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This book gives a comprehensive overview of the unique roles that non-coding repetitive elements such as satellite DNAs play in different physiological and evolutionary processes. It presents the gene-regulatory aspect of satellite DNAs in different model systems including mammals, insects and plants. In addition, evolutionary aspects of activation of satellite DNAs in terms of transcription and proliferation are highlighted, revealing the role of satellite DNAs in the process of adaptation to changing environment and in the speciation process. Finally, the book discusses satellite DNA activation during pathological transformation and the mechanisms by which they affect disease progression. Namely, some satellite DNAs promote the oncogenic processes by affecting genome epigenetic regulation as well as genome integrity. Readers get a full overview of the latest research on satellite DNA.
This book reviews three-dimensional (3D) stem cell culture and proof of concept for organ regeneration. The chapters present studies based on developmental biology but not tissue engineering using bio-degradative scaffolds. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy, the next generation of regenerative therapy, is to develop fully functioning bioengineered 3D organs that can replace lost or damaged organs following disease, injury, or aging. Next-generation regenerative therapy will consist of organ-replacement regenerative therapy, which aims to reproduce reciprocal epithelial and epithelial interactions and epithelial and mesenchymal interactions that occur during embryogenesis. The book then discusses the generation of several 3D functional organs and organoids such as brain, inner ear, tooth, hair, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, gastrointestinal organs, kidney, liver, and lung. This work will appeal to a wide readership such as medical scientists, developmental biologists, clinicians, and patients. The volume provides valuable information and ideas to form a next-generation field of science.
The book uses an integrated approach to predict the behavior of various biological interactions. It further discusses how synthetic biology gathers the information about various systems, in order to either devise an entirely new system, or, to modulate existing systems. The book also tackles the concept of modularity, where biological systems are visualized in terms of their parts. The chapters discuss how the principles of engineering are being used in biomedical sciences, to design biological circuits that can harbor multiple inputs and generate multiple outputs; to create genetic networks and control gene activity, in order to generate a desired response. The book aims to help the readers develop an array of biological parts, and to use these parts to develop synthetic circuits that can be assembled like electronic circuits. The ultimate aim of the book will be to serve as an amalgamation of key ideas of how judiciously synthetic biology could be exploited in therapeutic device and delivery mechanism.
Calcium entry pathways in non-excitable cells presents a concise synthesis of thoughtfully selected topics covering from the different calcium entry mechanisms in non-excitable cells to the cellular microdomains and organelles regulating the calcium entry process. Particular attention is given to the fascinating group of ion channels involved in different calcium entry pathways as well as the emerging role of these channels in human disease. Calcium entry is an essential mechanism for cellular function in non-excitable cells. In general, two main calcium entry pathways exist in non-excitable cells: one pathway, named store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) requires store depletion and the second pathway is regulated by receptor occupation, but independently on calcium store depletion. The search for the molecular components of calcium entry has identified the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), as the calcium sensor of the intracellular calcium stores, and Orai as well as TRP channels as the calcium-permeable channels located in the plasma membrane. The location, interactions and function of these channels are finely regulated by a number of scaffolding proteins, membrane microdomains and cellular organelles that fine tune the amount of calcium entering the cell. Cutting-edge and user-friendly, this volume presents relevant background information, critical analysis of the current observations and directions for future research. The book is intended for basic scientists specializing in cellular biology or ion transport, as well as for biomedical researchers.
This volume provides different methodologies for all classes of histone deacetylases, which includes detailed procedures on Class I and II histone deacetylase inhibitors, SIRT inhibitors, and bromodomain inhibitors. Histone Deacetylases: Methods and Protocols is divided into four sections: Sections A and B describe methodologies used to detect the activity, function, or chromatin location of HDACs 1 through 11, with Section A discussing Class I and Section B discussing class II histone deacetylases; Section C focuses on the methodologies for cloning and characterizing the acetylation of SIRTs 1 through 7; and Section D describes methods related to histone deacetylase inhibitors. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Thorough and cutting-edge, Histone Deacetylases: Methods and Protocols, is a valuable resource for investigators working on epigenetics, molecular biology, and genetics.
