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International Tables for Crystallography Volume F is an expert guide to macromolecular crystallography for the structural biologist. It was commissioned by the International Union of Crystallography in recognition of the extraordinary contributions that knowledge of macromolecular structure has made, and will make, to the analysis of biological systems, from enzyme catalysis to the workings of a whole cell. The volume covers all stages of a crystallographic analysis from the preparation of recombinant proteins, through crystallization, diffraction data collection, phase determination, structure validation and structure analysis. Although the volume is written for experienced scientists, it is recognized that the reader is more likely to be a biologist interested in structure than a classical crystallographer interested in biology. Thus, there are chapters on the fundamentals, history and current perspectives of macromolecular crystallography, as well as on useful programs and databases such as the Protein Data Bank. Each chapter is written by one or more internationally recognized experts. This second edition features 19 new articles and many articles from the first edition have been revised. The new articles cover topics such as standard definitions for quality indicators, expression of membrane proteins, protein engineering, high-throughput crystallography, radiation damage, merohedral twinning, low-resolution ab initio phasing, robotic crystal loading, whole-cell X-ray diffraction imaging and halogen interactions in biological crystal structures. There are also new articles on relevant software, including software for electron microscopy. These enhancements will ensure that Volume F continues to be a key reference for macromolecular crystallographers and structural biologists. More information on the series can be found at: http://it.iucr.org
This handbook and ready reference presents a combination of
statistical, information-theoretic, and data analysis methods to
meet the challenge of designing empirical models involving
molecular descriptors within bioinformatics. The topics range from
investigating information processing in chemical and biological
networks to studying statistical and information-theoretic
techniques for analyzing chemical structures to employing data
analysis and machine learning techniques for QSAR/QSPR.
This bestselling textbook on physical electrochemistry caters to the needs of advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemistry, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, and chemical engineering. It is unique in covering both the more fundamental, physical aspects as well as the application-oriented practical aspects in a balanced manner. In addition it serves as a self-study text for scientists in industry and research institutions working in related fields. The book can be divided into three parts: (i) the fundamentals of electrochemistry; (ii) the most important electrochemical measurement techniques; and (iii) applications of electrochemistry in materials science and engineering, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and industry. The second edition has been thoroughly revised, extended and updated to reflect the state-of-the-art in the field, for example, electrochemical printing, batteries, fuels cells, supercapacitors, and hydrogen storage.
A much-needed overview reflecting the developments over the past five years, this is the most comprehensive handbook on organocatalysis. As such, all relevant catalyst systems are discussed in detail, as well as key strategies, reaction types, and important applications in total synthesis. The first two volumes cover catalyst structures and fundamental activation types. These chapters allow readers to familiarize themselves with the relatively complex interactions that make organocatalytic reactions selective; to gain an insight into the most efficient catalyst types; and to understand the importance of physical parameters that influence reactivity and selectivity. Volume three is structured around reaction types, i.e. nucleophile additions to C=X and C=C bonds; Friedel-Crafts reactions, organocatalytic sigmatropic reactions, regioselective reactions and desymmetrization strategies, ring-forming reactions, multicomponent (domino) reactions, multicatalyst systems and the application of organocatalytic reactions in multistep synthesis are discussed. An appendix recollecting catalyst structures with the adequate cross-references to the corresponding chapters rounds off the book.With its contributions written by pioneers of the organocatalysis field, this book provides non-specialists with an introduction to the topic as well as serving as a valuable source for researchers in academia and industry searching for an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of this promising area of synthetic organic chemistry.
The first textbook for teaching this method to users with little
mathematical background logically presents the theory and
fundamentals in an easily comprehensible, self-contained way.
This book is the perfect link for learning how to perform the
experiments after only having studied theory. In eight chapters
more than 50 essential NMR experiments are described in detail.
Special focus is put on the organic set of NMR spectra (1H,
13C-APT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Different chapters deal with
advanced organic NMR, selective methods, heteronuclear NMR,
relaxation and diffusion measurements, organic applications and
maintenance. Every experiment has a section providing the reader
with the purpose and scope of the specific experiment. Every
experiment is concluded with the spectrum as it is obtained under
the conditions described. Questions
Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition
Edmond de Hoffmann, "UniversitA(c) Catholique de Louvain, Belgium" and Vincent Stroobant, "Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch, Belgium."
"Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition" provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this successful textbook focuses on recent developments in techniques and applications. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on practical application examples. As with previous editions, it contains numerous tables of useful data, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding.
Provides a complete overview of the principles, theories and applications of modern mass spectrometry
An extensive revision and update including: increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, resolution and mass accuracy and activation of ions
New material about instruments such as linear traps, Orbitrap, TOF/TOF, hybrid instruments, and about new atmospheric ionisation techniques such as APPI, DESI, DART. The range of applications has been expanded and newer methods such as metabolome are included
Contains numerous examples and exercises to encourage student understanding
"Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition" will prove invaluable to undergraduates and postgraduates using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, materials science and food science. It will alsoappeal to researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
A comprehensive and timely overview of this important and hot topic, with special emphasis placed on environmental applications and the potential for solar light harvesting. Following introductory chapters on environmental photocatalysis, water splitting, and applications in synthetic chemistry, further chapters focus on the synthesis and design of photocatalysts, solar energy conversion, and such environmental aspects as the removal of water pollutants, photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Besides metal oxide-based photocatalysts, the authors cover other relevant material classes including carbon-based nanomaterials and novel hybrid materials. Chapters on mechanistic aspects, computational modeling of photocatalysis and Challenges and perspectives of solar reactor design for industrial applications complete this unique survey of the subject. With its in-depth discussions ranging from a comprehensive understanding to the engineering of materials and applied devices, this is an invaluable resource for a range of disciplines.
This handy reference compiles the latest data on the corrosion
behavior of materials coming into contact with CO2 -- with 95% of
the contents previously unpublished.
The basis of this investigation is the petrographic and geochemical understanding of principal igneous rock types of the Noril'sk region, in order to demonstrate that these data provide unique and self-evident solutions to the problems of petrogenesis and mineralization. The results of the investigations are presented in two volumes: the first includes mainly text and the second contains illustrations. In the first volume, the state of the main problems of the genesis of igneous rocks with reference to Traps and related ore deposits is discussed, as well as short petrological descriptions of igneous complexes in the region, the mineral and geochemical diversity of the rocks, and aspects of the differentiation of basaltic melts and mineralization are described. Taking into account the vast number of publications on the petrology of Traps of the Noril'sk region, primary attention in the monograph is given to earlier unknown phenomena, as well as other aspects that are of great importance for solving genetic problems. Some exotic geologic targets such as the Mikchandinsky differentiated cover, the magnetite lava flow of the Putorana Plateau, the magmatogenic breccia of Kharaelakh and others are described in detail. The second volume contains an atlas of Rock Indications of igneous rock-types; formally identified reference rocks from all igneous complexes of the region, as well as photographs of thin sections of typical rocks and analytical tables of rocks and minerals from the key sections of sedimentary units and intrusions. Each rock type has been geochemically and petrographically analysed thereby providing a formal identity, complete with a photograph of the thin section. Photomicrographs of the rocks in this book will be a useful aid in visualizing the diversity of rock types in the Traps; each photograph reflecting a unique combination of minerals.
Symposium U, "Nuclear Radiation Detection Materials," held April 26 28 at the 2011 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California was a continuation of the 2009 symposium and provided the latest research in nuclear radiation detection materials. Types of detector materials include semiconductors and scintillators, which are represented by a variety of new scintillator materials; novel semiconductors; and traditional detection materials. There is a strong need for new materials and methods for a variety of radiation detection applications in this rapidly growing field. The symposium gave an overview of the crystal growth of radiation detector materials and the characterization and technology issues and moved on to discuss several important improvements for the development of future radiation detectors.
Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of chemistry Every high school requires a course in chemistry, and many universities require the course for majors in medicine, engineering, biology, and various other sciences. 1001 Chemistry Practice Problems For Dummies provides students of this popular course the chance to practice what they learn in class, deepening their understanding of the material, and allowing for supplemental explanation of difficult topics. 1001 Chemistry Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Chemistry For Dummies, giving you 1,001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in chemistry. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of chemistry problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go. Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in chemistry class Helps you refine your understanding of chemistry Practice problems with answer explanations that detail every step of every problem Whether you're studying chemistry at the high school, college, or graduate level, the practice problems in 1001 Chemistry Practice Problems For Dummies range in areas of difficulty and style, providing you with the practice help you need to score high at exam time.
