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This book takes Jamie Oliver's campaign for better school meals as a starting point for thinking about morally charged concerns relating to young people's nutrition, health and well-being, parenting, and public health 'crises' such as obesity. The authors show how these debates are always about the moral project of the self.
In Centuries of Childhood, the French historian Philippe Aries offers a fundamentally fresh interpretation of what childhood is and what the institution means for society at large. Aries's core idea is that ‘childhood,’ as we understand it today – a special time that requires special efforts and resources – is an invention of the 19th century, and that before that date children were in effect thought of as small adults. This led him to a re-evaluation of sources that suggested a second, crucial, conclusion: the idea that these competing visions of childhood were the products of two very different conceptions of human society.
An earlier, essentially communal, social ideal, Aries wrote, had been supplanted by a society far more family-centric and hence inward-facing. In his view, moreover, this increased focus on childhood posed a direct challenge to a well-entrenched social order. ‘One is tempted to conclude,’ he wrote, ‘that sociability and the concept of the family were incompatible, and could develop only at each other's expense.’
This revolutionary thesis, which has inspired and infuriated other historians in roughly equal measure, was made possible by Aries's determination to understand the meaning of the evidence available to him and highlight problems of definition that others had simply glossed over, making Centuries of Childhood an important example of the critical thinking skill of interpretation.
A fresh approach to supporting children who experience parental separation and divorce. Murch argues for preventative intervention which responds to children's worries when they first present them, without waiting until things have gone badly wrong.
As part of a series on child care policy, this book describes the situation of black families in Britain who face many problems stemming from both racial discrimination and from the aftermath of migration: the latter, while it opened up new opportunities, also imposed strains felt beyond the generation of people who were newcomers to Britain. The welfare services have not always dealt with the problems of poverty, poor housing and unemployment in appropriate ways. Disproportionate numbers of black children are in care, with less chance of reunion with their parents than white children. Care provided by local authorities may also be insensitive to diverse ethnic backgrounds and cultural needs. Only recently have black substitute parents been found for black children. Welfare services for young offenders have also not been operated adequately for black adolescents, so disproportionate numbers are in youth custody establishements. In the early 1980s, social services began to recognize these problems and this book describes developments and explores possible ways of providing services which are appropriate to Britain's multi-racial population. The contributors seeks to describe practical ways of meeting needs, and their implications for black families and the practitioners and administrators who work with them. Juliet Cheetham is the author of "Social Work and Ethnicity".
"An exciting and engagingly written book. The case studies are intriguing and the discussion of previous theories impeccable." - Dr. Heather Montgomery, The Open University "What is a child? Kate Cregan and Denise Cuthbert begin this path-breaking and compelling work with a deceptively simple question. From this seemingly straightforward formulation, they unravel, interrogate and engage with some of the most pressing issues related to children in the early 21st century... This book is an absolute must for scholars in all the fields of childhood studies." - Professor Joy Damousi, University of Melbourne Global Childhoods draws on the authors' interdisciplinary backgrounds and original research in the fields of embodiment, theorisations of childhood, children's policy, child placement and adoption, and family formation. The book critically demonstrates how following from the modern construction of childhood which emerged unevenly from the late eighteenth century, the twentieth century saw the emergence of the conception of the normative global child, a figure finally enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The book offers a wide-ranging critical analysis of approaches to children and childhood across the social sciences. Through stimulating case studies which include the experiences of child soldiers, orphans, forced child migrants, and children and biomedicine, Cregan and Cuthbert critically test the notion of the `global child' against the lived experiences of children around the globe. Kate Cregan and Denise Cuthbert draw on and contributes to debates on children and the idea of the child in a wide range of disciplines: sociology, anthropology, education, children's studies, cultural studies, history, psychology, law and development studies. In its historical coverage of the rise of the concepts of the child and the global child, its critical engagement with the theorisation of childhood, and its detailed case studies, the book is essential reading for the study of children and childhood.