Plant Tissue Culture: Techniques and Experiments, Fourth Edition, builds on the classroom tested, audience proven manual that has guided users through successful plant culturing for almost 30 years. The book's experiments demonstrate major concepts and can be conducted with a variety of plant materials readily available throughout the year. This fully updated edition describes the principles of the newest technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and RNAi technology with plant cell and tissue cultures and their applications. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, this book contains detailed methodology supported by comprehensive illustrations, giving users a diverse learning experience for both university students and plant scientists.
Agriculture is currently facing multi-faceted threats in the form of unpredictable weather variability, frequent droughts and scarcity of irrigation water, together with the degradation of soil resources and declining environmental health. These stresses result in the modification of plant physiology to impart greater resilience to changing abiotic and biotic environments, but only at the cost of declining plant productivity. In light of these facts, assessing the status of natural resource bases, and understanding the mechanisms of soil-plant-environment interactions so as to devise adaptation and mitigation approaches, represent great and imminent challenges for all of us. In this context, it is essential to understand the potential applications of modern tools, existing coping mechanisms and their integration, as this will allow us to develop suitable advanced mitigation strategies. From a broader perspective, the book deals with crop-environment interaction in the context of changing climatic conditions. To do so, it addresses four major aspects: Understanding the mechanism of carbon dynamics in the soil-plant-environment continuum; greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural systems; and soil properties influenced by climate change and carbon sequestration processes. Mitigation and management of the photo-thermal environment to improve crop productivity; soil health under variable climate; reducing agro-ecosystem evapotranspiration losses through biophysical controls; and heat stress in field crops and its management. Studying the impact of climate change on biotic environments; insect-pest interactions; manifestations of disease; and adaptation strategies for island agro-ecosystems. Innovative approaches to assess stress impacts in crops, such as crop modeling, remote sensing, spectral stress indices etc. The book presents a collection of contributions from authoritative experts in their respective fields. Offering young researchers new perspectives and future research directions, it represents a valuable guide for graduate students and academics alike.
This book focuses on the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their underlying physicochemical, cellular, physiological, and molecular mechanisms. Further, it covers ENMs' translocation and their targeted organ toxicology, and discusses chemical and pharmacological strategies used to combat nanotoxicity. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are defined as materials with one or more dimensions of less than 100 nm, and have shown considerable promise in several areas of development. At the same time, the potential toxicity of ENMs for human health and environmental organisms is increasingly attracting attention. In addition to the typical properties of model animals, Caenorhabditis elegans is extremely sensitive to environmental toxicants, which makes it the ideal in vivo assay system for toxicological studies. C. elegans has been widely used in toxicity assessment and toxicological studies of environmental toxicants and stresses. This book provides a comprehensive summary of nanotoxicology research on C. elegans.
This book summarizes our current understanding about the biology and patho-biology of cardiomyocytes and depicts common techniques for the study of these cells. The book is divided into two parts; the first part provides insight into role and function of cardiomyocytes under normal conditions and describes embryogenesis and differentiation, in the second part the role of cardiomyocytes in aging and disease is discussed and cellular responses under stress conditions illustrated. Cardiomyocytes represent the main mass of the heart, and cellular malfunction directly modifies heart function leading to subsequent heart failure. As such, cardiomyocytes are causative involved in the main reasons of heart failure, such as post-infarct remodeling, hypertensive heart disease, idiopathic heart failure, and interactions with other co-morbidities such as diabetes. On the other hand, cardiomyocytes are necessarily target of therapy. Therefore, a precise understanding of cardiomyocytes biology is a pre-requisite for proper disease treatment and evidence based medicine. The book is written for cell biologists, pharmacologists and biomedical researchers specialized in cardiac and vascular biology.
