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Building on the pioneering work of anthropologist Mary Douglas and political scientist Aaron Wildavsky, this book develops and applies "grid-group" theory to show how political culture can be used to explain decisions about social policy and how, as an interpretive approach, this theory complements the now more dominant "rational choice" and "institutionalist" models.
In Part One, Lockhart elaborates on the basic ideas involved in grid-group theory, using examples to help illuminate how the theory can address areas of explanation left out of rational-choice and institutionalist models, such as preference formation and institutional design. According to grid-group theory, different societies have varying proportions of their members who adhere to one or another of three ubiquitous, socially interactive cultures: hierarchy, individualism, and egalitarianism. The adherents of these disparate cultures adopt culturally constrained rationalities (based on rival sets of values) and strive to construct distinctive institutional designs.
In Part Two, this theory is used to help make better sense of social policy decision making. A society whose political elite is predominantly hierarchical, for instance, will develop social programs sharply distinct from those of societies whose leaders are adherents of individualism or egalitarianism. The empirical focus of this part of the book is on the decisions about policy affecting the elderly in the United States, the former Soviet Union, Germany, and Japan during the economically difficult 1980s. Important aspects of these decisions, Lockhart shows, reflect the relative influence of rival cultural purposes among relevant societal elites.
This book, set within a social gerontology and transport behaviour studies paradigm, examines current debates and issues around transport for older people and its relationship to health and wellbeing for individuals and society as a whole. This timely title explores transport and travel needs and motivations of older people, barriers older people face using public and community transport, difficulties in accessing public spaces for walking and cycling. The safety of older drivers and recent advances in technology are also investigated. Concluding by looking to the future in addressing digital cities, driverless cars and other changes in ICT that may affect older people and their travel behaviour, a variety of global perspectives examine the social aspects of mobility and transport from a psychological, sociological, and geographical perspective. This title will be of interest to those working with older people in the health and wellbeing sector, those involved in transport and town and country planning and academics examining gerontology and associated social science subjects.
The question of communication and understanding between different generations is emerging as a key issue for the twenty-first century. The advent of ageing populations may lead to increased conflict or solidarity in society, and provokes a profound ambivalence both in public and in the private sphere. In a new approach, Biggs and Lowenstein offer a critical examination of Generational Intelligence as one way of addressing these issues. How easy is it to put yourself in the shoes of someone of a different age group? What are the personal, interpersonal and social factors that affect our perceptions of the `age other'? What are the key issues facing families, workplaces and communities in an ageing society? This book sets out a way of thinking about interpersonal relations based on age, and the question of communication between people of different ages and generations. The book challenges existing orthodoxies for relations between adults of different ages and draws out steps that can be taken to increase understanding between generational groups. The authors outline a series of steps that can be taken to enhance Generational Intelligence, examine existing theories and social issues, and suggest new directions for sustainable relations between generational groups.
Almost forty percent of American adults age sixty-five and over spend some time in a nursing home, and residents in nursing homes will be increasingly diverse racially and ethnically because of changing demographics. The decision to place a family member in a nursing home is often extremely difficult, especially when the family belongs to a group with a strong tradition of filial responsibility. Despite these realities, little has been written about the stresses families of diverse cultural backgrounds experience in making this challenging decision.
This book describes the experiences of seventy-five African American and Afro-Caribbean, white Jewish, and Latina/o residents and their relatives and friends who have been their caregivers. Integrating original qualitative research with quantitative data and theoretical perspectives and findings from other studies, Patricia Kolb not only presents new perspectives on how caregiving varies across racial and ethnic backgrounds but also dispels numerous stereotypes about nursing home placement among diverse groups.
This is the story of how an organisation founded by a small committee in 1911 to care for ageing veterans in dire financial circumstances developed into RSL LifeCare, with responsibility for 4,500 residents and backed by an array of health and ageing strategies and services. More than just an organisational history, this book traces how government policies have developed for returned service men and women, particularly as they age; discusses broader developments in aged care; and includes the stories of the dedicated people who have cared for the residents. While RSL LifeCare has much to celebrate, this book also considers how far this important organisation's development will be sustained in the future.
