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Pattern formation is a fascinating and challenging aspect in polymer science. This book describes a number of unconventional approaches developed to control the morphology of polymer surfaces and materials, from random or simple patterns to complex structures. Specialists provide an up-to-date and complete overview of each technique in their respective field.
This fifth edition of the successful, long-selling classic has been completely revised and expanded, omitting some topics on obsolete DNA electrophoresis, but now with a completely new section on electrophoretic micro-methods and on-the-chip electrophoresis. The text is geared towards advanced students and professionals and contains extended background sections, protocols and a trouble-shooting section. It is now also backed by a supplementary website providing all the figures for teaching purposes, as well as a selection of animated figures tested in many workshops to explain the underlying principles of the different electrophoretic methods.
This unique book gives a timely overview about the fundamentals and applications of supported ionic liquids in modern organic synthesis. It introduces the concept and synthesis of SILP materials and presents important applications in the field of catalysis (e.g. hydroformylation, hydrogenation, coupling reactions, fine chemical synthesis) as well as energy technology and gas separation. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an invaluable reference book for organic chemists in academia or industry.
Radicals and radical ions are important intermediates with wide use in organic synthesis. The first book to concentrate on reagents for the creation and use of radicals and radical ions, this new volume in the Handbooks of Reagents for Organic Synthesis series compiles articles taken from the e-eros database, on reagents for use in radical and radical chemistry, to help the chemist in the lab choose the right reagents. Reflecting the enormous growth of radical chemistry over the past ten years, this is an essential guide for all synthetic chemists.
Understanding how to protect materials against hydrogen attack is paramount to extending component lifetimes and reducing plant downtime. The materials selection process can sometimes become complex; usually involving multiple factors such as high strength requirements, operating temperature, high corrosion resistance, availability and cost. Hydrogen is used for numerous chemical processes, for example for the synthesis of ammonia and methanol as well as in hydrogenation processes such as for the production of gasoline or for fat hardening. In various metal extraction processes hydrogen is used as a reducing agent and is also used as a shielding gas for welding and metallurgical processes. The present handbook compiles new and updated information on the corrosion behavior of materials that are in contact with hydrogen or environments containing this gas. This compilation is an indispensable tool for all engineers and scientists dealing with corrosion problems in hydrogen containing environments of any industrial use.
Written by leading scientists in the field and intended for a broader readership, this is an ideal starting point for an overview of current research and developments. As such, the book covers a broad spectrum of laboratory astrophysics and chemistry, describing recent advances in experiments, as well as theoretical work, including fundamental physics and modeling chemical networks. For researchers as well as students and newcomers to the field.
This first book to discuss both separation chemistry and mass spectrometry for mineral and rock analysis compares the two frequently used techniques, analyzing both their scope and limitations by way of numerous practical examples. The excellent and highly experienced author adopts a comprehensive and systematic approach, reviewing all the steps involved in an analytical workflow. In addition to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), he also discusses applications of ICP-MS. Furthermore, alongside detailed protocols on sample preparation and mass spectrometric measurements, numerous practical hints are given. A must-have handy guide for all isotope geochemists and anyone involved in isotope analysis.