The 19th century brought a decisive shift towards a "modern" form of childhood - one protected from the hazards and responsibilities of adulthood. Families in the West began to expect children to go to school rather than to work, to play in parks and playgrounds rather than to roam the streets, and to be kept healthy under the watchful eye of doctors and nurses. In response to both the demands and the depredations of the Industrial Revolution, the period saw unprecedented state intervention in areas such as education and health care reform. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Age of Empire presents essays on family relationships, community, economy, geography and the environment, education, life cycle, the state, faith and religion, health and science, and world contexts.
What is childhood? In recent years, a cluster of critical and complex ideas have emerged around the nature of biological, social and psychological growth in the early years, reflecting the changing nature of adult - child relations, and political and cultural understandings of childhood in the twenty-first century. In this clear and concise book, Michael Wyness offers fresh insights into the current state of play within childhood studies. Drawing on work from a number of disciplines including sociology, geography and history, he discusses the contested terrain of theoretical and research advances with particular attention to the notion of children's agency and the concept of global childhoods. Key conceptual debates are illustrated through a range of contemporary issues that affect children and adults, including inequality, child abuse, ill-health, child labour, sexualization and identity formation. This book will appeal to students and academics within the fields of sociology, education, geography, history and childhood studies.
View the Table of Contents
Hear the author interview on NPR's Morning Edition
aAt a time when childrenas play seems under siege, Howard
Chudacoffas history--the first of its kind--arrives to tell us what
we are letting slip away. . . . His history demonstrates that the
topic of play is anything but trivial. And by showing us where
weave been, he can help us decide where, as a culture, we want to
aA fascinating and provocative survey. . . . Chudacoff builds up
a scathing critique of modern parentsa intrusion in childrenas
aIn this wonderfully polished, scholarly treatment of children
and play from Colonial times to the present, Chudacoff uses
excellent historical methodology and perceptive psychological
insights, putting primary sources to good use, as he presents an
illustrated, chronological history of children at play from ages
six to 12.a
aIn tracing the history of play over the American centuries,
Chudacoff makes the mid-seventeenth century sound like our own
time, only better.a
a[Chudacoffas] history demonstrates that the topic of play is
anything but trivial. And by showing us where weave been, he can
help us decide where, as a culture, we want to go.a
aThe tension between how children spend their free time and how
adults want them to spend it runs through Chudacoffas book like a
yellow line smack down the middle of a highway. His critique is
increasingly echoed today by parents, educators and childrenas
advocates who warn that organized activities, overscheduling and
excessiveamounts of homework are crowding out free time and
constricting childrenas imaginations and social skills.a
aChildren at Play is a strong addition to the growing literature
on childhood, but itas also good reading for adults seeking a fresh
perspective on their own kids.a
aChudacoffas work gives historical depth to debates that
continue to rage over what constitutes appropriate childas
"Shrewd, balanced, witty, and important. Chudacoff has written a
sweeping history that encompasses boys and girls, black children
and white, rich and poor, children on farms and in cities. He shows
how children play alone and with each other, and how they use their
imaginations to create a world apart from their parents. This is
historical synthesis at its finest, and instantly becomes an
essential text in this new and dynamic area of inquiry."
a"Children at Play" is a brilliant, richly researched study that foregrounds childrenas voices, offering a message that could not be more timely or profound: That the history of childrenas play consists of an ongoing struggle between adults who seek to improve and safeguard the young, and kids themselves, who have sought to create worlds of play that are truly their own.a --Steven Mintz, author of "Huckas Raft: A History of American Childhood"
"In this beautifully written book, Howard Chudacoff lets us peer
into the diverse playworlds of America's children across time and
place. Informed by deep historical research and balanced with the
best sociological and psychological theory, Chudacoff shows us how
children (often in spite of adults) used play to express their
freedom and themselves."
If you believe the experts, "child's play" is serious business. From sociologists to psychologists and from anthropologists to social critics, writers have produced mountains of books about the meaning and importance of play. But what do we know about how children "actually" play, especially American children of the last two centuries? In this fascinating and enlightening book, Howard Chudacoff presents a history of children's play in the United States and ponders what it tells us about ourselves.
