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A concise introduction to IMT-Advanced Systems, including LTE-Advanced and WiMAX
There exists a strong demand for fully extending emerging Internet services, including collaborative applications and social networking, to the mobile and wireless domain. Delivering such services can be possible only through realizing broadband in the wireless. Two candidate technologies are currently competing in fulfilling the requirements for wireless broadband networks, WiMAX and LTE. At the moment, LTE and its future evolution LTE-Advanced are already gaining ground in terms of vendor and operator support. Whilst both technologies share certain attributes (utilizing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) in downlink, accommodating smart antennas and full support for IP-switching, for example), they differ in others (including uplink technology, scheduling, frame structure and mobility support). Beyond technological merits, factors such as deployment readiness, ecosystem maturity and migration feasibility come to light when comparing the aptitude of the two technologies.
"LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks" provides a concise, no-nonsense introduction to the two technologies, covering both interface and networking considerations. More critically, the book gives a multi-faceted comparison, carefully analyzing and distinguishing the characteristics of each technology and spanning both technical and economic merits. A "big picture" understanding of the market strategies and forecasts is also offered.Discusses and critically evaluates LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX (Legacy and Advanced)Gives an overview of the principles and advances of each enabling technologyOffers a feature-by-feature comparison between the candidate technologiesIncludes information which appeals to both industry practitioners and academicsProvides an up-to-date report on market and industry status
This book introduces shape memory alloy technology with a specific focus on valve applications. The authors describe application characteristics as well the current and potential uses of this technology. They include an overview of thermal and electrical valves as well as detailed valve design strategies.
This book aims to cover different aspects of Bias Temperature Instability (BTI). BTI remains as an important reliability concern for CMOS transistors and circuits. Development of BTI resilient technology relies on utilizing artefact-free stress and measurement methods and suitable physics-based models for accurate determination of degradation at end-of-life and understanding the gate insulator process impact on BTI. This book discusses different ultra-fast characterization techniques for recovery artefact free BTI measurements. It also covers different direct measurements techniques to access pre-existing and newly generated gate insulator traps responsible for BTI. The book provides a consistent physical framework for NBTI and PBTI respectively for p- and n- channel MOSFETs, consisting of trap generation and trapping. A physics-based compact model is presented to estimate measured BTI degradation in planar Si MOSFETs having differently processed SiON and HKMG gate insulators, in planar SiGe MOSFETs and also in Si FinFETs. The contents also include a detailed investigation of the gate insulator process dependence of BTI in differently processed SiON and HKMG MOSFETs. The book then goes on to discuss Reaction-Diffusion (RD) model to estimate generation of new traps for DC and AC NBTI stress and Transient Trap Occupancy Model (TTOM) to estimate charge occupancy of generated traps and their contribution to BTI degradation. Finally, a comprehensive NBTI modeling framework including TTOM enabled RD model and hole trapping to predict time evolution of BTI degradation and recovery during and after DC stress for different stress and recovery biases and temperature, during consecutive arbitrary stress and recovery cycles and during AC stress at different frequency and duty cycle. The contents of this book should prove useful to academia and professionals alike.
This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.
This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of the Internet of Things (IoTs). The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc. Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book provides a "global" view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.
This book introduces a novel Ti-Sb-Te alloy for high-speed and low-power phase-change memory applications, which demonstrates a phase-change mechanism that differs significantly from that of conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 and yields favorable overall performance. Systematic methods, combined with better material characteristics, are used to optimize the material components and device performance. Subsequently, a phase-change memory chip based on the optimized component is successfully fabricated using 40-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, which offers a number of advantages in many embedded applications.
This book reports on the developments of the bipedal walking robot Lucy. Special about it is that the biped is not actuated with the classical electrical drives but with pleated pneumatic artificial muscles. In an antagonistic setup of such muscles both the torque and the compliance are controllable. From human walking there is evidence that joint compliance plays an important role in energy efficient walking and running. Moreover pneumatic artificial muscles have a high power to weight ratio and can be coupled directly without complex gearing mechanism, which can be beneficial towards legged mechanisms. Additionally, they have the capability of absorbing impact shocks and store and release motion energy. This book gives a complete description of Lucy: the hardware, the electronics and the software. A hybrid simulation program, combining the robot dynamics and muscle/valve thermodynamics, has been written to evaluate control strategies before implementing them in the real biped.