This book provides essential information on improving protein folding/stability, which is a result of the balance between the intra-molecular interactions of protein functional groups and their interactions with the solvent environment. The protein folding solvent environment mainly consists of salts, small molecule compounds, metabolites, molecular chaperones and other chemical species. Therefore, subtle change in the composition of the environment will alter the protein folding process. The importance of the solvent environment in protein folding is precisely due to the fact that various disease-causing proteopathies can be reversed by manipulating the solvent environment of the malfolded proteins. Hostile environmental stresses represent one of the basic causes of such challenges in protein folding or misfolding. Since cells commonly encounter extreme environmental fluctuations, it is crucial that they equip themselves with strategies to circumvent the hostile environmental conditions. Nature has developed many strategies to ensure that the complex and challenging protein folding reaction occurs with adequate efficiency and fidelity for the success of the organism. Among the strategies employed in a wide range of species and cell types is the elaboration of small organic molecules called osmolytes. Additionally, recent advances have also revealed that certain specific osmolytes might be key biomarkers of cancer, infectious diseases and vaccine flocculation. In fact, a large pool of data has been generated regarding their potential for the therapeutic intervention of neurodegenerative diseases and other metabolic disorders caused by protein aggregation or proteostasis failure. Reflecting the multiple applications of these small molecules in the health and other industries, this book combines contributions by respected leaders in the field and will help to inspire college students, basic researchers, and clinicians to translate these biological roles of osmolytes into clinical practice. It will also shed light on some important future prospects of osmolytes like their role as drug excipients and provide a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action in the prevention of neuro-degenerative diseases.
This book familiarizes the reader with the current landscape of cell-based therapies for the treatment of retinal disease, including diseases that affect the choriocapillaris, retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and retinal ganglion cells. Instead of utilizing a disease-centric approach to the topic, this book-edited by two world-renowned stem cell scientists-focuses on strategies for developing and transplanting the cells. This includes the creation of replacement cells, cell-based neuroprotection, and in vitro disease modeling and testing. The final chapters briefly review parallel approaches that do not directly utilize cellular transplantation. The use of cellular transplantation to treat retinal disease has recently become a viable and exciting therapeutic approach. The visibility of the retina and its laminar cellular architecture render it an ideal organ for the development of surgically delivered cellular therapies. Having an in-depth understanding of the current state of cell therapy for the eye is an essential first step toward utilizing similar approaches in other organs. Ophthalmologists, translational clinician-scientists, stem cell scientists, and researchers interested in eye disease will find Cellular Therapies for Retinal Disease: A Strategic Approach essential reading and it is also suitable for workshops or courses at the undergraduate or Ph.D. level.
This book presents a collection of articles on various aspects of current research on aging. These include model systems, cellular, biochemical and molecular aspects of experimental aging research, as well as selected intervention studies on age-related diseases. Aging is a global challenge to human society. Children are always in a hurry to become adults, while adults produce offspring and add to the gene pool. However, after adulthood or the attainment of reproductive maturity, all physiological parameters of the living organism start to undergo the aging process. Old age sets in slowly but surely, and usually continues for a prolonged period. If vigor and vitality are the main advantages of adulthood, old age offers the rewards of experience and maturity. Biologists ask questions such as: Why do we age? How do we become old? Is it possible to slow down, postpone or even prevent aging? In turn, medical experts ask: What are the diseases associated with old age? Are there medicines that can help affected elderly patients? In fact both groups are asking themselves how can we add more health to old age. Healthy aging is the dream of every individual. But to achieve this, it is fundamental that we first understand the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of the aging process in mammalian cells, tissues and intact living organisms, which can serve as experimental model systems in Biomedical Gerontology. Once the biology of aging is understood at the genetic and molecular levels, interventional approaches to aging and its associated diseases may be easier to plan and implement at the preclinical level.
This book provides an overview on the organization and function of the microtubule cytoskeleton, which is essential to many cellular processes and profoundly linked to a range of human diseases. Covering basic concepts as well as molecular details, the book discusses how microtubules are nucleated and organized into ordered arrays, at different cell cycle stages and in distinct cell types. In addition, the book highlights how defects in the microtubule cytoskeleton are linked to diseases such as neurodevelopmental disorders. The book is intended for students, graduates and more senior researchers in cell and developmental biology as well as for medical doctors.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
While most stem cell books focus on basic aspects and/or cell therapy, this book emphasizes the relevance of stem cells obtained from patients, the so-called "patients in a petri dish" as tools to investigate human genetic diseases for which there are no available effective treatment. Chapters embrace several examples of the use of iPS cell technology, a recent Nobel Prize-winning scientific breakthrough, to obtain patient-specific pluripotent cells from which many types of specialized cells involved in a particular disease can be generated, including psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, muscular dystrophies, laminopathies, among others. The text is a current and timely resource for postgraduate students, scientists and clinicians, interested in applications of this rapidly developing field of research in disease modeling, drug development, and emerging issues that it brings to regenerative medicine.
