysaght. A lawyer, biographer and reviewer, Charles is a long-time writer of obituaries for The Times. In his introduction, he discusses the nature of Times obituaries and how they have reflected the sometimes troubled and controversial relationship of the newspaper with Ireland. This book features the major Irish figures of influence from the last 200 years covering a diverse range of people, from Daniel O'Connell to Ian Paisley, James Joyce to Maureen Potter. The updated second edition built on the first by adding some of Ireland's most notable characters from the modern era, such as Maeve Binchy, Conor Cruise O'Brien and Terry Wogan, while this paperback version brings things right up to date with further additions including Ken Whitaker, Martin McGuinness and Mavis Arnold.
An innovative and compelling study of puritanism that follows the full sweep of the movement's history in England and America Begun in the mid-sixteenth century by Protestant nonconformists keen to reform England's church and society while saving their own souls, the puritan movement was a major catalyst in the great cultural changes that transformed the early modern world. Providing a uniquely broad transatlantic perspective, this groundbreaking volume traces puritanism's tumultuous history from its initial attempts to reshape the Church of England to its establishment of godly republics in both England and America and its demise at the end of the seventeenth century. Shedding new light on puritans whose impact was far-reaching as well as on those who left only limited traces behind them, Michael Winship delineates puritanism's triumphs and tribulations and shows how the puritan project of creating reformed churches working closely with intolerant godly governments evolved and broke down over time in response to changing geographical, political, and religious exigencies.
'Consistently illuminating ... Like all the best stories, it is about the timeless tides of power and influence ... trade deals can sometimes be sexy, thrilling and epic' Sinclair McKay, Spectator Life in Europe was fundamentally changed in the 16th century by the astonishing discoveries of the New World and of direct sea routes to Asia. To start with England was hardly involved and London remained a gloomy, introverted medieval city. But as the century progressed something extraordinary happened. Stephen Alford's evocative, original and fascinating new book uses the same skills that made his widely praised The Watchers so successful, bringing to life the network of merchants, visionaries, crooks and sailors who changed London forever. In a sudden explosion of energy English ships were suddenly found all over the world - trading with Russia and the Levant, exploring Virginia and the Arctic, and fanning out across the Indian Ocean. London's Triumph is above all about the people who made this possible - the families, the guild members, the money-men who were willing to risk huge sums and sometimes their own lives in pursuit of the rare, exotic and desirable. Their ambitions fuelled a new view of the world - initiating a long era of trade and empire, the consequences of which we still live with today.
The souvenir book of the exhibition Wild and Majestic: Romantic Visions of Scotland: National Museum of Scotland, 26 June to 10 November. In the era of the European Romantic movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, Scotland became the subject of international fascination. Using material evidence, the exhibition - and the book - traces Scotland's journey into the global imagination, and show how, by the end of Queen Victoria's reign, a particular version of the cultural traditions of the highlands and islands had become fixed as a badge of wider Scottish identity. The romantic visions of Scotland that took shape during this period have always been questioned. The stories of objects, costume, art, literature and music highlighted in both the exhibition and the book can tell us a great deal about the relationship between Scotland, romance and reality. https://www.nms.ac.uk/national-museum-of-scotland/whats-on/wild-and-majestic/
The lifestory of Mary I--daughter of Henry VIII and his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon--is often distilled to a few dramatic episodes: her victory over the attempted coup by Lady Jane Grey, the imprisonment of her half-sister Elizabeth, the bloody burning of Protestants, her short marriage to Philip of Spain. This original and deeply researched biography paints a far more detailed portrait of Mary and offers a fresh understanding of her religious faith and policies as well as her historical significance in England and beyond.
John Edwards, a leading scholar of English and Spanish history, is the first to make full use of Continental archives in this context, especially Spanish ones, to demonstrate how Mary's culture, Catholic faith, and politics were thoroughly Spanish. Edwards begins with Mary's origins, follows her as she battles her increasingly erratic father, and focuses particular attention on her notorious religious policies, some of which went horribly wrong from her point of view. The book concludes with a consideration of Mary's five-year reign and the frustrations that plagued her final years. Childless, ill, deserted by her husband, Mary died in the full knowledge that her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth would undo her religious work and, without acknowledging her sister, would reap the benefits of Mary's achievements in government.
Readers can discover all about the peculiar history of England from ancient times to Agincourt with volume I of this three-part series. The unfolding story will tell of early hunter-gatherers and the first farmers; of Roman occupation eventually giving way to the often brutal land-hungry Anglo-Saxons; of Viking incursions and the 1066 Conquest by their cousins, the Normans; and of later incomers from all parts of the globe.
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