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Systematically covering all the latest developments in the field, this is a comprehensive and handy introduction to metal-metal bonding. The chapters follow a uniform, coherent structure for a clear overview, allowing readers easy access to the information. The text covers such topics as synthesis, properties, structures, notable features, reactivity and examples of applications of the most important compounds in each group with metal-metal bonding throughout the periodic table. With its general remarks at the beginning of each chapter, this is a must-have reference for all molecular inorganic chemists, including PhD students and postdocs, as well as more experienced researchers.
Written by an experienced university teacher, this textbook is
based on the author's lectures, and is designed to answer students'
questions rather than delving into obscure details. The
well-balanced approach gives precedence to a visual, intuitive
understanding, with only as much math as is necessary. The author
covers the topic of symmetry in crystals from basic elements to
physical properties, backed by numerous clear-cut illustrations and
easy-to-read crystallographic tables.
Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their volatilities (the point at which liquids become gases). Written by one of the inventors of the osmotic distillation technique, Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Distillation is the only available book that addresses the principles and practical applications of membrane distillation and osmotic distillation, two closely related, novel processes that offer several advantages over conventional concentration processes. Because of the widespread impact and application of the technology in industries such as food, environment, and nuclear cleanup/containment, the book addresses plant setup, process economics, hybrid processes, and potential applications so that the technique can be used in combination with existing distillation setups. Tables, equations, and data supplied by manufacturers are included, thereby making it a complete package for researchers and plant operators.
Green Chemistry has evolved in response to several environmental issues in the second half of the last century, mostly due to the almost freely expanding chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. During the past two decades Green Chemistry grew rapidly and we can now consider this area as a mature and powerful field. Tremendous development has taken place in many important areas including renewable energy and resources, reaction environments, catalysis, synthesis, chemical biology, green materials, in situ monitoring and facile recycling. The combination of Green Chemistry with engineering, biology, toxicology, and physics will lead to novel interdisciplinary systems, which can now lift Green Chemistry to the next, advanced level.The editors of this book have assembled as authors among the best specialists of this growing area of research. This collection of reviews and perspectives provides an exciting vision of the more recent developments in Green Chemistry. It illustrates the breath of the field and its role to address environmental issues. This volume will serve as a book of reference showing a panoramic view of the field and a preview of its future direction as well as a book of inspiration for those aiming to further advance its frontiers.
This first comprehensive overview of this important synthetic
reaction covers the whole spectrum of this modern and rapidly
developing field. Clearly structured, the book presents all the
known synthetic approaches for the construction of aromatic
compounds bearing benzylic stereocenters with a defined
configuration. With its representative synthetic procedures,
organocatalysis and industrial applications it combines a
theoretical basis with practical examples, resulting in valuable
advice for beginners and experts alike.
An expert overview of current research, applications, and economic and environmental advantages The study and development of new homogeneous catalysts based on first-row metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) has grown significantly due to the economic and environmental advantages that non-noble metals present. Base metals offer reduced cost, greater supply, and lower toxicity levels than noble metals?enabling greater opportunity for scientific investigation and increased development of practical applications. Non-Noble Metal Catalysis provides an authoritative survey of the field, from fundamental concepts and computational methods to industrial applications and reaction classes. Recognized experts in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis, the authors present a comprehensive overview of the conceptual and practical aspects of non-noble metal catalysts. Examination of topics including non-innocent ligands, proton-coupled electron transfer, and multi-nuclear complexes provide essential background information, while areas such as kinetic lability and lifetimes of intermediates reflect current research and shifting trends in the field. This timely book demonstrates the efficacy of base metal catalysts in the pharmaceutical, fine-chemical, and agrochemical industries, addressing both environmental and economic concerns. Providing essential conceptual and practical exploration, this valuable resource: -Illustrates how unravelling new reactivity patterns can lead to new catalysts and new applications -Highlights the multiple advantages of using non-noble metals in homogenous catalysis -Demonstrates how the availability of non-noble metal catalysis reduces costs and leads to immense savings for the chemical industry -Reveals how non-noble metal catalysis are more sustainable than noble metals such as palladium or platinum Non-Noble Metal Catalysis: Molecular Approaches and Reactions is an indispensable source of up-to-date information for catalytic chemists, organic chemists, industrial chemists, organometallic chemists, and those seeking to broaden their knowledge of catalytic chemistry.
