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Bringing together researchers from the fields of social policy, economics, sociology and clinical psychology, this book offers new evidence on the inter-related problems faced by disability claimants, and identifies important lessons for policy. * Explores how reducing the level of UK benefit claiming among those with health limitations has been a priority for successive governments * Argues that current policy fails to reflect the evidence that people on long-term disability benefits face a complex combination of barriers to work and social inclusion * Demonstrates that there is a need for continuing inter-disciplinary research on the nature of the disability benefits problem and the efficacy of current policy solutions and public services
In Better Must Come, Matthew D. Marr reveals how social contexts at various levels combine and interact to shape the experiences of transitional housing program users in two of the most prosperous cities of the global economy, Los Angeles and Tokyo. Marr, who has conducted fieldwork in U.S. and Japanese cities for over two decades, followed the experiences of thirty-four people as they made use of transitional housing services and after they left such programs. This comparative ethnography is groundbreaking in two ways-it is the first book to directly focus on exits from homelessness in American or Japanese cities, and it is the first targeted comparison of homelessness in two global cities.Marr argues that homelessness should be understood primarily as a socially generated, traumatic, and stigmatizing predicament, rather than as a stable condition, identity, or culture. He pushes for movement away from the study of "homeless people" and "homeless culture" toward an understanding of homelessness as a condition that can be transcended at individual and societal levels. Better Must Come prescribes policy changes to end homelessness that include expanding subsidized housing to persons without disabilities and experiencing homelessness chronically, as well as taking broader measures to address vulnerabilities produced by labor markets, housing markets, and the rapid deterioration of social safety nets that often results from neoliberal globalization.
'Governments and Tourism' is a unique text that studies the general
and specific tourism policies from central to local government.
It is now widely accepted that transport is becoming increasingly
unsustainable and that strong policy intervention is required to
reduce both the growth in transport demand and the environmental
costs of transport. This book challenges conventional approaches to
transport by moving away from trend based analysis towards the use
of scenarios to identify alternative sustainable transport futures.
It both summaries the development of EU transport policy and
presents a critique. The policy context is widened to include the
global changes taking place in economics, society and technology.
It develops new methodologies for policy making for the next 25
Climate change poses one of the greatest challenges for human society in the twenty-first century, yet there is a major disconnect between our actions to deal with it and the gravity of the threat it implies. In a world where the fate of countries is increasingly intertwined, how should we think about and, accordingly, how should we manage the types of risk posed by anthropogenic climate change?
The problem is multi-faceted, and involves not only technical and policy specific approaches, but also questions of social justice and sustainability. In this volume the editors have assembled a unique range of contributors who together examine the intersection between the science, politics, economics and ethics of climate change. The book includes perspectives from some of the world's foremost commentators in their fields, ranging from leading scientists to political theorists, to high profile policymakers and practitioners. They offer a critical new approach to thinking about climate change, and help express a common desire for a more equitable society and a more sustainable way of life.
Seventy-five years after the establishment of the republic, Turkish society has shed many of its shackles. Yet Turkey's modern history has been full of instability and continuing contradictions. The nature of national identity and its relationship to the state remains a subject of debate, and Turks are still faced with the conflict between the twin goals of joining the West, and preserving their own cultural forms. This collection examines the issues which have shaped, and will continue to influence, Turkey's foreign and domestic policy: the legacy of the Ottoman empire, the concept of citizenship, secular democracy, Islamicism and civil-military relations.
This study presents an alternative story of the 2011 Egyptian revolution by revisiting Egypt's moment of decolonisation in the mid-twentieth century. Anticolonial Afterlives in Egypt explores the country's first postcolonial project, arguing that the enduring afterlives of anticolonial politics, connected to questions of nationalism, military rule, capitalist development and violence, are central to understanding political events in Egypt today. Through an imagined conversation between Antonio Gramsci and Frantz Fanon, two foundational theorists of anti-capitalism and anticolonialism, Anticolonial Afterlives in Egypt focuses on issues of resistance, revolution, mastery and liberation to show how the Nasserist project, created by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers in 1952, remains the only instance of hegemony in modern Egyptian history. In suggesting that Nasserism was made possible through local, regional and global anticolonial politics, even as it reproduced colonial ways of governing that continue to reverberate into Egypt's present, this interdisciplinary study thinks through questions of traveling theory, global politics, and resistance and revolution in the postcolonial world.