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. * Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics * Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light * Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics * Chapters are written by top scientists in their field Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
Unparalleled in the breadth and depth of its coverage of all important aspects, this book systematically treats the electronic and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric cobaltites in both ordered and disordered phases. Authored by a pioneer and a rising star in the field, the monograph summarizes, organizes and streamlines the otherwise difficult-to-obtain information on this topic. An introductory chapter sets forth the crystal chemistry of cobalt oxides to lay the groundwork for an understanding of the complex phenomena observed in this materials class. Special emphasis is placed on a comprehensive discussion of cobaltite physical properties in different structural families.
Providing a thorough introduction to cobalt oxides from a chemical and physical viewpoint as a basis for understanding their intricacies, this is a must-have for both experienced researchers as well as entrants to the field.
** THE PERFECT STOCKING FILLER FOR YOUR FAVOURITE KNOW-IT-ALL. ** Part of the new Ladybird Expert series, Quantum Mechanics is a clear, simple and entertaining introduction to the weird, mind-bending world of the very, very small. Written by physicist and broadcaster Professor Jim Al-Khalili, it explores all the key players, breakthroughs, controversies and unanswered questions of the quantum world. You'll discover how the sun shines, why light is both a wave and a particle, the certainty of the Uncertainty Principle, Schrodinger's Cat, Einstein's spooky action, how to build a quantum computer, and why quantum mechanics drives even its experts completely crazy. 'Jim Al-Khalili has done an admirable job of condensing the ideas of quantum physics from Max Planck to the possibilities of quantum computers into brisk, straightforward English' The Times Written by the leading lights and most outstanding communicators in their fields, the Ladybird Expert books provide clear, accessible and authoritative introductions to subjects drawn from science, history and culture. For an adult readership, the Ladybird Expert series is produced in the same iconic small hardback format pioneered by the original Ladybirds. Each beautifully illustrated book features the first new illustrations produced in the original Ladybird style for nearly forty years.
This ready reference presents environmentally friendly and stereoselective methods of modern biocatalysis. The experienced and renowned team of editors have gathered top international authors for this book. They cover such emerging topics as chemoenzymatic methods and multistep enzymatic reactions, while showing how these novel methods and concepts can be used for practical applications. Multidisciplinary topics, including directed evolution, dynamic kinetic resolution, and continuous-flow methodology are also discussed. From the contents: * Directed Evolution of Ligninolytic Oxidoreductases: from Functional Expression to Stabilization and Beyond * New Trends in the In Situ Enzymatic Recycling of NAD(P)(H) Cofactors * Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Redox Cascade Biotransformations * Biocatalytic Redox Cascades Involving w-Transaminases * Multi-Enzyme Systems and Cascade Reactions Involving Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases * Chemo-Enzymatic Cascade Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates * Synergies of Chemistry and Biochemistry for the Production of Beta-Amino Acids * Racemizable Acyl Donors for Enzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution * Stereoselective Hydrolase-Catalyzed Processes in Continuous-Flow Mode * Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology * Nitrile Converting Enzymes Involved in Natural and Synthetic Cascade Reactions * Mining Genomes for Nitrilases * Key-Study on the Kinetic Aspects of the In-Situ NHase/AMase Cascade System of M. imperiale Resting Cells for Nitrile Bioconversion * Enzymatic Stereoselective Synthesis of Beta-Amino Acids * New Applications of Transketolase: Cascade Reactions for Assay Development * Aldolases as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Analogs * Enzymatic Generation of Sialoconjugate Diversity * Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis * Chemoenzymatic Multistep One-Pot Processes
This handbook and ready reference brings together all significant
issues of practical importance in selected topics discussing recent
This book is a comprehensive and concise review on principles, strategies, and crucial advances in glycochemistry. It focuses on synthesis and practical applications and emphasizes state-of-the-art approaches to the assembly and design of sugars. Provides detailed discussion on specific topics like oligosaccharide assembly and design of sugars, techniques in glycoconjugate preparation, multivalency, and carbohydrate-based drug design Uses notable examples, like solution-based one-pot methods and automated methods for sugar assembly, to illustrate important concepts and advances in a rapidly emerging field Discusses practical applications of carbohydrates, like medicine, therapeutics, drug and vaccine development