This book brings together fifteen contributions from presenters at the 25th IUPAC International Conference on Chemistry Education 2018, held in Sydney. Written by a highly diverse group of chemistry educators working within different national and institutional contexts with the common goal of improving student learning, the book presents research in multiple facets of the cutting edge of chemistry education, offering insights into the application of learning theories in chemistry combined with practical experience in implementing teaching strategies. The chapters are arranged according to the themes novel pedagogies, dynamic teaching environments, new approaches in assessment and professional skills - each of which is of substantial current interest to the science education communities. Providing an overview of contemporary practice, this book helps improve student learning outcomes. Many of the teaching strategies presented are transferable to other disciplines and are of great interest to the global community of tertiary chemistry educators as well as readers in the areas of secondary STEM education and other disciplines.
Summarizing the emerging field of N-heterocyclic carbenes used in organocatalysis, this is an excellent overview of the synthesis and applications of NHCs focusing on carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Alongside comprehensive coverage of the synthesis, characteristics and applications, this handbook and ready reference also includes chapters on NHCs for polymerization reactions and natural product synthesis.
This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.
Designed as a first-stop reference for researchers and
professionals in toxicology, pharmacology and medicine, this
handbook is the very first to tie together the knowledge from many
disciplines that has so far been available only from widely
dispersed sources in the primary literature. As such, it presents
the complete picture on what is currently known about endogenous
toxins, including their generation, mode of action, resulting
disease condition, and available countermeasures.
An essential reference to the highly effective reactions applied to modern organic synthesis Rhodium complexes are one of the most important transition metals for organic synthesis due to their ability to catalyze a variety of useful transformations. Rhodium Catalysis in Organic Synthesis explores the most recent progress and new developments in the field of catalytic cyclization reactions using rhodium(I) complexes and catalytic carbon-hydrogen bond activation reactions using rhodium(II) and rhodium(III) complexes. Edited by a noted expert in the field with contributions from a panel of leading international scientists, Rhodium Catalysis in Organic Synthesis presents the essential information in one comprehensive volume. Designed to be an accessible resource, the book is arranged by different reaction types. All the chapters provide insight into each transformation and include information on the history, selectivity, scope, mechanism, and application. In addition, the chapters offer a summary and outlook of each transformation. This important resource: -Offers a comprehensive review of how rhodium complexes catalyze a variety of highly useful reactions for organic synthesis (e.g. coupling reactions, CH-bond functionalization, hydroformylation, cyclization reactions and others) -Includes information on the most recent developments that contain a range of new, efficient, elegant, reliable and useful reactions -Presents a volume edited by one of the international leading scientists working in the field today -Contains the information that can be applied by researchers in academia and also professionals in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemical companies Written for academics and synthetic chemists working with organometallics, Rhodium Catalysis in Organic Synthesis contains the most recent information available on the developments and applications in the field of catalytic cyclization reactions using rhodium complexes.