Born out of a project of the IUPAC's committee on Medicinal
Chemistry and Drug Development, this reference addresses past and
current strategies for successful drug analog development,
extending the previously published volume by nine new analog
classes and eight case studies. Like its precursor, this volume
also contains a general section discussing universally applicable
strategies for analog discovery and development. Spanning a wide
range of therapeutic fields and chemical classes, the two volumes
together constitute the first systematic approach to drug analog
The Handbook is part of the Handbook of Reagents for Organic Chemistry series, aiming at collecting articles on a particular theme that individual researchers in academia or industry can use on a daily basis. The Handbook starts with a section discussing the most important aspects of heteroarene functionalization. The introduction is followed by the alphabetical listing of the most relevant reagents drawn from the EROS database. The Editor, Andre Charette from the University of Montreal, has selected 120 reagent descriptions, many of them updated with heteroarene-specific reactions for this Handbook. Following the standard format for EROS, each article contains an overview of the synthesis and physical properties of the reagents or catalyst, conditions for its storage, and purification methods. Given the importance of heteroarenes in biology and especially in medicinal chemistry, a Handbook that focuses exclusively on heteroarene functionalization has been long overdue. This Handbook will have a broad appeal to many individuals engaged in the area of medicinal chemistry, fine chemical synthesis and industrial-scale chemistry. Key features: * Builds on the success of the previously published Handbooks of Reagents for Organic Synthesis * Compares the numerous new C-H functionalization reactions that have been developed in the past decade * Heteroarene functionalization is widely used in the development of pharmaceuticals and other bioactive compounds * Contains listings of secondary reagents for which more information is available in the online edition
Material properties emerge from phenomena on scales ranging from Angstroms to millimeters, and only a multiscale treatment can provide a complete understanding. Materials researchers must therefore understand fundamental concepts and techniques from different fields, and these are presented in a comprehensive and integrated fashion for the first time in this book. Incorporating continuum mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, atomistic simulations and multiscale techniques, the book explains many of the key theoretical ideas behind multiscale modeling. Classical topics are blended with new techniques to demonstrate the connections between different fields and highlight current research trends. Example applications drawn from modern research on the thermo-mechanical properties of crystalline solids are used as a unifying focus throughout the text. Together with its companion book, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics (Cambridge University Press, 2011), this work presents the complete fundamentals of materials modeling for graduate students and researchers in physics, materials science, chemistry and engineering.
Unlike traditional NMR textbooks for chemists, this fresh look at the topic combines theory, technology and application in a wide range of fields, targeting biochemists, medicinal chemists, and structural biologists, as well as organic chemists. The text has been developed from a one-semester graduate-level course taught by the authors at the University of Zurich, and offers numerous intuitive illustrations, training exercises and plain-language explanations of complex theory. Divided into four major parts, the first introduces the theory, providing a profound understanding of why experiments work, without a rigorous mathematical treatment of all the physico-chemical computations and deliberately shorter than in most other NMR textbooks. Part two discusses current instrumentation and practical aspects, including sample preparation, processing of raw data and the use of databases, while the third part focuses on the main application of NMR, with examples and training spectra taken from a wide range of synthetic and natural compounds. Part four introduces a selection of modern NMR applications in chemistry, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and molecular biology, explaining the protocols used and how to interpret the results. With its focus on practical aspects and applications, this text will prove useful long after leaving college, by helping users to select experimental methods and in setting up and running their own NMR experiments.
K.C. Nicolaou - Winner of the Nemitsas Prize 2014 in Chemistry Retaining his excellent, proven approach, world-famous chemist and passionate teacher K.C. Nicolaou compiles here the important strategies and tools employed to construct complex molecules. For a total of 42 syntheses of 25 challenging natural products he explains all the key steps of the synthetic pathway, highlighting the major developments in blue-boxed sections for easier understanding, and contrasting these to other synthetic methods. Similar to its predecessors and completing the trilogy, this textbook analyzes the syntheses in a didactic manner, with several chapters including mini-reviews of key methodologies, and an emphasis on the history, mechanism, scope, and generality of the reactions. In contrast to the first two volumes, this new one features full-color frontispieces. A wonderful tool for learning and teaching and a must-have for all current and future organic and biochemists.
Reflecting the substantially increased interest in tautomerism, this book demonstrates the transformation of fundamental knowledge into novel concepts and the latest applications. Each chapter introduces the theoretical background, before reviewing and critically discussing the experimental techniques and corresponding applications. Special emphasis is placed on tautomerism under unusual conditions, such as in supramolecular solids and at surfaces, displaying the wide scope between basic research and timely applications.
Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology which continues to receive considerable attention is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. There is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments which have been carried out in living cells or organisms throughout all chapters. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: * Metal complexes as tools for structural biology * AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology * Probing DNA using metal complexes * Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes * Photo-release of metal ions in living cells * Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.
With its comprehensive coverage of recent progress in metallic biomaterials, this reference focuses on emerging materials and new biofunctions for promising applications. The text is systematically structured, with the information organized according to different material systems, and concentrates on various advanced materials, such as anti-bacterial functionalized stainless steel, biodegradable metals with bioactivity, and novel structured metallic biomaterials. Authors from well-known academic institutes and with many years of clinical experience discuss all important aspects, including design strategies, fabrication and modification techniques, and biocompatibility.
