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Since 1992, marijuana use among 8th graders has tripled, among 10th graders it has nearly doubled, and its use among high school seniors has increased by 50 percent. The use of other illicit drugs is also heavily on the rise. Yet, there exists very little research and literature on the etiology and prevention of drug abuse among those most at risk--disadvantaged, inner-city, minority youth. The Etiology and Prevention of Drug Abuse Among Minority Youth is an important first step in remedying this gap in the literature and for getting at the heart of the psychosocial factors that promote and sustain drug use among minority youth.The book's chapters evolved from a program of research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Cornell University Medical College's Institute for Prevention Research concerning drug abuse prevention with multi-ethnic youth. So that you might learn effective strategies for intervening with at-risk adolescents and teenagers, The Etiology and Prevention of Drug Abuse Among Minority Youth discusses: correlates and predictors of alcohol and drug use community-based skills interventions how youths offset feelings of distress or self-derogation by bonding with deviant peers the advantages of community-oriented outreach programs the role of cultural factors as they shape vulnerability to adolescent alcohol and drug use the role of ethnic identity as a moderator of psychosocial risk for alcohol and marijuana use the needs of youth at high risk for future use preventing gateway drug use drug use among youth living in homeless shelters the conditions of public housing and how they affect the etiology of drug abuseAn essential tool for policymakers, social workers, clinicians, researchers, psychiatrists, and other professionals in chemical dependency and narcotics rehabilitation, The Etiology and Prevention of Drug Abuse Among Minority Youth provides you with vital insight on the causes of drug use among minority adolescents, the strengths and limitations of different intervention approaches, and incentive to find appropriate ways for working with at-risk, minority teenagers.
This volume brings together a range of contributions exploring the diverse ways in which children and young people experience movements, im/mobilities and journeys at different geographical scales and in different socio-spatial contexts. It provides a snapshot of recent work within the geographies of children and young people which has engaged with emerging conceptualisations of mobility and immobility, and builds on existing scholarship on migration, movement and settlement. Topics covered include children's and young people's experiences of phenomena such as transnational migration, everyday mobility, social im/mobilities, homelessness, settlement, navigations of belonging, educational mobility, medical travel, citizenship, trafficking, labour migration, borders and boundaries. The collection is notable for the wide range of geographical contexts represented, including global South and North, and in the variety of types of movements examined - from local to global mobilities, everyday to life-changing journeys, and incorporating movements bound up in different ways with processes of socio-spatial inclusion and exclusion. A number of core themes are highlighted in the volume. All of the contributions are attentive to children's and young people's subjectivities, agency and perspectives in the context of an adult-dominated world. Together, they highlight: firstly, the complexities of children's mobilities and the need to move beyond over-simplified and often dichotomized understandings of children's mobilities and migrations; secondly, the importance of recognising the diversity of geographical scales in children and young people's movements, and in particular, of the ways in which small-scale movements intersect with global mobilities and migrations in children's and young people's lives; thirdly, the interdependent and relational nature of children's and young people's mobilities and migrations; and finally, the importance of social, material, political and family contexts in understanding how children and young people experience mobility, immobility and migration. The volume highlights the centrality of mobility and movement to understanding contemporary society and in particular to understandings of the geographical worlds of children and young people. It highlights the richness of current research in the area, pointing to fruitful directions for future theoretical, conceptual and methodological agendas and provides a valuable platform from which to further enhance geographical understandings of the children's and young people's movements, im/mobilities and journeys.
Written by a pediatrician/adolescent medicine specialist and a
developmental psychologist, this book is a collection of
informative, nonredundant yet comprehensive studies on adolescent
pregnancy and parenting. More than 200 adolescent women in an
ethnically diverse sample were studied prenatally and at regular
6-month intervals for 31/2 years postpartum. Most of the teens were
poor, unmarried, first-time mothers who resided within Southeast
San Diego, a poor urban area approximately 10 miles north of the
A groundbreaking collection of essays on a hitherto underexplored subject that challenges the existing stereotypical views of the trivial and innocent nature of children's culture, this work reveals for the first time the artistic and complex interactions among children. Based on research of scholars from such diverse fields as American studies, anthropology, education, folklore, psychology, and sociology, this volume represents a radical new attempt to redefine and reinterpret the expressive behaviors of children. The book is divided into four major sections: history, methodology, genres, and setting, with a concluding chapter on theory. Each section is introduced by an overview by Brian Sutton-Smith. The accompanying bibliography lists historical references through the present, representing works by scholars for over 100 years.