Ever since the beginning of mankind's efforts to pursue scientific inquiry into the laws of nature, visualization of the very distant and the very small has been paramount. The examples are numerous. A century ago, the atom appeared mysterious, a "raisin or plum pie of no structure," until it was visualized on the appropriate length and time scales. Similarly, with telescopic observations, a central dogma of the cosmos was changed and complexity yielded to simplicity of the heliocentric structure and motion in our solar system.For matter, in over a century of developments, major advances have been made to explore the inner microscopic structures and dynamics. These advances have benefited many fields of endeavor, but visualization was incomplete; it was limited either to the 3D spatial structure or to the 1D temporal evolution. However, in systems with myriads of atoms, 4D spatiotemporal visualization is essential for dissecting their complexity. The biological world is rich with examples, and many molecular diseases cannot be fully understood without such direct visualization, as, for example, in the case of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The same is true for phenomena in materials science, chemistry, and nanoscience.This anthology is an account of the collected works that have emerged over the past decade from Caltech. Through recent publications, the volume provides overviews of the principles, the electron-based techniques, and the applications made. Thanks to advances in imaging principles and technology, it is now possible with 4D electron microscopy to reach ten orders of magnitude improvement in time resolution while simultaneously conserving the atomic spatial resolution in visualization. This is certainly a long way from Robert Hooke's microscopy, which was recorded in his 1665 masterpiece Micrographia.
"Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials" is a new major reference work which links supramolecular chemistry and nanomaterials. Presenting over 150 tutorial articles and spanning over 10 comprehensive sections, this new resource covers: Concepts Techniques Molecular recognition Supramolecular reactivity Supramolecular aspects of chemical biology Self processes Supramolecular devices Supramolecular materials chemistry Soft matter Nanotechnology
Supramolecular chemistry is 'chemistry beyond the molecule'. While traditional chemistry focuses on the bonds that hold atoms together in a molecule, supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker interactions that hold groups of molecules together. Important concepts that have been demonstrated by supramolecular chemistry include molecular self-assembly, folding, molecular recognition, host-guest chemistry, mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures, and dynamic covalent chemistry.
The importance of supramolecular chemistry was established by the 1987 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, which was awarded to Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, and Charles J. Pedersen in recognition of their work in the field.
The past decade has seen dramatic developments in the field, with supramolecular chemistry leaving its roots in classical host guest chemistry and expanding into exciting areas of materials chemistry and nanoscience with many real and potential applications. Supramolecular findings are evolving our understanding of the way chemical concepts at the molecular level build up into materials and systems with fascinating, emergent properties on the nanoscale.
Supramolecular chemistry: the biggest challenge yet
"Creating that link between the chemist's understanding of the way in which molecules interact with one another, and the understanding a materials scientist, engineer or biologist has of the resulting properties of a material or system comprised of those molecules is one of the huge grand challenges facing modern molecular science."--Philip A. Gale and Jonathan W. Steed, Editors-in-Chief
Linking supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology to define the field in the 21st Century...
"Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials" is the first major reference to link supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology. A global team of experts present an overview of the concepts and techniques of modern supramolecular chemistry, demonstrating how these paradigms evolve into nanoscale systems chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science and beyond.
Breaking down the barriers between synthetic chemistry and materials science, the authors demonstrate how modern techniques allow access increasingly far along the 'synthesising-up' pathway. "Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials" explains the fundamental concepts and provides invaluable practical guidance on the applications and limitations of modern instrumental techniques for addressing molecular and materials-based problems.
The printed edition of "Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials" is available as an eight-volume set. Publishing in full colour to enhance the interpretation of complex supramolecular structures the printed editionis highly illustrated with an average of three images per page features fully indexed articles with cross-references integrated into the text includes a glossary of key terms
Online Edition"Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials" is now available online. For further information visit WileyOnlineLibrary.com/ref/smc
Polysaccharide nanocrystals, an emerging green nanoingredient (nanomaterial) with high crystallinity obtained by acid hydrolysis of biomass-based polysaccharides, are of scientific and economic significance owing to their abundance, biodegradation potential, and fascinating functional performance. This versatile class of materials can be used in nanocomposites such as rubber or polyester, and in functional materials such as drug carriers, bio-inspired mechanically adaptive materials or membranes, to name but a few. This book encompasses the extraction, structure, properties, surface modification, theory, and mechanism of diverse functional systems derived from polysaccharide nanocrystals. This highly sought-after trendy book is currently the only monograph devoted to the most current knowledge pertaining to this exciting subject area. It is ideal for researchers and stakeholders who wish to broaden and deepen their knowledge in the fast-moving and rapidly expanding R&D field of polymeric materials.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with a presumed autoimmune aetiology and few current effective treatments. Disease modifying therapies focus on the altering the natural course of relapsing and remitting MS, targeting the inflammatory response. Other targets involve tacking the cause of the disease - demyelination of axons through remyelination therapies. Due to several recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS new targets for remyelination and immunomodulation are rapidly emerging. This book provides a comprehensive overview of drug discovery and development for the molecular basis of the disease, from new targets to drugs currently in clinical development, cellular and animal disease models to biomarkers for diagnosis and assessment in clinical trials. Emerging Drugs and Targets for Multiple Sclerosis is an ideal reference for any student or researcher interested in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases and MS in particular.