One approach to organic synthesis is retrosynthetic analysis. With this approach chemists start with the structures of their target molecules and progressively cut bonds to create simpler molecules. Reversing this process gives a synthetic route to the target molecule from simpler starting materials. This "disconnection" approach to synthesis is now a fundamental part of every organic synthesis course.
Workbook for Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition
This workbook provides a comprehensive graded set of problems to illustrate and develop the themes of each of the chapters in the textbook "Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition." Each problem is followed by a fully explained solution and discussion. The examples extend the student's experience of the types of molecules being synthesised by organic chemists, and the strategies they employ to control their syntheses. By working through these examples students will develop their skills in analysing synthetic challenges, and build a toolkit of strategies for planning new syntheses. Examples are drawn from pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, natural products, pheromones, perfumery and flavouring compounds, dyestuffs, monomers, and intermediates used in more advanced synthetic work. Reasons for wishing to synthesise each compound are given. Together the workbook and textbook provide a complete course in retrosynthetic analysis.
Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition
There are forty chapters in "Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition" those on the synthesis of given types of molecules alternate with strategy chapters in which the methods just learnt are placed in a wider context. The synthesis chapters cover many ways of making each type of molecule starting with simple aromatic and aliphatic compounds with one functional group and progressing to molecules with many functional groups. The strategy chapters cover questions of selectivity, protection, stereochemistry, and develop more advanced thinking via reagents specifically designed for difficult problems. In its second edition updated examples and techniques are included and illustrated additional material has been added to take the student to the level required by the sequel, "Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control." Several chapters contain extensive new material based on courses that the authors give to chemists in the pharmaceutical industry.
"Workbook for Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd edition," combined with the main textbook, provides a full course in retrosynthetic analysis for chemistry and biochemistry students, and a refresher course for organic chemists working in industry and academia.
This book looks at how science investigates the natural world around us. It is an examination of the scientific method, the foundation of science, and basis on which our scientific knowledge is built on. Written in a clear, concise, and colloquial style, the book addresses all concepts pertaining to the scientific method. It includes discussions on objective reality, hypotheses and theory, and the fundamental and inalienable role of experimental evidence in scientific knowledge. This collection of personal reflections on the scientific methodology shows the observations and daily uses of an experienced practitioner. Massimiliano Di Ventra also examines the limits of science and the errors we make when abusing its method in contexts that are not scientific, for example, in policymaking. By reflecting on the general method, the reader can critically sort through other types of scientific claims, and judge their ability to apply it in study and in practice.
This essential resource consists of a series of critical reviews written by leading scientists, summarising the progress in the field of conjugated thiophene materials. It is an application-oriented book, giving a chemists' point of view on the state-of-art and perspectives of the field. While presenting a comprehensive coverage of thiophene-based materials and related applications, the aim is to show how the rational molecular design of materials can bring a new breadth to known device applications or even aid the development of novel application concepts. The main topics covered include synthetic methodologies to thiophene-based materials (including the chemistry of thiophene, preparation of oligomers and polymerisation approaches) and the structure and physical properties of oligo- and polythiophenes (discussion of structural effects on electronic and optical properties). Part of the book is devoted to the optical and semiconducting properties of conjugated thiophene materials for electronics and photonics, and the role of thiophene-based materials in nanotechnology.
Every element has character, be it volatile, aloof, gregarious or enigmatic. They also have incredible stories of how they came to be, how they were discovered and how their qualities have been harnessed to make everything we have in the world. The Secret Life of the Periodic Table gives a fascinating insight into the discovery and use of all 118 elements. It uncovers incredible stories of how Mendeleev's table was formulated and the individual elements found, as well as explaining the fundamentals of atomic science and each element's place in the table and our universe.
Meeting the need for a work that brings together quantum theory and spectroscopy to convey excitation processes to advanced students and specialists wishing to conduct research and understand the entire field rather than just single aspects. Written by an experienced author and recognized authority in the field, this text covers numerous applications and offers examples taken from different disciplines. As a result, spectroscopists, molecular physicists, physical chemists, and biophysicists will all find this a must-have for their research. Also suitable as supplementary reading in graduate level courses.