Environmental professionals are (and will continue to be) under increased pressure to become more knowledgeable of environmental management issues.
"Sustainable development" quickly became the universal goal for environmentalists in the 1990s, motivated by the 1988 Brundtland Report and the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. When the time came to bring theory into reality, sustainable development revealed far more complexity than first anticipated. To attain sustainable development in the full sense of the phrase"meeting present needs without compromising the resources needed for future societies"environmental and social concerns would need a constant presence in all major economic decisions. The Cornerstone of Development: Balancing Environmental, Social, and Economic Imperatives profiles many of the first attempts to implement sustainable development initiatives worldwide. The model: Canada's experience with "multistakeholder" decision-making. Under the guidance of Canada's National Task Force on Environment and Economy, nationwide and provincial round tables brought government officials together with corporate officers to formulate sustainable development guidelines. Authorized by the Canadian government to serve as an "Agenda 21 organization," the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) subsequently researched the feasibility of adapting the multistakeholder approach to the needs and practices of developing countries. The results are in these pages: valuable case histories from Africa, Latin America, Asia and Canada, each recounting the risks and benefits from integrating environmental, social and economic policies. When IDRC members were asked for ways to address environmental sustainability, they had few examples to follow"and little evidence that such endeavors could be fulfilled. The research and problem-solving effortsthey produced are now collected here, for the guidance of other environment/development balance programs worldwide.
This is the first comprehensive and updated study of the Arab
economic boycott of Israel to be published since it started to
disintegrate in the aftermath of the Madrid Conference of 1991. Gil
Feiler explains the evolution and development of the boycott, which
was first formally imposed by the Arab League in 1946, even before
the State of Israel formally came into existence, and examines all
aspects - including the theory, practice and legality - of the
longest-lasting example of economic sanctions in the twentieth
century, as seen from the American, Arab, European and Israeli
perspectives. He also looks into the prospects of the slowly
developing reality of economic relations and cooperation between
Israel and its neighbours which has accompanied the Middle East
This book considers some recent and spectacular failures in policy-making and asks what is meant by policy 'disaster', the different forms that they can take and why they have occured. These issues are explored in nine contrasting cases drawn from both the European Union and its member states. These include: the devastating crisis in the Belgium political system following the exposure of a paedophile ring; the crisis in the Dutch fight against drugs; 'Mad Cows', the 'Arms to Iraq' affair in the UK; monetary union between West and East Germany; the Swedish monetary crisis of 1992; and the EU's common fisheries policy and policies towards civil war in Yugoslavia. This book is an excellent study of how and why policies can go wrong and highlights the limits of what governments can achieve in Western Europe.
From 1918 to 1939 one issue dominated French foreign and defence policy: the German problem. This work outlines France's strategies for protection and appeasement during this period and places inter-war relations in a larger European context. With contributions from scholars in the field, it examines: relationships with key countries such as Italy and Russia; the significance of inter-war France to 20th-century European integration; the historical context of the policies; and the setbacks and defeats of the period and how they should be evaluated.
This book examines British policy towards Italy from the fall of Mussolini on the 25th July 1943, to Italy's joining the North Atlantic alliance on the 4th April 1949.
The author shows that British policy as it was shaped prior to the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943 was designed to weaken Italy to such an extent that it would never be able to engage in future aggression and would be subject to British hegemony.
That Britain was unable to carry through this strategy rested on the simple truth that the strategy was in inverse proportion to Britain's military, economic and political power.
