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The success of any concrete structure depends on the designer's sound knowledge of concrete and its behaviour under load, under temperature and humidity changes, and under exposure to the relevant environment and industrial conditions. This book gives students a thorough understanding of all aspects of concrete technology from first principles. It covers concrete ingredients, properties and behaviour in the finished structure with reference to national standards and recognised testing methods used in Britain, the European Union and the United States. Examples and problems are given throughout to emphasise the important aspects of each chapter. An excellent coursebook for all students of Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering and Building at degree or diploma level, Concrete Technology will also be a valuable reference book for practising engineers in the field.
Forewords by Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden," " and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, Texas
Nanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials.
Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.
The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
This volume presents novel and innovative contributions in the domain specific to nanocomposites, specifically on aspects both related and relevant to the following: * science at the nanoscale level * innovations and advances in processing * characterization, quantification, and analysis * mechanical property evaluation and rationalization * failure analysis * technological applications at the nanoscale level The collection brings together a range of developments in areas spanning basic science, processing, analysis, characterization, mechanical property evaluation, and failure analysis rationalization of composite materials.
This collection emphasizes the advances of powder and ceramic materials in fundamental research, technology development, and industrial applications. Ceramic materials science covers the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, nonmetallic materials, and includes design, synthesis, and fabrication of ceramics, glasses, advanced concretes, and ceramic-metal composites.
Provides comprehensive information on the tribological aspects of advanced ceramic materials for all uses that require controlled friction and wear resistance. The text is a guide to altering the microstructure of ceramics to create optimum performance in sliding and rolling contact applications.
For much of the industrial era, asbestos was a widely acclaimed
benchmark material. During its heyday, it was manufactured into
nearly three thousand different products, most of which protected
life and property from heat, flame, and electricity. It was used in
virtually every industry from hotel keeping to military technology
to chemical manufacturing, and was integral to building
construction from shacks to skyscrapers in every community across
the United States. Beginning in the mid-1960s, however, this once
popular mineral began a rapid fall from grace as growing attention
to the serious health risks associated with it began to overshadow
the protections and benefits it provided.
Of great importance to scholars, collectors, dealers, and others interested in the history of ceramics, the decorative arts, and industrial culture, Syracuse China examines the birth, growth, and remarkable resilience over more than a century of one of America's major manufacturers of ceramic tableware. Drawing on the company's archives and historical collection of ware, the authors explore not only the history of its products but also the people who designed, made, decorated, sold, and used them.
Syracuse China was the pioneer manufacturer of a distinctively American type of vitrified fine china, as well as the first American "rolled edge" shapes which revolutionized hotel and restaurant dining. The company was also a great leader in labor relations and marketing within its industry.
Cleota Reed and Stan Skoczen's lively account of this
fascinating chapter in the history of American material culture
spans the Victorian age to the present. Collectors and enthusiasts
will find the following features invaluable:
This book provides a detailed description of metal-complex functionalized carbon allotrope forms, including classic (such as graphite), rare (such as M- or T-carbon), and nanoforms (such as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, etc.). Filling a void in the nanotechnology literature, the book presents chapters generalizing the synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of all known carbon allotropes. Metal-complex composites of carbons are described, along with several examples of their preparation and characterization, soluble metal-complex carbon composites, cost-benefit data, metal complexes as precursors of carbon allotropes, and applications. A lab manual on the synthesis and characterization of carbon allotropes and their metal-complex composites is included. Provides a complete description of all carbon allotropes, both classic and rare, as well as carbon nanostructures and their metal-complex composites; Contains a laboratory manual of experiments on the synthesis and characterization of metal-complex carbon composites; Discusses applications in diverse fields, such as catalysis on supporting materials, water treatment, sensors, drug delivery, and devices.