A one-stop, concise guide on determining and measuring thin film thickness by optical methods.
This practical book covers the laws of electromagnetic radiation and interaction of light with matter, as well as the theory and practice of thickness measurement, and modern applications. In so doing, it shows the capabilities and opportunities of optical thickness determination and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of measurement devices along with their evaluation methods.
Following an introduction to the topic, Chapter 2 presents the basics of the propagation of light and other electromagnetic radiation in space and matter. The main topic of this book, the determination of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is treated in the following three chapters. The color of thin layers is discussed in chapter 6. Finally, in chapter 7, the author discusses several industrial applications of the layer thickness measurement, including high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, transparent conductive films, oxides and polymers, thin film photovoltaics, and heavily doped silicon.
Aimed at industrial and academic researchers, engineers, developers and manufacturers involved in all areas of optical layer and thin optical film measurement and metrology, process control, real-time monitoring, and applications.
Tackling environmental issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, water pollution, and soil contamination requires an understanding of the underlying science and chemistry of these processes in real-world systems and situations. Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences provides a student-friendly introduction to the basic chemistry used for the mitigation, remediation, and elimination of pollutants. Written and organized in a style that is accessible to science as well as non-science majors, this textbook divides its content into four intuitive chapters: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. The first chapter explains classical concepts in chemistry that occur in nature such as atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonding and reactions, states of matter, phase transitions, and radioactivity. Subsequent chapters focus on the chemistry relating to the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere-including the chemical aspects of soil, water, and air pollution, respectively. Chemistry for Environmental and Earth Sciences uses worked examples and case studies drawn from current applications along with clear diagrams and concise explanations to illustrate the relevance of chemistry to geosciences. In-text and end-of-chapter questions with complete solutions also help students gain confidence in applying concepts from this book towards solving current, real-world problems.
The ultimate and only reference source in this field, this handbook discusses the latest advances on the reactions leading to the formation of cyclic structures and includes chapters presenting the most synthetically attractive cyclization reactions.
Leading chemists from around the world provide authoritative first-hand information, including experimental procedures that offer readers valuable practical information that is otherwise unavailable.
An aid for every organic chemist in grasping and applying these new reactions.
The content of this volume has been added to "eMagRes" (formerly "Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance)" - the ultimate online resource for NMR and MRI.
The literature of multidimensional NMR began with the publication of three papers in 1975, then nine in 1976 and fifteen in 1977, and now contains many tens of thousands of papers. Any attempt to survey the field must therefore necessarily be very selective, not to say partial. In assembling this handbook, the Editors have sought to provide both the new researcher and the established scientist with a solid foundation for the understanding of multidimensional NMR, a representative if inevitably limited survey of its applications, an authoritative account of classic techniques such as COSY, NOESY and TOSCY, and an account of the latest progress in the development of multidimensional techniques.
This handbook is structured in four parts. The first opens with an historical introduction to, and a brief account of, the practicalities and applications of multidimensional NMR methods, followed by a definitive survey of their conceptual basis and a series of articles setting out the generic principles of methods for acquiring and processing multidimensional NMR data. In the second part, the main families of multidimensional techniques, arranged in approximate order of increasing complexity, are described in detail, from simple J-resolved spectroscopy through to the powerful heteronuclear 3D and 4D methods that now dominate the study of structural biology in solution. The third part offers and illustrative selection from the very wide range of applications of multidimensional NMR methods, including some of the most recent developments in protein NMR. Finally, the fourth part introduces the idea of multidimensional spectra containing non-frequency dimensions, in which properties such as diffusion and relaxation are correlated.
About "EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks"
The "Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance "(up to 2012) and" eMagRes "(from 2013 onward) publish a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of "EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks" on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of articles from "eMagRes." In consultation with the "eMagRes" Editorial Board, the "EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks" are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written (together with updates of some already existing articles) to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry.
Have the content of this Handbook and the complete content of "eMagRes "at your fingertips Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagResView other "eMagRes" publications here
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