The ideal review for your basic circuit analysis course More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's Outlines for their expert knowledge and helpful solved problems. Written by renowned experts in their respective fields, Schaum's Outlines cover everything from math to science, nursing to language. The main feature for all these books is the solved problems. Step-by-step, authors walk readers through coming up with solutions to exercises in their topic of choice. 700 solved problems Outline format supplies a concise guide to the standard college course in basic circuits Clear, concise explanations of all electric circuits concepts Appropriate for the following courses: Basic Circuit Analysis, Electrical Circuits, Electrical Engineering Circuit Analysis, Introduction to Circuit Analysis, AC & DC Circuits Supports and supplements the bestselling textbooks in circuits Easily understood review of basic circuit analysis Supports all the major textbooks for basic circuit analysis courses
This textbook is designed for a second course on digital systems, focused on the design of digital circuits. It was originally designed to accompany a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) created at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), currently available on the Coursera platform. Readers will learn to develop complex digital circuits, starting from a functional specification, will know the design alternatives that a development engineer can choose to reach the specified circuit performance, and will understand which design tools are available to develop a new circuit.
This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.
This book discusses the security issues in a wide range of wireless devices and systems, such as RFID, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, LTE, and GPS. It collects the findings of recent research by the UnicornTeam at 360 Technology, and reviews the state-of-the-art literature on wireless security. The book also offers detailed case studies and theoretical treatments - specifically it lists numerous laboratory procedures, results, plots, commands and screenshots from real-world experiments. It is a valuable reference guide for practitioners and researchers who want to learn more about the advanced research findings and use the off-the-shelf tools to explore the wireless world.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Building an Electric Bicycle From the Ground Up
Filled with do-it-yourself project, this hands-on manual gives you all the technical information and easy-to-follow instructions you need to assemble and customize an electric bike.
"Build Your Own Electric Bicycle" gets you on the road on a reliable, economical, environmentally friendly ride. Inside, you'll find complete coverage of every component, including motors, controllers, batteries, and frames, as well as details on soldering, electrical wiring, safety, and other essential skills. The book covers commercially available electric bicycles and shows you how to make modifications and upgrades for improved power, speed, range, and safety. Pictures, diagrams, and charts illustrate each step along the way. With this how-to guide on hand, you'll be riding your own tricked-out electric bike in no time
"BUILD YOUR OWN ELECTRIC BICYCLE" COVERS: Energy savings and environmental benefits Electrical, battery, and road safety Long-range, folding, and high-power bikes Hub motor kits Motors, controllers, and batteries Electrical connections and wiring Brakes Troubleshooting, maintenance, and repair Performance and safety modifications
This book presents the state-of-the art of one of the main concerns with microprocessors today, a phenomenon known as "dark silicon". Readers will learn how power constraints (both leakage and dynamic power) limit the extent to which large portions of a chip can be powered up at a given time, i.e. how much actual performance and functionality the microprocessor can provide. The authors describe their research toward the future of microprocessor development in the dark silicon era, covering a variety of important aspects of dark silicon-aware architectures including design, management, reliability, and test. Readers will benefit from specific recommendations for mitigating the dark silicon phenomenon, including energy-efficient, dedicated solutions and technologies to maximize the utilization and reliability of microprocessors.
China's hotbed of innovation and creativity, Shenzhen, is making waves around the world. In our cover story, Shenzhen native Naomi Wu talks about bringing open-source hardware to China and how Chinese culture influences her maker ethos. Then read about how five more women are each building their own unique maker experiences in Shenzhen. Plus, build these projects: 3D print a flyweight FPV quadcopter Create LED shadow art with a box of mylar tubes Add a cheap radar set up to your robot Give your face a fun house look with the easy Bigfacebox And more!
This book is your introduction to to physical computing with the Arduino microcontroller platform. No prior experience is required, not even an understanding of basic electronics. With color illustrations, easy-to-follow explanations, and step-by-step instructions, the book takes the beginner from building simple circuits on a breadboard to setting up the Arduino IDE and downloading and writing sketches to run on the Arduino. Readers will be introduced to basic electronics theory and programming concepts, as well as to digital and analog inputs and outputs. Throughout the book, debugging practices are highlighted, so novices will know what to do if their circuits or their code doesn't work for the current project and those that they embark on later for themselves. After completing the projects in this book, readers will have a firm basis for building their own projects with the Arduino. Written for absolute beginners with no prior knowledge of electronics or programming Filled with detailed full-color illustrations that make concepts and procedures easy to follow An accessible introduction to microcontrollers and physical computing Step-by-step instructions for projects that teach fundamental skills Includes a variety of Arduino-based projects using digital and analog input and output
This book presents a comprehensive treatment of signals and linear systems at an introductory level. The text emphasizes the physical appreciation of concepts rather than mere mathematical manipulation of symbols. Mathematics is used to enhance physical and intuitive understanding rather than to prove axiomatic theory. Theoretical results are frequently supported by carefully chosen examples and analogies. The organization of the book permits a great deal of flexibility in teaching the continuous-time and discrete-time concepts. The natural sequence of chapters is meant to integrate continuous-time and discrete-time analysis. It is also possible to use a sequential approach in which all the continuous-time analysis is covered first, followed by discrete-time analysis. Therefore, the book can adapt either of the most common approaches to teach signals and systems course.