Reflecting the fast pace of research in the field, the Second Edition of Bulk Metallic Glasses has been thoroughly updated and remains essential reading on the subject. It incorporates major advances in glass forming ability, corrosion behavior, and mechanical properties. Several of the newly proposed criteria to predict the glass-forming ability of alloys have been discussed. All other areas covered in this book have been updated, with special emphasis on topics where significant advances have occurred. These include processing of hierarchical surface structures and synthesis of nanophase composites using the chemical behavior of bulk metallic glasses and the development of novel bulk metallic glasses with high-strength and high-ductility and superelastic behavior. New topics such as high-entropy bulk metallic glasses, nanoporous alloys, novel nanocrystalline alloys, and soft magnetic glassy alloys with high saturation magnetization have also been discussed. Novel applications, such as metallic glassy screw bolts, surface coatings, hyperthermia glasses, ultra-thin mirrors and pressure sensors, mobile phone casing, and degradable biomedical materials, are described. Authored by the world's foremost experts on bulk metallic glasses, this new edition endures as an indispensable reference and continues to be a one-stop resource on all aspects of bulk metallic glasses.
Prism and Lens Making: A Textbook for Optical Glassworkers, Second
Edition is a unique compendium of the art and science of the
optical working of glass for the production of mirrors, lenses, and
prisms. Incorporating minor corrections and a foreword by Professor
Walter Welford FRS, this reissue of the 1957 edition provides a
wealth of technical information and hands-on guidance gained from a
lifetime of experience. Although some of the techniques have been
replaced by more modern methods, this classic book is still a
valuable source of practical assistance as well as being a pleasure
This book summarizes the recent advances in carbon-related materials. It covers both experimental and theoretical approaches in graphene and nanocarbon materials, carbon composites and thin films, organic synthesis and physical chemistry, and characterization tools. Also discussed are cutting-edge applications for use in biochemical assays, dental implant surface modifi cations, pressure sensors, and more. This book is published in recognition of the Nobel Lectures delivered by Akira Suzuki, Emeritus Professor of Hokkaido University and Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, 2010.
This book is a collection of chapters focusing on green composite materials. The selection of natural fibers and polymer matrix materials, and the bonding between them forms an essential aspect of this book. The book discusses the chemical treatment of natural fibers and their compatibility with different matrix materials. The growing applications of composites in every day life ranging from automobiles to aerospace are also discussed. The book highlights the importance of processing of natural fiber reinforced composite materials to enhance their mechanical strength and performance. The contents of this book will be beneficial for students, researchers and industry professionals working on composite materials.
In the agriculture, forestry, the primary and secondary wood working industry there are considerable resources of raw materials which can only be used in a rational manner for energetic purposes. Due to requirements from the users. one of the most retinal way of utilization is to make pellets with high density and specific energy content. Making pellets of 6-8 mm diameter, their utilization in furnaces allows an almost fully automated operation with high thermal efficiency. This book describes both the theoretical and practical aspects of pellet production including material requirements and preparation, pressing technologies, quality requirements, burning properties, investments and the overall economy of pellet production.
This book provides an overview of the current state of the art in novel piezo-composites based on ferroelectrics. Covering aspects ranging from theoretical materials simulation and manufacturing and characterization methods, to the application and performance of these materials, it focuses on the optimization of the material parameters. Presenting the latest findings on modern composites and highlighting the applications of piezoelectric materials for sensors, transducers and hydro-acoustics, the book addresses an important gap in the physics of active dielectrics and materials science and describes new trends in the research on ferroelectric composites.
This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick's second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-carbide and nitride based ceramics are represented by Si-nitride which has been important in high temperature ceramics and gas turbine applications. The author presents a clear, concise and relatively comprehensive treatment of diffusion in ceramics for use by those at an advanced undergraduate level and beyond. It supports understanding of the basic behavior of materials and how to relate observed physical properties to microscopic understanding. The book also provides researchers with a handy collation of data relating to diffusion in ceramics and supports a fundamental understanding of atomic movements.
This book focuses on the damage, fracture and fatigue of ceramic-matrix composites. It investigates tensile damage and fracture, fatigue hysteresis, and the properties of interfaces subjected to cyclic fatigue loading. Further, it predicts fatigue life at room and elevated temperatures using newly developed damage models and methods, and it analyzes and compares damage, fracture and fatigue behavior of different fiber performs: unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D and 2.5D woven. The developed models and methods can be used to predict the damage and lifetime of ceramic-matrix composites during applications on hot section components.Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are high-temperature structural materials with the significant advantages of high specific strength, high specific modulus, high temperature resistance and good thermal stability, which play a crucial role in the development of high thrust weight ratio aero engines. The critical nature of the application of these advanced materials makes comprehensive characterization a necessity, and as such this book provides designers with essential information pertaining not only to the strength of the materials, but also to their fatigue and damage characteristics.