Through expert investigation in primary sources-including dozens of children's diaries, hundreds of autobiographical recollections of adults, and a wealth of child-rearing manuals-along with wide-ranging reading of the work of educators, journalists, market researchers, and scholars-Chudacoff digs into the "underground" of play. He contrasts the activities that genuinely occupied children's time with what adults thought children should be doing.
Filled with intriguing stories and revelatory insights, Children
at Play provides a chronological history of play in the U.S. from
the point of view of children themselves. Focusing on youngsters
between the ages of about six and twelve, this is history "from the
bottom up." It highlights the transformations of play that have
occurred over the last 200 years, paying attention not only to the
activities of the cultural elite but to those of working-class men
and women, to slaves, and to Native Americans. In addition, the
authorconsiders the findings, observations, and theories of
numerous social scientists along with those of fellow
Chudacoff concludes that children's ability to play independently has attenuated over time and that in our modern era this diminution has frequently had unfortunate consequences. By examining the activities of young people whom marketers today call "tweens," he provides fresh historical depth to current discussions about topics like childhood obesity, delinquency, learning disability, and the many ways that children spend their time when adults aren't looking.
"Children's Moral Lives" makes use of case studies, observation, interviews and questionnaires to offer a fascinating, behind-the-scenes view of children's school lives and the complex moral issues and disputes they routinely negotiateThe first ethnography of childhood to focus on children's morality in the peer groupCase studies shed light on the psychological, social and cultural processes by which children and adults reach starkly different moral judgments of the same situationsCombines qualitative insights and quantitative data into recommendations for practice
"At once cautionary and hopeful, Designing Modern Childhoods is an indispensable and incisive analysis of the special role of the built environment in both opening and foreclosing good futures for kids around the globe." -Michael Sorkin, director of the Graduate Urban Design Program at the City College of New York "From Turkish schools to New Zealand playgrounds and American summer camps, these essays offer a fresh and challenging take on the modern city from the perspective of its most overlooked residents." -Dell Upton, professor of art history, University of California, Los Angeles "This book takes the reader on a richly detailed and imaginative journey into the changing organization and meanings of childhood." -Barrie Thorne, professor of sociology, gender, and women's studies, University of California, Berkeley "This imaginative and original collection will play an important role in enhancing a growing interest in the history and sociology of childhood." -Peter Stearns, provost and professor of history, George Mason University In Designing Modern Childhoods, architectural historians, social historians, social scientists, and architects examine the history and design of places and objects such as schools, hospitals, playgrounds, houses, cell phones, snowboards, and even the McDonald's Happy Meal. Special attention is given to how children use and interpret the spaces, buildings, and objects that are part of their lives, becoming themselves creators and carriers of culture. The authors extract common threads in children's understandings of their material worlds, but they also show how the experience of modernity varies for young people across time, through space, and according to age, gender, social class, race, and culture. The foreword by Paula S. Fass and epilogue by John R. Gillis add additional depth to this comprehensive examination. Marta Gutman is an associate professor in the School of Architecture, Urban Design, and Landscape Architecture at the City College of New York/CUNY. Ning de Coninck-Smith is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Sociology at the School of Education-Arhus University.
The viability, quality and sustainability of publicly supported early childhood education and care services is a lively issue in many countries, especially since the rights of the child imply equal access to provision for all young children. But equitable provision within childcare markets is highly problematic, as parents pay for what they can afford and parental income inequalities persist or widen. This highly topical book presents recent, significant research from eight nations where childcare markets are the norm. It also includes research about `raw' and `emerging' childcare markets operating with a minimum of government intervention, mostly in low income countries or post transition economies. Childcare markets compares these childcare marketisation and regulatory processes across the political and economic systems in which they are embedded. Contributions from economists, childcare policy specialists and educationalists address the question of what constraints need to be in place if childcare markets are to deliver an equitable service.