Systematically summarizes the current status and recent advances in bimetallic structures, their shape-controlled synthesis, properties, and applications Intensive researches are currently being carried out on bimetallic nanostructures, focusing on a number of fundamental, physical, and chemical questions regarding their synthesis and properties. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive summary of the current status and recent advances in this field, supporting readers in the synthesis of model bimetallic nanoparticles, and the exploration and interpretation of their properties. Bimetallic Nanostructures: Shape-Controlled Synthesis for Catalysis, Plasmonics and Sensing Applications is divided into three parts. Part 1 introduces basic chemical and physical knowledge of bimetallic structures, including fundamentals, computational models, and in situ characterization techniques. Part 2 summarizes recent developments in synthetic methods, characterization, and properties of bimetallic structures from the perspective of morphology effect, including zero-dimensional nanomaterials, one-dimensional nanomaterials, and two-dimensional nanomaterials. Part 3 discusses applications in electrocatalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, plasmonics and sensing. Comprehensive reference for an important multidisciplinary research field Thoroughly summarizes the present state and latest developments in bimetallic structures Helps researchers find optimal synthetic methods and explore new phenomena in surface science and synthetic chemistry of bimetallic nanostructures Bimetallic Nanostructures: Shape-Controlled Synthesis for Catalysis, Plasmonics and Sensing Applications is an excellent source or reference for researchers and advanced students. Academic researchers in nanoscience, nanocatalysis, and surface plasmonics, and those working in industry in areas involving nanotechnology, catalysis and optoelectronics, will find this book of interest.
For the second edition of 'Microreactors in Organic Chemistry and
Catalysis' all chapters have been revised and updated to reflect
the latest developments in this rapidly developing field. This new
edition has 60% more content, and it remains a comprehensive
publication covering most aspects of the topic. The use of
microreactors in homogeneous, heterogeneous as well as biphasic
reactions is covered in the main part of the book, together with
catalytic, bioorganic and automation approaches. The initial
chapters also provide a solid physical chemistry background on
fluidics in microdevices. Finally, a chapter on industrial
applications and developments covers recent progress in process
chemistry. An excellent reference for beginners and experts alike.
The renowned Oxford Chemistry Primers series, which provides focused introductions to a range of important topics in chemistry, has been refreshed and updated to suit the needs of today's students, lecturers, and postgraduate researchers. The rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of each subject area is ideal for those wanting a primer in a given topic to prepare them for more advanced study or research. Moreover, cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry. The learning features provided, including questions at the end of every chapter and online multiple-choice questions, encourage active learning and promote understanding. Furthermore, frequent diagrams, margin notes, and glossary definitions all help to enhance a student's understanding of these essential areas of chemistry. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance offers a concise and accessible introduction to the physical principles of liquid-state NMR, a powerful technique for probing molecular structures. Examples, applications, and exercises are provided throughout to enable beginning undergraduates to get to grips with this important analytical technique. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Nuclear Magnetic Resonance features: For registered adopters of the text: * Figures from the book available to download For students: * Multiple-choice questions for self-directed learning * Full worked solutions to the end-of-chapter exercises
This text is aimed at people who have some familiarity with high-resolution NMR and who wish to deepen their understanding of how NMR experiments actually 'work'. This revised and updated edition takes the same approach as the highly-acclaimed first edition. The text concentrates on the description of commonly-used experiments and explains in detail the theory behind how such experiments work. The quantum mechanical tools needed to analyse pulse sequences are introduced set by step, but the approach is relatively informal with the emphasis on obtaining a good understanding of how the experiments actually work. The use of two-colour printing and a new larger format improves the readability of the text. In addition, a number of new topics have been introduced:
How product operators can be extended to describe experiments in AX2 and AX3 spin systems, thus making it possible to discuss the important APT, INEPT and DEPT experiments often used in carbon-13 NMR.Spin system analysis i.e. how shifts and couplings can be extracted from strongly-coupled (second-order) spectra.How the presence of chemically equivalent spins leads to spectral features which are somewhat unusual and possibly misleading, even at high magnetic fields.A discussion of chemical exchange effects has been introduced in order to help with the explanation of transverse relaxation.The double-quantum spectroscopy of a three-spin system is now considered in more detail.