This book comprehensively summarizes important aspects of research in the active field of lignocellulosic (polymer) composites, including polymer materials from or containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It describes how these materials can be produced from forest products and natural fibers from sources such as jute, flax, sisal, and many more, and even from agricultural residues (like wheat straw, corn stover, or sugarcane bagasse). In times of high demand for renewable green materials, lignocellulosic materials from organic matter produced by trees, shrubs and agricultural crops present a highly attractive feedstock. The international authors explain different treatment and fabrication methods for the production of lignocellulosic materials. Other chapters address the properties of these green materials or illustrate specific applications, ranging from food packaging and household products to adsorbents and even conductive polymer composites. In this way, this book offers a broad and comprehensive overview over the entire field of lignocellulosic composite materials.
This book presents selected papers from the 2nd Workshop on "Durability of Composites in a Marine Environment", which was held in Brest, France in August 2016. Providing an overview of the state of the art in predicting the long-term durability of composite marine structures, it addresses modelling water diffusion; damage induced by water accelerated testing, including durability in design; in-service experiences; ocean energy; and offshore applications. Ensuring long-term durability is not only necessary for safety reasons, but also determines the economic viability of future marine structures, and as such, the book is essential reading for all those involved with composites in the marine industry, from initial design and calculation through to manufacture and service exploitation. It also provides information unavailable elsewhere on the mechanisms involved in degradation and how to take account of them.
The first book to focus on the role of glass as a material of critical importance to the wine industry For centuries glass has been the material of choice for storing, shipping, and sipping wine. How did that come to pass, and why? To what extent have glassmaking and wine making co-evolved over the centuries? The first book to focus on the role of glass as a material of critical importance to the wine industry, The Glass of Wine answers these and other fascinating questions. The authors deftly interweave compelling historical, technical, and esthetic narratives in their exploration of glass as the vessel of choice for holding, storing, and consuming wine. They discuss the traditions informing the shapes and sizes of wine bottles and wine glasses, and they demystify the selection of the "right glass" for red versus white varietals, as well as sparkling and dessert wines. In addition, they review the technology of modern glassmaking and consider the various roles glass plays in wineries especially in the enologist's laboratory. And they consider the increasing use of aluminum and polymer containers and its potential impact on the central role of glass as the essential material for wine appreciation. * The first book focusing on the role of glass and its central importance to the wine industry * Written by a glass scientist at UC Davis, home of the premier viticulture and enology program in North America * Interlards discussions of the multi-billion-dollar glass and wine industries with valuable technical insights for scientists, engineers, and wine enthusiasts alike * Illustrates the wide spectrum of bottles, carafes, decanters, and drinking glasses with an abundance of exquisite full-color photos Both an authoritative guide and a compelling read, The Glass of Wine tells the story of the centuries-old marriage between an endlessly fascinating material and a celebrated beverage. It is sure to have enormous appeal among ceramic and glass professionals, wine makers, and oenophiles of all backgrounds.
This book covers topics related to developing natural-fiber composite products during the conceptual design stage in the product development process. It describes the concurrent engineering methods and tools applied in natural-fiber composite product development and discusses the major conceptual design activities, such as geometrical conceptual design development and selection, materials selection and manufacturing process selection. The book also includes case studies with illustrations on the related conceptual design aspects of developing natural-fiber composite products to provide designers with practical guidance on applying the selected tool for their project.
This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variations on the fundamental frequencies and mode shapes are considered in detail. The information regarding the behavior of stiffened shells with cutouts for a wide spectrum of eccentricity and boundary conditions for cross ply and angle ply shells may be used as design aids for structural engineers. The book is a significant contribution to the existing literature from the point of view of both industrial importance and academic interest.