Parents often worry about raising kids in a tech-saturated world - the threats of cyberbullying, video game violence, pornography, and sexting may seem inescapable. And while these dangers exist, there is a much more common and subtle way that technology can cause harm: by eroding our attention spans. Focused attention is fundamental to maintaining quality relationships, but our constant interaction with screens and social media is shortening our attention spans - which takes a toll on our personal connections with friends and family and our ability to form real relationships. Tech Generation: Raising Balanced Kids in a Hyper-Connected World guides parents in teaching their children how to reap the benefits of living in a digital world while also preventing its negative effects. Mike Brooks and Jon Lasser, psychologists with extensive experience working with kids, parents, and teachers, combine cutting-edge research and expertise to create an engaging and helpful guide that emphasizes the importance of the parent-child relationship. They reject an "all or nothing" attitude towards technology, in favor of a balanced approach that neither idealizes nor demonizes the digital. Brooks and Lasser provide strategies for preventing technology from becoming problematic in the first place; steps for addressing problems when they arise; and ways of intervening when problems are out of control. They also discuss the increasingly challenging issue of technology use in schools, and how parents can collaborate with educators when concerns arise over kids' use of technology.
Explore the multiple dimensions of child and adolescent development in Latin America, and get acquainted with the research from this region and how it relates to the international scientific literature. This special issue presents a collection of reviews developed by leading scholars in Latin America about the state of child and adolescent research in this region. Topics considered include: poverty and cognitive development, school readiness of preschool children, peer relations and socioemotional development, psychopathology and psychiatric diagnosis, reading comprehension and related interventions, and the development of creativity. This is the 152nd volume in this Jossey-Bass series New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. Its mission is to provide scientific and scholarly presentations on cutting edge issues and concepts in this subject area. Each volume focuses on a specific new direction or research topic and is edited by experts from that field.
If we are to fully understand how slavery survived legal abolition, we must grapple with the work that abolition has left undone, and dismantle the structures that abolition has left in place. Child Slavery before and after Emancipation seeks to enable a vital conversation between historical and modern slavery studies - two fields that have traditionally run along parallel tracks rather than in relation to one another. In this collection, Anna Mae Duane and her interdisciplinary group of contributors seek to build historical and contemporary bridges between race-based chattel slavery and other forms of forced child labor, offering a series of case studies that illuminate the varied roles of enslaved children. Duane provides a provocative, historically grounded set of inquiries that suggest how attending to child slaves can help to better define both slavery and freedom.
View the Table of Contents. Read the Introduction.
aMarten adds to the growing body of literature on the history of
family life with this rich collection of original essays and
transcriptions from primary documents. Divided into thematic
subdivisions relating to Europeans and Native Americans, issues of
family and community, and the process of becoming American, the 12
essays contributed mainly by history academics examine children's
lives from the varied cultures found in Colonial North America and
contain copious footnotes and a list of suggested further reading.
Such topics as parenting practices, health, education, gender
roles, and rites of passage are touched on. The small selection of
primary documents (excerpts from letters, diaries, and
autobiographies) add depth to an already well-written and
researched work whose real strength is its juxtaposition of
children's lives across a variety of Colonial cultures.a
"Providing fresh historical perspectives on key features of
children's lives, this book offers compelling, new materials on
childhood in colonial America, and on groups--including Native
Americans and Hispanics--too often left out of conventional
"Children in Colonial America is a highly original contribution
to the history of childhood. The collection's unique strength lies
in its great range of regions and peoples represented: from Indian
children of Mexico to young Africans in Jamaica, from Separatist
Pilgrims in the Netherlands and Plymouth to Catholic girls in
Germany, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. Although ideal for the
classroom, these essays offer much that will be of interest
aFew books can be all things to all people, but this one is an
aA useful and largely impressive anthology on an under-studied
The Pilgrims and Puritans did not arrive on the shores of New England alone. Nor did African men and women, brought to the Americas as slaves. Though it would be hard to tell from the historical record, European colonists and African slaves had children, as did the indigenous families whom they encountered, and those children's life experiences enrich and complicate our understanding of colonial America.