An analysis of the socialization of the child in diverse cultures, focusing on parent-child relationships, enculturation, and child development under changing educational conditions. The author examines intersections among patterns of childhood experience, cultural values and institutional change.
This text provides a step-by-step healing process for adults reared in dysfunctional families and who have unfinished business with their pasts. This process encourages individuals to tell the truth about abuse and neglect, embrace and feel the feelings, identify how present-day acting- out behaviour is related to inner dialogue, and apply the inner child method to adulthood issues.; Providing information on shame, codependency, abuse, neglect, birth order and boundaries, this workbook enables the individual to gain new understanding about their past and present. Using the activities described here, a person should first develop skills that help in healing childhood trauma, and consequently be given the means to address adulthood problems such as correcting self- defeating thought and behaviour patterns. The learning of self-nurturing, self-acceptance and health boundaries should then follow as a matter of course.; This text reintegrates the personality parts in a functional way through the use of exercises and visualisations, with the aim of enabling the individual to finish with the past and live successfully in the present. Examples of real-life inner child therapy assignments are also included.; A manual for therapists ISOSBN 1-55959-063-7 and a visualisation tape ISOSBN 1-55959-076-9 are also available.
An avalanche of recent newspapers, weekly newsmagazines, scholarly journals, and academic books has helped to spark a heated debate by publishing warnings of a "boy crisis" in which male students at all academic levels have begun falling behind their female peers. In Learning the Hard Way, Edward W. Morris explores and analyzes detailed ethnographic data on this purported gender gap between boys and girls in educational achievement at two low-income high schools-one rural and predominantly white, the other urban and mostly African American. Crucial questions arose from his study of gender at these two schools. Why did boys tend to show less interest in and more defiance toward school? Why did girls significantly outperform boys at both schools? Why did people at the schools still describe boys as especially "smart"? Morris examines these questions and, in the process, illuminates connections of gender to race, class, and place. This book is not simply about the educational troubles of boys, but the troubled and complex experience of gender in school. It reveals how particular race, class, and geographical experiences shape masculinity and femininity in ways that affect academic performance. His findings add a new perspective to the "gender gap" in achievement.
"The School Years" presents a lively collection of essays on key
issues affecting young people in the school setting. This edition
takes into account the major social changes which have occurred
since 1979--changes which have had a direct impact on education and
adolescents. The contributors, five of whom are new since the first
edition, take an entirely new and up-to-date approach to current
Adolescent girls'special needs in the teen-age years are thoroughly examined in Women, Girls & Psychotherapy, a compelling book focusing on the vitality of resistance in young girls. Drawing on studies of women's and girls'development, clinical work with girls and women, and their personal experiences, the voices of adolescent girls are used to reframe and greater understand their resistance against debilitating conventions of feminine behavior. As adolescent girls are often overlooked in feminist books in psychotherapy, this is an important volume as it looks positively at resistance, both as a political strategy and a health-sustaining process.The chapters cover such diverse topics as reconceptualizations of women's and girls'psychological development and the psychotherapy relationship; adolescent female sexuality; new approaches to psychological problems commonly seen in girls and women; female adolescent health; and diverse perspectives and experiences of growing up female. The voices of young women are increasingly important in the exploration of the field of psychotherapy and among the voices included are those from African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and lesbians. An enlightening look at resistance in females in the growing up years, this volume provides valuable insight on their experiences. The work of many researchers, therapists, and educators with diverse backgrounds, Women, Girls & Psychotherapy is an informative book on distinct psychological issues facing young females.
This book consists of full texts of papers presented at the National Conference on Risk Factors for Youth Suicide held in Bethesda, MD in May 1986. These papers were critiqued by a review panel and opened for discussion and comment by those attending the conference. A major job for the Secretary's task force on youth suicide was to assess and consolidate current information. The work group generated a comprehensive list of potential risk factors, grouped them into specific risk factor domains, and identified experts in each area to review the scientific literature and write summary papers. In their papers, the commissioned authors were asked to catalogue analyze and synthesize the literature on factors linked to youth suicide.
The Development of Reasoning in Children with Normal and Defective Hearing was first published in 1950. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.No. 24, Institute of Child Welfare Monograph SeriesThis important study will prove helpful to educators, psychologists, clinicians, and all workers with the hard-of-hearing and deaf. Various types of reasoning ability were measured in children whose experience was limited by defective hearing, by residence in an institution, or by both of these factors, and comparisons were made with children whose environment was normal in one or both aspects.Subjects for the study included 850 pupils in state schools for the deaf, in special day classes for the defective hearing, and in public schools. Three different reasoning tests were used, and the scores of matched groups are compared and analyzed.