The topic of sub-threshold VLSI has been discussed since the 1970's when the minimum supply voltage was theorized based on various sub-threshold models. It has been used in simple designs, such as watches and hearing aids. In new and upcoming wireless applications, such as distributed microsensors or medical applications, minimizing energy dissipation is the primary concern and has motivated investigation of the optimum design for minimizing energy dissipation or power for a given performance constraint. Sub-threshold circuits are ideal for this class of applications, thus making sub-threshold VLSI a realistic solution. This book combines the research of two MIT graduate students, which has spawned an exciting new field of research into sub-threshold circuit and system design. The work includes the research of Alice Wang, who designed the first 180mV sub-threshold processor that minimizes energy dissipation, and Benton Calhoun, who has worked on modeling the optimum voltage to minimize energy dissipation and has designed a sub-threshold SRAM. design and will delve into various aspects of sub-threshold circuit design such as modeling, logic and memory circuit design. One important chapter of the book is dedicated to optimizing energy dissipation which is a key metric for energy constrained designs. This book also includes invited chapters about the subject of analog sub-threshold circuits.
Engineers and scientists frequently find themselves having to get involved in electronic circuit design even though this may not be their specialty. This book is specifically designed for these situations, and has two major advantages for the inexperienced designer: it assumes little prior knowledge of electronics and it takes a modular approach, so you can find just what you need without working through a whole chapter. The first three parts of the book start by refreshing the basic mathematics and physics needed to understand circuit design. Part four discusses individual components (resistors, capacitors etc.), while the final and largest section describes commonly encountered circuit elements such as differentiators, oscillators, filters and couplers. A major bonus and learning aid is the inclusion of a CD-ROM with the student edition of the PSpice simulation software, together with models of most of the circuits described in the book.
Memristive Nonlinear Electronic Circuits deals with nonlinear systems in the design and implementation of circuits for generating complex dynamics. The brief proposes a new memristor model using an inverse tangent function, which achieves the characteristics of the memristor and can be implemented easily because it corresponds to the bipolar transistor differential pair. The authors design a new model-based memristive time-delay system by obtaining a time-delay memristive differential equation, which can generate an n-scroll chaotic attractor by adjusting the proposed nonlinear function. These designs are carried out using OrCAD-PSpice. The brief also presents a new time-delay memristive circuit excited by a nonautonomous staircase function which can generate grid chaotic attractors: new families of grids of nxm-scrolls. For increasingly complex dynamics of the circuits, the authors propose a new five-dimensional autonomous system with two memristors. The dynamical characteristics are investigated by phase portraits and bifurcation diagrams. The brief applies two synchronization methods to the memristive circuits: PC synchronization, and feedback control synchronization. The authors consider synchronization as the idea underlying idea the applications in nonlinear electronic circuits. Finally, the double-memristor system is employed to give rise to a highly secure dual-stage encryption technique.
This book guides readers along a path that proceeds from neurobiology to nonlinear-dynamical circuits, to nonlinear neuro-controllers and to bio-inspired robots. It provides a concise exploration of the essence of neural processing in simple animal brains and its adaptation and extrapolation to modeling, implementation, and realization of the analogous emergent features in artificial but bio-inspired robots: an emerging research field. The book starts with a short presentation of the main areas of the Drosophila brain. These are modeled as nonlinear dynamical structures, which are then used to showcase key features like locomotion, motor learning, memory formation, and exploitation. It also discusses additional complex behaviors, such as sequence learning and perception, which have recently been discovered to exist in insects. Much of the material presented has been tested in biorobotics classes for the Master's degree in Automation Engineering and Control of Complex Systems at the University of Catania. Reporting on the work fostered by several national and international research projects, the book offers researchers novel ideas on how neuro-inspired dynamics can be used in developing the autonomous machines of the future.
This textbook provides a starter's guide to VHDL. This book can be used in conjunction with a one-semester course in Digital Systems Design or on its own for designers who only need an introduction to the language. This book is designed to provide a bottoms-up approach to learning the VHDL language. This design supports a course in which foundational knowledge is covered before moving into advanced topics. However, this design also supports use as a reference manual. The author has designed the presentation with learning goals and assessment at its core. Each section addresses a specific learning outcome that the student should be able to "do" after its completion. The concept checks and exercise problems provide a rich set of assessment tools to measure student performance on each outcome.
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