The gold standard in analytical chemistry, Dan Harris' Quantitative Chemical Analysis provides a sound physical understanding of the principles of analytical chemistry and their applications in the disciplines. Dan Harris presents the subject in a rigorous, readable and interesting manner, lucid enough for non-chemistry majors but containing the depth required by advanced undergraduates. For the first time since the book was published in 1978, Harris has worked with a new contributing author, Professor Chuck Lucy of the University of Alberta. Lucy shares his expertise and teaching experience in Chapters 23-26 on chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.
A new edition of the clearest, most authoritative guide to rocks and minerals 600 incredible photos, precise annotations and detailed descriptions - from the distinguishing features of rocks to which crystal system a mineral belongs to - will help you identify different rocks and minerals quickly and easily. Covers everything from what rocks or minerals are, how they are classified to how to start a collection. Perfect for rocks and mineral lovers - a comprehensive guide for collectors.
Please note this title is suitable for any student studying: Exam Board: AQA Level: A Level Subject: Chemistry First teaching: September 2015 First exams: June 2017 The AQA A Level Chemistry Revision Guide is fully revised and updated for the new 2015 specification. Exactly matched to the specification, the Revision Guide provides comprehensive, specification-linked content, so you can be sure you are covering everything you need to know for the exams. It is packed with engaging revision and practice material to keep you focused and contains a wealth of exam-style questions to test your knowledge and skills to help you fully prepare for the exams.
Covering everything from the basics to recent applications, this monograph represents an advanced overview of the field. Edited by internationally acclaimed experts respected throughout the community, the book is clearly divided into sections on fundamental and applied surface organometallic chemistry. Backed by numerous examples from the recent literature, this is a key reference for all chemists.
Linker design is an expanding field with an exciting future in state-of-the-art organic synthesis. Ever-increasing numbers of ambitious solution phase reactions are being adapted for solid-phase organic chemistry and to accommodate them, large numbers of sophisticated linker units have been developed and are now routinely employed in solid-phase synthesis.
"Linker Strategies in Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis" guides the reader through the evolution of linker units from their genesis in solid-supported peptide chemistry to the cutting edge diversity linker units that are defining a new era of solid phase synthesis. Individual linker classes are covered in easy to follow chapters written by international experts in their respective fields and offer a comprehensive guide to linker technology whilst simultaneously serving as a handbook of synthetic transformations now possible on solid supports. Topics include:
the principles of solid phase organic synthesiselectrophile and nucleophile cleavable linker unitscyclative cleavage as a solid phase strategyphotocleavable linker unitssafety-catch linker unitsenzyme cleavable linker unitsT1 and T2 -versatile triazene linker groupshydrazone linker unitsbenzotriazole linker unitsphosphorus linker unitssulfur linker unitsselenium and tellurium linker unitssulfur, oxygen and selenium linker units cleaved by radical processessilicon and germanium linker unitsboron and stannane linker unitsbismuth linker unitstransition metal carbonyl linker unitslinkers releasing olefins or cycloolefins by ring-closing metathesisfluorous linker unitssolid-phase radiochemistry
The book concludes with extensive linker selection tables, cataloguing the linker units described in this book according to the substrate liberated upon cleavage and conditions used to achieve such cleavage, enabling readers to choose the right linker unit for their synthesis.