Why do living things and physical phenomena take the form they do? D'Arcy Thompson's classic On Growth and Form looks at the way things grow and the shapes they take. Analysing biological processes in their mathematical and physical aspects, this historic work, first published in 1917, has also become renowned for the sheer poetry of its descriptions. A great scientist sensitive to the fascinations and beauty of the natural world tells of jumping fleas and slipper limpets; of buds and seeds; of bees' cells and rain drops; of the potter's thumb and the spider's web; of a film of soap and a bubble of oil; of a splash of a pebble in a pond.
This book series consists of 3 volumes covering the basic science (Volume 1), clinical science (Volume 2) and the technology and methodology (Volume 3) of autophagy. Volume 3 focuses on the technical aspects of autophagy research. It is comprised of two parts. The first part discusses the basic process of autophagy, including its overall classification and individual stages in the life cycle of autophagosomes. The second part discusses the tools, strategies, and model systems in current autophagy research, including cell and animal models, detection and manipulation methods, as well as screening, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. The book is written and edited by a team of active scientists. It is intended as a practical reference resource for interested researchers to get started on autophagy studies.
This book is a collation of translational research outcomes in the area of life research, which was formerly used mainly for academic pursuits. The studies described focus on innovative interdisciplinary approaches to unraveling problems in life sciences and biomedicine using biodiversity exploration and green technology. The techniques and models presented offer a ready reckoner for researchers in academic institutions and industry, and also provide valuable insights into fundamental research. The book discusses topics such as tissue engineering to create lineage-specific cells for tissue-specific regeneration; how combination cultures of commensalistic bacteria can help boost immunity; development of functional food from natural products from plant, animal, and microbial sources in the nutraceuticals domain; as well as synthesis and mechanisms in nanomedicine and nanoscaffolds in biomedicine. The studies and discourses described touch upon topics that explore biodiversity for the development of disease models, toxicity studies, developmental studies, and harvesting of bioactive compounds for alternative income generation and poverty alleviation, and as a result, bring about economic and ecologic sustainability. This multidimensional and multidisciplinary book focuses on tissue-specific targeting by nanodrugs, development of bioengineering formats for cell- based, nutraceutical-based, functional-food-based and antibody-based green therapy designed tackle multifaceted diseases and syndromes.
Research in the field of senescence has boomed recently due to the gradual realization that senescent cells are associated with a significant number of diseases. The genetic or pharmacological elimination of senescent cells can cause widespread benefits and improves outcomes for most of those diseases. Cellular Senescence in Diseases presents an updated review of the role of cellular senescence in multiple pathologies. Focus is given to those diseases where the implication of senescence has been more extensively documented, such as (cancer, lung and liver diseases, diabetes, Neurodegenerative diseases and others). The Editors recruited a group of worldwide experts in each individual pathology to review the role of cellular senescence in each one of them, aiming at identifying potential therapeutic pathways. The first two chapters provide an overview of the cellular senescence principles. Next, the chapters are divided into specific diseases. Cancer, including premalignant lesions (OIS), Advanced disease (TIS), and Metastasis are covered. The following condition covered is Lund diseases, including IPF, COPD, and Pulmonary Hypertension. Next Liver Diseases are covered, including Fibrosis and Cirrhosis, and Fatty liver disease. Next there is coverage for Kidney implications, including fibrosis and transplantation. Vascular diseases are covered next including infarction and hear fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. Both diabetes types 1 and 2 are covered next. Following chapters cover Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Bone and Cartilage disorders, respectively. Neurodegenerative diseases are covered next, focusing on Alzheimer and Parkinson. The next chapter discusses accumulation of senescent cell in tissues during aging. The two final chapters cover current developments and conclusions. Cellular Senescence in Diseases is designed for researchers and clinicians with a focus on the cellular mechanisms of diseases. All chapters cover current experimental therapeutic approaches to eliminate or cancel the pathological effects of senescent cells. Pharmaceutical scientists may also benefit from the contents of the book in the exploration of novel therapeutic opportunities.