The Americans believed that any foreign hegemony would disturb the international status quo and sow the seeds of a future conflict. The Americans had additional historical and domestic considerations -- a large concentration of Italian Americans and an election year was coming up. This disagreement between the Allies was to some extent mitigated by the Soviet Union's decision to resume diplomatic relations with Italy in March 1944, and Churchill's visit to Italy in August 1944 marked the beginning of a change in British strategy, namely to prevent Italy turning communist and to retain it within the western sphere of influence.
Britain did not deny Italy's strategic importance to the west, but found it hard to accept Italy's transformation from being a hostile country fighting alongside Nazi Germany, to an ally fulfilling a vital, albeit secondary role in a western alliance.
Senator Chuck Hagel has long been admired by his colleagues on both sides of the Senate floor for his honesty, integrity, and common-sense approach to the challenges of our times. The "Los Angeles Times" has praised his "bold positions on foreign policy and national security" and wondered, "What's not to like?" In "America: Our Next Chapter," Nebraska-born Hagel offers a hard-hitting examination of the current state of our nation and provides substantial, meaningful proposals that can guide America back onto the right path.
In "America: Our Next Chapter," Hagel speaks the truth as he sees it--in a direct and refreshingly unvarnished manner. Basing his suggestions on thorough research and careful thought, as well as on personal insight from his years as a political insider, successful businessman, and decorated war hero, he discusses domestic issues--including the health care crisis, immigration, and Social Security and Medicare reform--and global climate change. He confronts foreign policy problems that the current administration has bungled or ignored, including China's growing economy; control of U.S. debt; India's and Pakistan's nuclear capabilities; and Iran's aggressive political, ideological, and nuclear stances. He decries the pervasive disease of third world poverty, arguing convincingly that this is where the real fight against terrorism must begin. Always true to the beliefs instilled in his childhood on the prairie, he speaks passionately about service--to one's country and to one's fellow citizens--as the path toward a renewed America. And, of course, he gives a candid examination of the debacle that is the Iraq War.
A staunch Republican yet a "hero to liberals"("Time"), Hagel asks the tough questions and delivers straight answers to America's most pressing problems. "America: Our Next Chapter" is a serious, honest, and, ultimately, optimistic look at our nation's future, from an American original.
The Rio Summit has pointed to the urgency for the development of an international conservation policy, and the post-Maastricht debates in Europe have highlighted the need for the EU to reassess structural funding in nature conservation, as well as the influences on policy and practice. This text is a "route map" through the legislative and policy frameworks and explains how conservation works in Europe. It goes through the policies for nature conservation in the European Community and its constituent member states and sets out the mechanisms for delivering this policy. Practitioners in the fields of countryside, conservation and general land management should find this text a useful guide to the working of the EU, as well as helpful in appreciating their local role within the wider community objectives.
The unique composition and configuration of doctors and hospitals in the US is leading to a crisis in primary care provision. There are significantly more specialists than generalists, and many community hospitals and outpatient facilities are concentrated in affluent areas with high rates of comprehensive insurance coverage. These particular features present difficult challenges to policymakers seeking to increase access to care. Carl F. Ameringer shows why the road to universal healthcare is not built on universal finance alone. Policymakers in other countries successfully align finance with delivery to achieve better access, lower costs, and improved population health. This book explains how the US healthcare system developed, and why efforts to expand insurance coverage in the absence of significant changes to delivery will fuel higher costs without achieving the desired results.
This reader presents over 70 case studies of policy making in Whitehall and Westminster, combining newspaper coverage, official documents, academic analysis and the recollections of participants. Simon James demonstrates the various ways in which policy originates, the way it is shaped within Whitehall, the different modes of parliamentary control, and the problems of implementation and policy review. He illustrates civil servants' part in developing policy, ministers' relations with their departments and their colleagues, and the role of the Prime Minister and cabinet. Case studies help to examine cabinet committees, the influence of pressure groups and select committees as well as the consequences of independent inquiries, the impact of the European Community and the restraining power of parliament and the courts. The case studies range from national controversies such as the pits closure crisis and the "Satanic Verses" affair, through to the hidden side of policy making, including deals struck with pressure groups in Whitehall conference and wrangling in Brussels over the tax on whisky.
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