Methuselah's Echo focuses on psychotherapy with patients over 65, the fastest growing segment of our population. Basing his findings on 20 years of work with the elderly, Dr George Bouklas explains how to resolve resistances to contemplation and return elderly patients to a maturational path on which they can face with greater equanimity the realities of ageing and the inevitability of death. Echoing refers to joining, mirroring and reflecting; therapeutic techniques that enable patients to become increasingly self-aware. The author demonstrates how these approaches work, and how to apply them in the context of psychodynamic, interpersonal and behavioural interventions. He further explains how the therapist promotes progress with people in this age group, and with vivid examples shows what inspiration and wisdom can be gained from working with the elderly.
Despite substantial efforts to support family caregivers in the United States, there remains no coherent philosophy behind these efforts. Contributors to this book analyze family caregiving policy for the elderly and examine the ramifications of various changes in current US policy. Issues explored include the diversity in family responses to family care, and current family caregiving programmes including those designed for the caregivers themselves. The book also contains an appraisal of inconsistent policies regarding family compensation and the family's status in allocating formal care. The editors conclude with their own recommendations for an optimal long-term care policy.
This refreshing book uses broad political and moral economy perspectives to explore the intersections of race, class, gender and aging and how these help determine the experience of aging and growing old. The twenty chapter volume includes new contributions by many of the top names in critical gerontology. Both political and economic factors, and those shared norms about fairness and obligation that help shape our aging policies, are examined in relation to a wide range of contemporary issues in gerontology.
RITUALS OF ABUSE IN NURSING HOMES AND WHAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT IT. Portraying people who have lived and worked in long-term nursing homefacilities, Elder Care Catastrophe reveals how organizational dynamics andeveryday rituals have unintentionally led to resident neglect and abuse.Backed up by research and grounded in sociological theory, this book offersalternative models for lessening the maltreatment of people living in nursinghomes. It provides critical information for family members struggling withnursing home issues, nursing home employees, policy-makers, students andresearchers concerned with elder care issues.
Recent residential care revelations, recent legislation and policy directions (The Children's Act, Community Care), and the introduction of training courses mean that residential care practice is under national focus. "The Handbook of Residential Care" addresses the particular problems experienced by residential staff by bringing together many areas of work, different jobs and responsibilities, in a variety of perspectives and settings and addresses the challenges they face. In this practical guide, the author has brought together a combination of real examples and case studies, analysis, guidance and reflective discussion to present a complete examination of working in a residential setting, both for the elderly and for children. John Burton examines the fundamentals of the work such as time management, keeping a diary, first contact with a new resident, creating the right environment, building relationships with children, and management styles. He also gives specific examples of the day-to-day running of a residential centre such as the instigation of a non-smoking policy and the management of bed times in children's residential care.
Older People and Community Care sets social and health care practice with older people firmly in the context of the new community care arrangements and the consequent organizational trends towards a market culture. However, it also questions the relative lack of attention given by professionals to issues of structural inequality in old age, compared for example to race and gender. Thus, the book tackles a double agenda: * How can community care practice be suffused with anti-ageist values and principles? Addressing this question the book sets out the foundation knowledge and values which must underpin the development of anti-discriminatory community care practice and examines the implications for practitioners in terms of the essential skills and inherent dilemmas which arise. Older People and Community Care is essential reading for all those working with and managing services to older people, and who aspire to make empowerment for older people a reality.
Packaging supportive services with housing a pressing issue for older adults The population of older adults is expected to explode in the coming years. Linking Housing and Services for Older Adults: Obstacles, Options, and Opportunities examines a crucial, complex, and often overlooked issue for policymakers and the public at large: older adults' increasing needs for housing and supportive long-term care services. As baby boomers strive to help their parents make difficult decisions about their options, pressure mounts for policymakers to develop appropriate housing and services. This book brings together respected experts to discuss the answers to difficult questions about meeting the housing and support service needs of aging adults. Linking Housing and Services for Older Adults: Obstacles, Options, and Opportunities explores in-depth the tough issues pertaining to which populations are presently being served, what their needs are, and who is being left out. You'll learn exactly what types of services are available, who is providing them, and how are they packaged. From residential care to assisted living to institutional care, this book addresses all facets of the complicated problems of providing availability to fulfill need. This important source presents insightful analysis of the total range of issues and the challenges to progress as well as offering specific recommendations to effectively offer housing and vital long-term care supportive services to older adults. Linking Housing and Services for Older Adults: Obstacles, Options, and Opportunities discusses in detail: the argument for increased development of supportive housing for older adults and the barriers preventing it the issues related to providing a variety of housing and service options to the Medicaid population two case studies that illustrate how policies aimed at linking housing and services play out at the state and local level and the need for strong leadership and the ability to develop key partnerships as vital aspects for success the interrelationship of factors regarding nursing home admission, the availability of subsidized housing, and Medicaid eligibility the need for care management to be holistic including environmental care assessment, repair, and renovation management in addition to current long-term care settings creating affordable assisted living facilities for older persons receiving Medicaid services the successful components of the national Coming Home Program four case studies emphasizing different finance and regulatory approaches providing lessons learned for developers, state agencies, and advocates of affordable assisted living This vital educational resource is also an essential reference for local, state, and national policymakers, housing officials, and long-term care providers.