For humankind, the most irreducible idea is the concept of life itself. In order to understand that life is essentially an infinite process, transmitted from generation to generation, this book takes the reader on a fascinating journey that unravels one of our greatest mysteries. It begins with the premise that life is a fact-that it is everywhere; that it takes infinite forms; and, most importantly, that it is intrinsically self-perpetuating. Rather than exploring how the first living forms emerged in our universe, the book begins with our first primordial ancestor cell and tells the story of life-how it began, when that first cell diversified into many other cell types and organisms, and how it has continued until the present day. On this journey, the author covers the fundaments of biology such as cell division, diversity, regeneration, repair and death. The rather fictional epilogue even goes one step further and discusses ways how to literally escape the problem of limited recourse and distribution on our planet by looking at life outside the solar system. This book is designed to explain complex ideas in biology simply, but not simplistically, with a special emphasis on plain and accessible language as well as a wealth of hand-drawn illustrations. Thus, it is suitable not only for students seeking for an introduction into biological concepts and terminology, but for everyone with an interest in the fundamentals of life at the crossroad of evolutionary and cell biology.
DNA methyltransferases are important enzymes in a broad range of organisms. Dysfunction of DNA methyltransferases in humans leads to many severe diseases, including cancer. This book focuses on the biochemical properties of these enzymes, describing their structures and mechanisms in bacteria, humans and other species, including plants, and also explains the biological processes of reading of DNA methylation and DNA demethylation. It covers many emerging aspects of the biological roles of DNA methylation functioning as an essential epigenetic mark and describes the role of DNA methylation in diseases. Moreover, the book explains modern technologies, like targeted rewriting of DNA methylation by designed DNA methyltransferases, as well as technological applications of DNA methyltransferases in DNA labelling. Finally, the book summarizes recent methods for the analysis of DNA methylation in human DNA. Overall, this book represents a comprehensive state-of-the-art- work and is a must-have for advanced researchers in the field of DNA methylation and epigenetics.
This volume aims to outline the current status of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells(MSC) field in regenerative medicine and to propose clear and reproducible protocols to better define the identity, function and use of these cells that are today, more than ever, "under the spotlight". Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is organized into four sections. The first guides the reader through a series of state-of-the-art reviews summarizing the use of MSC for the treatment of various diseases. The other three sections are a collection of methodological chapters covering several aspects: isolation and characterization of MSC; expansion of MSC for clinical use; production and characterization of the MSC secretome. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, the method chapters include introductions to their respective topics, complete lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting which will help the researcher to avoid known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition, aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
This second edition details new emerging areas of zebrafish research focusing on genetics and genomics, techniques for developing and analyzing zebrafish disease models, and methods for neuroscience. Zebrafish: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition guides readers through methods for mutagenesis and genome editing in zebrafish, applications of GFP-expressing transgenic fish, techniques for cancer models, imaging of infection and host-pathogen interactions, metabolism and transport of lipids, and the structure and function of neural circuits and their role in generating behavior. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical Zebrafish: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is a useful complement to the first book for new and experienced zebrafish researcher alike.
This textbook addresses themes ranging from the molecular issues of cancer sciences to clinical practice in medical oncology. It clarifies many topics, including molecular oncology, chemotherapy pharmacology and practical issues for clinicians. Systemic treatments in many areas of oncology feature, such as breast cancer, gastrointestinal, thoracic, urological oncology, head and neck tumors, bone tumors, sarcomas and palliative care. An excellent source for young physicians and researchers in the field of oncology, this book furthers understanding of medical oncology practice and facilitates professionals' treatment of cancer patients. It sets the direction for future research in the field, and will become the readers' regular working tool.
Whether classified as regulators of inflammation, metabolism, or other physiological functions, a distinctive set of molecules enables the human body to convey information from one cell to another. An in-depth primer on the molecular mediators that coordinate complex bodily processes, Body Messages provides fresh insight into how biologists first identified this special class of molecules and the consequences of their discovery for modern medicine. Focusing on proteins that regulate inflammation and metabolism-including the cytokines and adipokines at the core of her own research-Giamila Fantuzzi examines the role body messages play in the physiology of health as well as in the pathology of various illnesses. Readers are introduced to different ways of conceptualizing biomedical research and to the advantages and pitfalls associated with identifying molecules beginning with function or structure. By bringing together areas of research usually studied separately, Fantuzzi stresses the importance of investigating the body as a whole and affirms the futility of trying to separate basic from clinical research. Drawing on firsthand interviews with researchers who made major contributions to the field, Body Messages illustrates that the paths leading to scientific discovery are rarely direct, nor are they always the only routes available.
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