Reviews of the First Edition
"For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book" - "Chemistry World"
..".I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools" - "Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry"
This most comprehensive and unrivaled compendium in the field provides an up-to-date account of the chemistry of solids, nanoparticles and hybrid materials. Following a valuable introductory chapter reviewing important synthesis techniques, the handbook presents a series of contributions by about 150 international leading experts -- the "Who's Who" of solid state science. Clearly structured, in six volumes it collates the knowledge available on solid state chemistry, starting from the synthesis, and modern methods of structure determination. Understanding and measuring the physical properties of bulk solids and the theoretical basis of modern computational treatments of solids are given ample space, as are such modern trends as nanoparticles, surface properties and heterogeneous catalysis. Emphasis is placed throughout not only on the design and structure of solids but also on practical applications of these novel materials in real chemical situations.
Chemistry is widely considered to be the central science: it encompasses concepts from which other branches of science are developed. Yet, for many students entering university, gaining a firm grounding in chemistry is a real challenge. Chemistry(3) responds to this challenge, providing students with a full understanding of the fundamental principles of chemistry on which to build later studies. Uniquely amongst the introductory chemistry texts currently available, Chemistry(3) is written by a team of chemists to give equal coverage of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry - coverage that is uniformly authoritative. The approach to organic chemistry is mechanistic, rather than the old-fashioned 'functional group' approach, to help students achieve a fuller understanding of the underlying principles. The expertise of the author team is complemented by two specialists in chemistry education, who bring to the book a wealth of experience of teaching chemistry in a way that students enjoy and understand, and who understand the challenges of the transition from school to university. The result is a text that builds on what students know already from school and tackles their misunderstandings and misconceptions, thereby providing a seamless transition from school to undergraduate study. The authors achieve unrivalled accessibility through the provision of carefully-worded explanations and reminders of students' existing knowledge; the introduction of concepts in a logical and progressive manner; and the use of annotated diagrams and step-by-step worked examples. Students are encouraged to engage with the text and appreciate the central role that chemistry plays in our lives through the unique use of real-world context and photographs. Chemistry(3) tackles head-on two issues pervading chemistry education: students' mathematical skills, and their ability to see the subject as a single, unified discipline. Instead of avoiding the maths, Chemistry(3) provides structured support, in the form of careful explanations, reminders of key mathematical concepts, step-by-step calculations in worked examples, and a Maths Toolkit, to help students get to grips with the essential mathematical element of chemistry. Frequent cross-references highlight the connections between each strand of chemistry and explain the relationship between the topics, so students can develop an understanding of the subject as a whole.
This useful reference focuses on the currently available toolbox of bio-catalysed reductions of C=O, C=C and formal C=N bonds to show which transformations can be reliably used in manufacturing processes and which still require improvements. Following an introductory chapter, chapters 2-4 present the synthetic strategies that are currently available for the reduction of C=C and C=O bonds and for reductive amination, by means of whole-cell catalysts and isolated enzymes. Chapters 5-7 go on to describe the improvements achieved thus far, illustrating the current versatility of enzymes in organic synthesis. Chapters 8-12 present the improvements brought about by the optimization of reaction conditions, and the use of particular synthetic sequences. The final chapter describes practical applications of bio-reductions for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. With its excellent and comprehensive overview, this book will be of great interest to those working in academia and industry. From the contents: * Development of Sustainable Biocatalyzed Reduction Processes for Organic Chemists * Reductases: From Natural Diversity to Biocatalysis and Emerging Enzymatic Activities. * Synthetic Strategies Based on C=C Bioreductions * Synthetic Strategies Based on C=O Bioreductions * Development of Novel Enzymes for the Improved Reduction of C=C Double Bonds * Development of Novel Enzymes for the Improved Reduction of C=O Double Bonds * Synthetic Applications of Aminotransferases * Strategies for Cofactor Regeneration in Biocatalyzed Reductions * Effects of Solvent System and Substrate Loading in Bioreduction * Perspectives in the Use of In-Situ Product Removal (ISPR) Techniques in Bioreductions * Multi-Enzymatic Cascade Reactions Based on Reduction Processes * Relevant Practical Applications of Bioreduction Processes in the Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
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