* If most older people want to remain in their own homes, then why does residential care persist? The authors of this timely book set out to answer this pressing question and offer an explanation as to what makes older people give up their homes. Residential care homes provide accommodation for over 300,000 older people in the UK, the majority of whom are in their mid eighties. More than a quarter of the population over eighty five live in institutional settings, most of them in residential care homes. This book offers readers a comprehensive review of the history of residential care, current provision, current practice and an analysis of its future role. Re-Evaluating Residential Care will be invaluable to a wide range of practitioners involved in residential care, as well as students of nursing, social work, gerontology and social policy.
As the aging population of the United States continues to increase, age-related policies have come under intense scrutiny and have sparked heated debates. Demographic, economic, and political trends have transformed the understanding of older people's role in America's public policy. The New Politics of Old Age Policy offers a variety of perspectives on these policy issues -- particularly the relative merits of using chronological age to determine eligibility for government programs.
The chapters address theoretical approaches to age-based policy; population dynamics and how growing diversity within the older population may affect these policies; issues surrounding major age-based programs such as Social Security and Medicare; and the national, state, and local political issues associated with these policies.
Contributors: Robert Applebaum, Ph.D., Miami University; Robert H. Binstock, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University; Alan Burnett, M.A., Area Agency on Aging, Ohio; Chenoa A. Flippen, Ph.D., Duke University; Judith G. Gonyea, Ph.D., Boston University School of Social Work; Colleen M. Grogan, Ph.D., University of Chicago; Madonna Harrington Meyer, Ph.D., Syracuse University; Pamela Herd, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin; Martha B. Holstein, Ph.D., consultant, Chicago; Eric R. Kingson, Ph.D., Syracuse University; Marc Molea, M.H.A., Ohio Department of Aging; Marilyn Moon, Ph.D., American Institutes for Research; John Myles, Ph.D., University of Toronto; Christy M. Nishita, University of Southern California; Angela M. O'Rand, Ph.D., Duke University; Jon Pynoos, Ph.D., University of Southern California; Sarah Poff Roman, M.G.S., Miami University; Steven M. Teles, Ph.D., Brandeis University.
Later-Life Social Support and Service Provision in Diverse and Vulnerable Populations offers current, multidisciplinary perspectives on social support and service provision to older Americans. The chapters trace how our understanding of social support among older adults has developed over the past 40 years and explore current gerontological research in the area. They consider how informal care arrangements articulate with formal long-term care policies and programs to provide support to the diverse population of older Americans. They also emphasize heterogeneity in the composition of support networks, particularly in relation to gender, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and immigrant status. Collectively, the chapters provide insight into the complexity of older adult's social support networks that can be used to improve the services provided to caregivers and care recipients as well as the policies that promote high-quality support to people of all ages who are in need of assistance.
The global phenomenon of the aging of societies during a period of outstanding scientific, economic, and technological advancements is a blessing for humanity. These fundamental changes, however, create new needs and problems in all areas of life, often difficult to address. In some countries, the trend is towards compression of the period of age-related morbidity - fewer years of living with disabilities - but the absolute numbers of elderly people living with disabilities are increasing worldwide. This book highlights a series of global threats, problems and challenges in the areas of care and caregiving, through the prism of three multicultural nations: the United States, Israel and Australia. The contributors to this book, experts in their fields, focus on the art of caregiving at the national level, including the interface between family and state responsibilities, policies and practices in the provision of services, and the demands for education and training, as well as the problems and difficulties faced by family caregivers. This is the second of two edited volumes on aging and caregiving. The first, ""Lessons on Aging from Three Nations - Volume I: The Art of Aging Well"", examines positive aspects of and successful adaptations to aging. This book will be of interest to students of gerontology and geriatrics; those working in nongovernmental organizations - private, for-profit and non-profit agencies, including voluntary charitable and religious groups, those working in national regional and local governments, and all general readers intrigued with the aging of societies and longevity.