Growing awareness of children's involvement in crime, whether as
victims, witnesses or perpetrators, has given rise to new research
into how to treat children in legal settings. This volume brings
together thirteen of the most significant recent papers, offering
an overview of current knowledge.
The readings illustrate important issues in five key areas:
child victimisation, the reliability of children's accounts, truth
and lies, children and the legal system, and children as
perpetrators. Taken together, they encourage a multi-faceted
approach, combining knowledge from biological, social, cognitive
and developmental psychology in an interdisciplinary context.
Each paper is introduced and contextualised by the editor, and suggestions for additional reading enable further study.
The Mental Growth of Children from Two to Fourteen Years was first published in 1942. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.This discussion of the development and application of the Minnesota Preschool Scales includes detailed accounts of the statistical analyses used, follow-up studies, and a number of case histories, as well as a review of previous work in the testing of infants and young children. Covers a 12-year period during which trained examiners tested the same children at stated intervals. 1,350 tests were used in the standardization of verbal and nonverbal forms. Test standing on the Minnesota scales showed correlation with standing on tests given at the completion of high school.
Exploring in depth the journeys migrant youth take through the UK legal and care systems, this book contributes new thinking, from a social justice perspective, on migration and human rights for policy, practice and future research.
The Development of Children's Concepts of Causal Relations was first published in 1937. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.This is a report of group tests administered to 732 school children between 8 and 16 years of age, in grades 3 to 8. The children were asked to explain 11 scientific demonstrations, such as putting out a candle with a glass jar, and 12 commonly observed natural phenomena, such as snow and thunder.Quantified scores herein are analyzed in relationship to age, sex, intelligence, school grade, and socio-economic status. The results give insight into children's logical processes and the development of thinking.
First Published in 1981. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
"You can't just be the smartest. You have to be the most athletic, you have to be able to have the most fun, you have to be the prettiest, the best dressed, the nicest, the most wanted. You have to constantly be out on the town partying, and then you have to get straight As. And most of all, you have to appear to be happy." -- CJ, age seventeen High school isn't what it used to be. With record numbers of students competing fiercely to get into college, schools are no longer primarily places of learning. They're dog-eat-dog battlegrounds in which kids must set aside interests and passions in order to strategize over how to game the system. In this increasingly stressful environment, kids aren't defined by their character or hunger for knowledge, but by often arbitrary scores and statistics. In The Overachievers, journalist Alexandra Robbins delivers a poignant, funny, riveting narrative that explores how our high-stakes educational culture has spiraled out of control. During the year of her ten-year reunion, Robbins returns to her high school, where she follows students, including CJ and others: Julie, a track and academic star who is terrified she's making the wrong choices;"AP" Frank, who grapples with horrifying parental pressure to succeed;Taylor, a soccer and lacrosse captain whose ambition threatens her popular girl status;Sam, who worries his years of overachieving will be wasted if he doesn't attend a name-brand college;Audrey, who struggles with perfectionism; andThe Stealth Overachiever, a mystery junior who flies under the radar. Robbins tackles hard-hitting issues such as the student and teacher cheating epidemic, over-testing, sports rage, the black market for study drugs, and a college admissions process so cutthroat that some students are driven to depression and suicide because of a B. Even the earliest years of schooling have become insanely competitive, as Robbins learned when she gained unprecedented access into the inner workings of a prestigious Manhattan kindergarten admissions office. A compelling mix of fast-paced storytelling and engrossing investigative journalism, The Overachievers aims both to calm the admissions frenzy and to expose its escalating dangers.
aChildren and Youth in a New Nation is a rich and welcomed
introduction to the many faces of childhood in America from the
Revolution to the eve of the Civil War. The history of childhood is
often treated as a marginal topic, disconnected from major
historical themes. This volume seeks to correct that misperception
by demonstrating that the growth of the republic and the emergence
of new ideas about childhood and the shifting experience of actual
children were inextricably linked.a
In the early years of the Republic, as Americans tried to determine what it meant to be an American, they also wondered what it meant to be an American child. A defensive, even fearful, approach to childhood gave way to a more optimistic campaign to integrate young Americans into the Republican experiment.
In Children and Youth in a New Nation, historians unearth the experiences of and attitudes about children and youth during the decades following the American Revolution. Beginning with the revolution itself, the contributors explore a broad range of topics, from the ways in which American children and youth participated in and learned from the revolt and its aftermaths, to developing notions of aideala childhoods as they were imagined by new religious denominations and competing ethnic groups, to the struggle by educators over how the society that came out of the Revolution could best be served by its educational systems. The volume concludes by foreshadowing future achild-savinga efforts by reformers committed to constructing adequate systems of public health and child welfare institutions.