Through essays, primary documents, and contemporary illustrations, Children in Colonial America examines the unique aspects of childhood in the American colonies between the late sixteenth and late eighteenth centuries. The twelve original essays observe a diverse cross-section of children--from indigenous peoples of the east coast and Mexico to Dutch-born children of the Plymouth colony and African-born offspring of slaves in the Caribbean--and explore themes including parenting and childrearing practices, children's health and education, sibling relations, child abuse, mental health, gender, play, and rites of passage.
Taken together, the essays and documents in Children in Colonial America shed light on the ways in which the process of colonization shaped childhood, and in turn how the experience of children affected life in colonial America.
The period spanning the 15th to the 17th centuries saw an unprecedented interest in childrearing and the family. Renaissance humanist thought valued the education of children while promoting the family as a mirror of a well-ordered society, based on class, gender, and age hierarchies. Protestant and Catholic reformers and state-sponsored disciplinary measures further reinforced authority within the family, with marriage seen as a primary instrument for moralizing sexual customs. The proliferation of printed books and artworks representing the family popularized models of domestic life across Europe and its newly acquired colonies. At the same time, high mortality, repeated wars, poverty, increased migration, and geographical mobility severely undermined these idealized notions of family and childhood, giving rise to a wide range of unconventional and highly unstable households. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Early Modern Age presents essays on family relationships, community, economy, geography and the environment, education, life cycle, the state, faith and religion, health and science, and world contexts.
The United States is currently grappling with how to prepare our students to be computer literate citizens in the competitive technological world we live in. Understanding how children develop computer knowledge, and the ways that adults are able to guide their computer learning experiences, is a vital task facing parents and educators. This groundbreaking book is an attempt to fill a gap in current understanding of how we become computer literate and proposes a theory of how computer literacy skills emerge in computer users.
While children are a relatively unchanging fact of life, childhood is a constantly shifting concept. Through the millennia, the age at which a child becomes a youth and a youth becomes an adult has varied by gender, class, religion, ethnicity, place, and economic need. As author James Marten explores in this Very Short Introduction, so too have the realities of childhood, each life shaped by factors such as education, expectation, and conflict (or lack thereof). Indeed, ancient Roman children lived very differently than those born of today's Generation Z. Experiences of childhood have been shaped in classrooms and on factory floors, in family homes and orphanages, and on battlefields and in front of television sets. In addressing this diversity, The History of Childhood: A Very Short Introduction takes a global, expansive view of the features of childhood that have shaped childhood throughout history and continue to shape it now. From the rules of Confucian childrearing in twelfth-century China to the struggles of children living as slaves in the Americas or as cotton mill workers in Industrial Age Britain, Marten takes his inspiration from the idea that the lives of children reveal important and sometimes uncomfortable truths about civilization.
This book celebrates the rights of the child, through including student voice in educational matters that affect them directly. It focuses on the experiences of children and young people and explores how our educational policies, practices and research endeavours enable educators to help young people tell their own stories. The respective chapters illustrate how listening to young people can help them attain new positions of power, even though doing so often creates discomfort and requires a radical change on the part of the adult establishment. Further, the book challenges researchers, teachers and practitioners to reconsider how students are involved in research and policy agendas, and to what extent radical collegiality can create fundamental and positive changes in the lives of these learners. In recent decades, greater attention has been paid across policy, practice and research discourses to involving children more meaningfully and actively in decisions about their participation in both formal and informal educational settings. The book's goal is to illustrate how researchers have systematically involved students in the pursuit of a richer understanding of educational experiences, policy and practice through the eyes and ears of young people, and through their own cultural lens.
In any sustained period of food hunger and famine, children are one of the most vulnerable groups in terms of disease and mortality. The Great Hunger that occurred in Ireland between 1845 and 1852 is no exception. This publication explores the impact of famine on children and young adults through a multi-disciplinary approach. It includes research from some of the leading scholars in the field.Children and the Great Hunger in Ireland breaks new ground in its emphasis on the experiences of children during the Irish Famine. It features a diverse range of sources and eyewitness accounts, together with new methodologies, that attest to the Famine's devastating impact on young people. This book asks: how did children experience--and survive--the tragedy that unfolded in Ireland between 1845 and 1852? Children and the Great Hunger in Ireland brings together the work of some of the leading researchers in Irish studies, with new scholarship, methodologies and perspectives. This book takes a major step toward advancing our understanding of the Great Hunger.