"Linker Strategies in Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis" is an essential guide to the diversity of linker units for organic chemists in academia and industry working in the broad areas of solid-phase organic synthesis and diversity oriented synthesis, medicinal chemists in the pharmaceutical industry who routinely employ solid-phase chemistry in the drug discovery business, and advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and organic chemists with an interest in leading-edge developments in their field.
A comprehensive overview of the possibilities and potential of
X-ray scattering using nanofocused beams for probing matter at the
nanoscale, including guidance on the design of nanobeam
experiments. The monograph discusses various sources, including
free electron lasers, synchrotron radiation and other portable and
non-portable X-ray sources.
This all-in-one study guide delivers all the review and practice you need to master chemistry fundamentals! Whether you're starting from scratch or refreshing your chemistry skills, this accessible guide will help you develop a better understanding of chemistry. Offering concise coverage of all chemistry basics, the book is packed with clear, easy-to-grasp review material. Hundreds of practice exercises increase your grasp of chemistry concepts and help you retain what you have learned. The book features: *New chapter: Lewis Structures and Intermolecular Forces*Concise review material that clearly explains chemistry fundamentals*Hundreds of practice exercises to build your problem-solving confidence
This book provides a noteworthy compilation of the groundbreaking methods of stereoselective synthesis, belonging to the repertoire of every modern practitioner of synthetic organic chemistry. The general principles underlying these processes are highlighted as they form the basis for the rapid and continuing developments in the field. The work also features illustrative examples of drug and natural product syntheses, resulting in a rich source of stimulating ideas for the efficient use of asymmetric reactions in the construction of stereochemically complex structures. From the contents: "Macrocyclic stereocontrol "Carbonyl addition reactions "alpha-Functionalization of enolates "Aldol and allylation reactions "Chiral acetals "Alkene hydroboration, reduction, and oxidation "Additions to C=N bonds and synthesis of amino acids "Conjugate additions "Chiral carbanions "Metal-catalyzed allylations "Cyclopropanations and CH-insertion reactions "Sigmatropic rearrangements "Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder reactions "[3+2]- and [2+2]-cycloaddition reactions
A new, full-color, completely updated edition of the key practical guide to chemometrics This new edition of this practical guide on chemometrics, emphasizes the principles and applications behind the main ideas in the field using numerical and graphical examples, which can then be applied to a wide variety of problems in chemistry, biology, chemical engineering, and allied disciplines. Presented in full color, it features expansion of the principal component analysis, classification, multivariate evolutionary signal and statistical distributions sections, and new case studies in metabolomics, as well as extensive updates throughout. Aimed at the large number of users of chemometrics, it includes extensive worked problems and chapters explaining how to analyze datasets, in addition to updated descriptions of how to apply Excel and Matlab for chemometrics. Chemometrics: Data Driven Extraction for Science, Second Edition offers chapters covering: experimental design, signal processing, pattern recognition, calibration, and evolutionary data. The pattern recognition chapter from the first edition is divided into two separate ones: Principal Component Analysis/Cluster Analysis, and Classification. It also includes new descriptions of Alternating Least Squares (ALS) and Iterative Target Transformation Factor Analysis (ITTFA). Updated descriptions of wavelets and Bayesian methods are included. Includes updated chapters of the classic chemometric methods (e.g. experimental design, signal processing, etc.) Introduces metabolomics-type examples alongside those from analytical chemistry Features problems at the end of each chapter to illustrate the broad applicability of the methods in different fields Supplemented with data sets and solutions to the problems on a dedicated website Chemometrics: Data Driven Extraction for Science, Second Edition is recommended for post-graduate students of chemometrics as well as applied scientists (e.g. chemists, biochemists, engineers, statisticians) working in all areas of data analysis.
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