Although the number of elderly people in Britain is increasing
steadily, the law in relation to their particular needs is a
relatively neglected field. The Law and Elderly People was the
first text to provide easily accessible information for those
involved in advice-giving and service provision in this rapidly
developing field. This second edition has been fully revised and
completely updated to reflect the major legal and social changes
which have recently occurred. Concerned for the independence and
autonomy of both young elderly and the old elderly, the book covers
employment and income, accomodation and housing, community and
residential care, health provision and delivery and family
relationships, thus providing an important guide to the most
important legal issues.
This book studies issues involving community work with the elderly and urban life. The book is based on seventeen months of intensive ethnographic fieldwork with the Volunteer Chore Ministry in King County, Washington. Because the research is carried out in a complex environment, it is quite similar to urban anthropology. Anthropoglogical study techniques include participant observation, as well as taking intake calls for the volunteer organization, organizing volunteer services, participating in staff meetings, and interviewing volunteers or staff members. Four primary phases comprised the research: understanding the basic structure and functioning of Volunteer Chore Ministry; understanding the structure and functioning of Volunteer Chore Ministry at the local church level; through a questionnaire, learning more about volunteer traits, views toward volunteer work, and interchanges between volunteers and clients; and, finally, through interviews, concentrating on volunteer-client intercommunication.
Social Welfare, Aging and Social Theory explores how we can understand the changing relationship between social welfare and human aging. The book begins by reviewing how historical changes in society impacted on shaping emergence of scientific approaches to understand and problematize and bio-medicalize aging as akin to an illness and disease. The discussion moves to trace how particular social science theories were developed to reinforce negative perceptions of aging. The book also develops its own reflexive approach with in-depth examples of social welfare in national, international and global contexts in how aging is theorized in the postmodern world were alternative possibilities can be encountered.
Long life and the factors which promote it are of perennial
interest to human beings. Although there is much discussion in our
society about aging, there is less willingness to examine the
assumptions which govern our attitudes towards old age. The very
old represent the fastest growing segment of the population in most
Western societies, yet attitudes toward them are mostly limited to
negative stereotypes. In "Life After Ninety," Michael Bury and
Anthea Holme have surveyed and interviewed 200 individuals living
at home and in institutions to create a unique portrayal of the
health, quality of life, and social circumstances of the very old.
The authors examine the validity of old age stereotypes, and
discuss longevity and the factors which promote it.
Learn how public policies can help families provide the care their elderly relatives need Family and Aging Policy examines how public initiatives to assist the elderly in the United States, Canada, Singapore, Denmark, and Sweden can impact families who provide them with long-term care. For the majority of older people, the aging experience involves their families directly and indirectly, affecting income security, housing, and health care. This unique book addresses the aging issues that matter most to families struggling to deal with the demands of care giving and provides answers on how the public sector can help. As the traditional nuclear family becomes a memory and the notion of extended family disappears, the need for public interventions to help the elderly increases. A significant number of people grow old without families they can depend on. Others have families who want to help, but lack the financial means or the housing needed to provide care. Family and Aging Policy offers options on how families and formal services can share responsibilities, including how families can juggle jobs and care giving, the effects of the Family and Medical Leave Act, consumer-directed service options, community-based care programs, accessory dwelling units and zoning ordinances, and provisions for caregiver support in each of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. Family and Aging Policy examines: extensive welfare programs in Sweden publicly funded home care programs in Denmark family-oriented social policies in Singapore shared responsibilities of families and formal services in Canada the Administration on Aging's National Family Caregiver Support program in the United States California Caregiver Resource Centers and much more! Family and Aging Policy is an invaluable tool for researchers and policy analysts working in family policy issues and as an essential supplemental text for course work in gerontology, sociology, family relations, and social work.
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