Rootedin the historical literature and primary sources, Children and Youth in a New Nation is a key resource in our understanding of origins of modern ideas about children and youth and the conflation of national purpose and ideas related to child development.
Adopting a broad approach which encompasses a range of ages, approaches, and interventions that are applicable to varied settings the authors have laid out an integrated framework that focuses on neuroscience and the developing brain. Each chapter includes a set of case illustrations, guided activities for the student to apply independently and in the classroom, and a list of resources in print, on the web, and on film.
Spencer A. Rathus provides a hands-on approach in the chronologically organized CHILDHOOD: VOYAGES IN DEVELOPMENT, 5E, International Edition helping you understand the links between developmental theories and research-and their application to everyday life. Using his proven pedagogical approach, interspersed with personal and humorous stories, Rathus makes reading and studying an enjoyable process of discovery.
The histories of modern war and childhood were the result of competing urgencies. According to ideals of childhood widely accepted throughout the world by 1900, children should have been protected, even hidden, from conflict and danger. Yet at a time when modern ways of childhood became increasingly possible for economic, social, and political reasons, it became less possible to fully protect them in the face of massive industrialized warfare driven by geopolitical rivalries and expansionist policies. Taking a global perspective, the chapters in this book examine a wide range of experiences and places. In addition to showing how the engagement of children and youth with war differed according to geography, technology, class, age, race, gender, and the nature of the state, they reveal how children acquired agency during the twentieth century's greatest conflicts.
From the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries, Spain and Portugal raised and nurtured vast American empires, both metaphorically and literally. From the very beginning, conquerors and settler elites engaged in colonial enterprises as they considered the New World through traditional Iberian ideas about childhood and as they established institutions for educating youths, sheltering infants, and extracting labor from children. Inevitably, Iberian concepts of childhood were transformed by everyday confrontations with the practices and norms of indigenous, African, and mixed-race inhabitants, and as new generations of truly colonial children were born.
"Raising an Empire" takes readers on a journey into the world of children and childhood in early modern Ibero-America. Its contributors enter a vibrant new field of study in the region and challenge the conventional notion that children are invisible in the historical record. Employing diverse methods to decode a wide variety of sources, these essays present their small subjects--elite maidens, abandoned babies, Indian servants, slave apprentices--through their lives and times.
Thought-provoking, pertinent and engaging, this book provides an overview of every aspect of carrying out research with children. It is unique in its particular focus on vulnerable groups of children such as those with mental-health problems, physical health problems and learning disabilities, along with young offenders and looked after children.
The book helpfully addresses each stage of the research process:
-Part I introduces the main elements of doing research with children, including seeking ethical approval for sensitive research topics.
-Part II guides the reader through the initial stages of the research project including recruitment issues and communicating with gatekeepers.
-Part III outlines the data collection, data analysis, writing up and dissemination stages of research and covers both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Filled with practical advice and useful activities for each chapter, this book is an essential resource for any student, academic or professional working with, or doing research with, children.
This book provides a practical, pedagogical perspective on conducting qualitative interviews with children and young people. From designing and choosing the type of interview through to planning, structuring, conducting, and analysing them this book is a complete toolkit. Drawing upon real-world examples and researchers' anecdotes, the authors combine both theoretical background and practical advice to introduce common issues and procedures and to help you undertake your own interviews in the field. Key topics include how to: Choose which interview style meets your and your participants' needs Maintain a safe and ethically sound research environment Incorporate participatory methods into formal interview settings Encourage participation and capture the voice of interviewees Utilise digital tools, software and methods to collect and analyse data This clear, articulate book is an essential companion for anyone interviewing children and young people.
In the 1950s the colonial British government in North and South Rhodesia (present-day Zambia and Zimbabwe) began construction on a large hydroelectric damn that created Lake Kariba and dislocated nearly 60,000 indigenous residents. Three decades later, Pamela Reynolds began fieldwork with the Tonga people to study the lasting effects of the dispossession of their land on their lives. In The Uncaring, Intricate World, Reynolds shares her field diary, in which she records her efforts to study children and their labor and, by doing so, exposes the character of everyday life. More than a memoir, her diary captures the range of pleasures, difficulties, frustrations, contradictions, and the grappling with ethical questions that all anthropologists experience in the field. The Uncaring, Intricate World concludes with afterwords by Julie Livingston and Jane I. Guyer, who critically reflect on its context, meaning for today, and its relevance to conducting anthropological work.
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