When over 150 women testified in 2018 to the sexual abuse inflicted on them by Dr. Larry Nassar when they were young competitive gymnasts, they exposed and transformed the conditions that shielded their violation, including the testimonial disadvantages that cluster at the site of gender, youth, and race. In Witnessing Girlhood, Leigh Gilmore and Elizabeth Marshall argue that they also joined a long tradition of autobiographical writing lead by women of color in which adults use the figure and narrative of child witness to expose harm and seek justice. Witnessing Girlhood charts a history of how women use life narrative to transform conditions of suffering, silencing, and injustice into accounts that enjoin ethical response. Drawing on a deep and diverse archive of self-representational forms-slave narratives, testimonio, memoir, comics, and picture books- Gilmore and Marshall attend to how authors return to a narrative of traumatized and silenced girlhood and the figure of the child witness in order to offer public testimony. Emerging within these accounts are key scenes and figures that link a range of texts and forms from the mid nineteenth century to the contemporary period. Gilmore and Marshall offer a genealogy of the reverberations across timelines, self-representational acts, and jurisdictions of the child witness in life writing. Reconstructing these historical and theoretical trajectories restores an intersectional testimonial history of writing by women of color about sexual and racist violence to the center of life writing, and, in so doing, furthers our capacity to engage ethically with representations of vulnerability, childhood, and collective witness.
This book examines the everyday living conditions experienced and also shaped by young people in Europe. Contributors reflect on the current context of economic, social and political change affecting youth in the critical transition from dependence to independence. The volume provides the reader with a multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary view of youth cultures, drawn from a variety of recent research throughout the continent.
This clear and practical workbook shows the importance of encouraging resilience in pre-school children who live in challenging circumstances. Focusing on assessment of need, Brigid Daniel and Sally Wassell show how to evaluate resilience using checklists and background information. They explain that children in their early years gain resilience from a range of experiences, including attachment relationships, opportunities to develop self-esteem and learning to understand others and behaving in a positive way towards them. With this in mind, they set out ways of encouraging pro-social behaviour in young children: involving them in the process of evaluation, giving support to the parent or carer of the child, and using activities to nurture the child's `theory of mind'. Including guidance on ongoing monitoring and supported by case studies from practice, this book is an essential guide to nurturing resilience for all those who work with young children and their families. The workbook stands alone but also forms part of a set along with two other resilience resources on The School Years and Adolescence. The complete set can be bought together at a reduced price.
The volume provides an overview of recent research (within geography and allied disciplines) around the overarching concept of `safe and accessible places of encounter'. It develops according to three interrelated themes. The first part of the volume examines several of the many spaces children use and that are relevant to the geographies of children and young people including: the city centre and inner city high rise housing, urban versus suburban and rural spaces, local neighbourhoods, the `home' (for particular groups of children and young people such as child domestic workers in Bangladesh), school playgrounds, services (such as domestic violence shelters), outdoor natural spaces, and "life space" (where music and arts are presented in a non-political space in Bosnia-Herzegovina). The second part examines how notions of safety, protection and risk relate to providing children and young people with good life chances, and accessible spaces that enhance or reduce well-being. This middle section emphasises the debate about risk and the need to balance risk and safety/protection. The final part focuses on policy that builds on the provision/identification of spaces, safety/protection and risk. The emphasis is on how policy at different levels (international-national-local-family) helps provide better spaces of encounter and enhances life chances for children and young people. This section also recognises the different levels of policy making associated with different parts of the world and different regional settings. The gap between policy intentions and outcomes is recognised (e.g Cambodia's policies on orphanage tourism). The policy section includes contributions that relate to planning, education, migration, architecture, health, connection and citizenship, and sustainability. It provides insights into how professionals working in these fields can, through policy, enhance children's and young people's lived experiences and living environments.p>
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