This book includes chapters based on the potential uses of polysaccharides such as fibers in food and non-food applications. The complexity of their synthesis in plants, the highly multidisciplinary character of polysaccharide research, and the wide variety of applications from food to clothing to energy are addressed in this volume. The authors describe in detail how these latter grand challenges are of great importance in research, especially in the midst of enormous overpopulation and economic issues. Therefore, the volume contributes additional information to the chemical, nutritional, medical, and energy roles of these bio-based products, finding applications in diverse fields of their raw and composite forms. This volume is a useful resource for graduate students and contains themes for instructors and senior research leaders. Written by internationally renowned experts, it is aimed at workers in polymer laboratories, classrooms, and policy makers.
This textbook consists primarily of notes by Iain Finnie who taught a popular course on fracture mechanics at the University of California at Berkeley. It presents a comprehensive and detailed exposition of fracture, the fundamentals of fracture mechanics and procedures for the safe design of engineering components made from metal alloys, brittle materials like glasses and ceramics, and composites. Interesting and practical problems are listed at the end of most chapters to give the student practice in applying the theory. A solutions manual is provided to the instructor. The text presents a unified perspective of fracture with a strong fundamental foundation and practical applications. In addition to its role as a text, this reference would be invaluable for the practicing engineer who is involved in the design and evaluation of components that are fracture critical. This book also: Presents details of derivations of the basic equations of fracture mechanics and the historical context of the development of fracture theory and methodology Treats linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics methodologies beginning with a review of the basic equations of solid mechanics followed by solutions useful in fracture prediction Illustrates the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), practical applications of LEFM in the design of fracture-tolerant structural components Offers interesting, practical, classroom proven problems at the end of most chapters Includes instructor's solutions manual
Sintering of Ceramics provides the only comprehensive treatment of the theories and principles of sintering and their application to the production of advanced ceramics with the required target microstructure. Stemming from the author's bestselling text, "Ceramic Processing and Sintering," this book includes additional material selected from many sources, providing a single comprehensive volume of all aspects of sintering theory and practice. While the emphasis is on the sintering of ceramics, the book is also useful for the sintering of metals and other materials because of the comprehensive treatment.
Starting with a review of sintering fundamentals such as diffusion and defect chemistry, the book continues with a detailed treatment of solid-state sintering, viscous sintering of amorphous materials, grain growth and microstructural evolution in solid-state materials, and liquid-phase sintering. Special topics include sintering difficulties such as constrained sintering of composites, adherent thin films, and multilayers; solid solution additives and their role in microstructure control, morphological stability of continuous phases and thin films; and sintering with concurrent reaction or crystallization. The treatment concludes with coverage of practical methods for improving sintering techniques, the effects of process variables on sintering behavior, and applications of sintering to the development of advanced ceramics.
Sintering of Ceramics provides an up-to-date text for a senior undergraduate, introductory graduate, or continuing education course in sintering, as well as an ideal reference text for scientists and engineers involved in the research, development, andmanufacture of ceramics or powder metallurgy products.
This book presents cutting-edge research on the design and development of novel, advanced high-strength, light-weight materials via the incorporation of novel reinforcements, namely, metallic amorphous alloys/bulk metallic glasses (BMG), in light metal matrix composites (LMMCs) based on Al and Mg. The book begins with an introduction to conventional ceramic reinforced light metal matrix composites, along with the major drawbacks which limit their application. Metallic amorphous alloys/Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) are new class of metallic materials that are distinctly differently from conventional metals/alloys in terms of their structure and thermal behavior, and exhibit extremely high strength (1 to 2 GPa) and large elastic strain limit (1 to 2%). Given these unique properties, upon their incorporation into Al/Mg-matrices, they provide superior interfacial properties, i.e. high degree of compatibility with the matrix due to their metallic nature when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements, and thereby significantly enhance the mechanical performance of LMMCs. Amorphous/BMG reinforced LMMCs is an emerging research field and the existing literature is meager. This book discusses the various processing methods that would be suitable for these novel materials. A comparison of mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms of amorphous/BMG reinforced composites with those of conventional ceramic composites is presented. Future research directions and wider research potential of the novel materials are discussed, and prospective applications are highlighted. For ease of understanding and comparison, appropriate schematics, tables, and figures are provided.
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