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This comprehensive guide to fan-out wafer-level packaging (FOWLP) technology compares FOWLP with flip chip and fan-in wafer-level packaging. It presents the current knowledge on these key enabling technologies for FOWLP, and discusses several packaging technologies for future trends. The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) employed their InFO (integrated fan-out) technology in A10, the application processor for Apple's iPhone, in 2016, generating great excitement about FOWLP technology throughout the semiconductor packaging community. For many practicing engineers and managers, as well as scientists and researchers, essential details of FOWLP - such as the temporary bonding and de-bonding of the carrier on a reconstituted wafer/panel, epoxy molding compound (EMC) dispensing, compression molding, Cu revealing, RDL fabrication, solder ball mounting, etc. - are not well understood. Intended to help readers learn the basics of problem-solving methods and understand the trade-offs inherent in making system-level decisions quickly, this book serves as a valuable reference guide for all those faced with the challenging problems created by the ever-increasing interest in FOWLP, helps to remove roadblocks, and accelerates the design, materials, process, and manufacturing development of key enabling technologies for FOWLP.
For courses in Introductory Circuit Analysis or Circuit Theory. Challenge students to develop the insights of a practicing engineer The fundamental goals of the best-selling Electric Circuits remain unchanged. The 11th Edition continues to motivate students to build new ideas based on concepts previously presented, to develop problem-solving skills that rely on a solid conceptual foundation, and to introduce realistic engineering experiences that challenge students to develop the insights of a practicing engineer. The 11th Edition represents the most extensive revision since the 5th Edition with every sentence, paragraph, subsection, and chapter examined and oftentimes rewritten to improve clarity, readability, and pedagogy-without sacrificing the breadth and depth of coverage that Electric Circuits is known for. Dr. Susan Riedel draws on her classroom experience to introduce the Analysis Methods feature, which gives students a step-by-step problem-solving approach. Mastering (TM) Engineering is not included. Students, if Mastering Engineering is a recommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor for the correct ISBN. Mastering Engineering should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information. Reach every student by pairing this text with Mastering Engineering Mastering (TM) is the teaching and learning platform that empowers you to reach every student. By combining trusted author content with digital tools and a flexible platform, Mastering personalizes the learning experience and improves results for each student.
The #1 Practical Guide to Signal Integrity Design-with Revised Content and New Questions and Problems! This book brings together up-to-the-minute techniques for finding, fixing, and avoiding signal integrity problems in your design. Drawing on his work teaching several thousand engineers and graduate students, world-renowned expert Eric Bogatin systematically presents the root causes of all six families of signal integrity, power integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility problems. Bogatin reviews essential principles needed to understand these problems, and shows how to use best design practices and techniques to prevent or address them early in the design cycle. To help test and reinforce your understanding, this new edition adds questions and problems throughout. Bogatin also presents more examples using free tools, plus new content on high-speed serial links, reflecting input from 130+ of his graduate students. * A fully up-to-date introduction to signal integrity and physical design * New questions and problems designed for both students and professional engineers * How design and technology selection can make or break power distribution network performance * Exploration of key concepts, such as plane impedance, spreading inductance, decoupling capacitors, and capacitor loop inductance * Practical techniques for analyzing resistance, capacitance, inductance, and impedance * Using QUCS to predict waveforms as voltage sources are affected by interconnect impedances * Identifying reflections and crosstalk with free animation tools * Solving signal integrity problems via rules of thumb, analytic approximation, numerical simulation, and measurement * Understanding how interconnect physical design impacts signal integrity * Managing differential pairs and losses * Harnessing the full power of S-parameters in high-speed serial link applications * Designing high-speed serial links associated with differential pairs and lossy lines-including new coverage of eye diagrams * Ensuring power integrity throughout the entire power distribution path * Realistic design guidelines for improving signal integrity, and much more For professionals and students at all levels of experience, this book emphasizes intuitive understanding, practical tools, and engineering discipline, rather than theoretical derivation or mathematical rigor. It has earned a well-deserved reputation as the #1 resource for getting signal integrity designs right-first time, every time.
This book presents the real challenges and experiences of managing an advanced semiconductor technology development and integration program - but using a novelized form. The material is presented in a conversational format through a story that follows a fictional narrator as she grows from an intern to a manager in a (fictional) chip company. The story describes the technology development program from management, engineering and human perspectives, and exposes not only the management and technical issues but also the typical work-life balance challenges experienced by engineers working in the technology industry. Use of a series of realistic and representative vignettes, supported by a set of illustrative cartoon-ish panels, presents the serious management topics in a light and readable way.
This stimulating discussion of a rapidly developing field is
divided into two parts. The first features tutorials in textbook
style providing self-contained introductions to the various areas
relevant to atom chip research.
Radio Design in Nanometer Technologies addresses current trends and future directions in radio design for wireless applications. As radio transceivers constitute the major bottleneck in a wireless chipset in terms of power consumption and die size, the radio must be designed in the context of the entire system, end to end. Therefore the book will address wireless systems as well as the DSP parts before it gets into coverage of radio design issues. To that end, the book contains three parts:
Part 1: a general part discussing current and future wireless networks, chipset evolution over the past decade and ending with a discussion on radio requirements for software defined radio(SDR).
Part 2: will focus on the digital baseband of a wireless chip set, flexible DSP cores for multi-standard wireless platforms and system-on-chip SoC implementation and design flow issues.
Part 3: will be devoted to radio design issues starting at the transceiver level and going down to discuss critical issues facing design of future multi band multi standard radios for emerging wireless standards such as UMTS, WiMaX, MIMO and WLAN in a way that is consistent with the prevailing vision of SDR.
As such, the book is the first volume that looks at the integrated radio design problem as a "piece of a big puzzle," namely the entire chipset or single chip that builds an entire wireless system. This is the only way to successfully design radios to meet the stringent demands of todaya (TM)s increasingly complex wireless systems.
This new edition covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of radio-frequency power amplifiers (also named resonant DC-to-AC power inverters). Included are descriptions of Class A, B, AB, C, D, E, DE, and F RF power amplifiers which are used primarily in radio transmitters. The second edition has been completely revised and updated for a new generation of students and design engineers. Some examples are replaced by new and better examples, with many more added. Some end-of-chapter problems are replaced by new problems, and more have been added. More rigorous treatment of many concepts is seen in all chapters (plus all typographical errors have been corrected since the first edition). Chapter 1: Introduction containsmore in-depth coverage of radio communication systems, statistics of transmitter output power level and long-term average transmitter efficiency, and transmitter noise. Many students who take related classes based on the book do not have sufficient background in communications systems, and this updated chapter will help them in their studies. Two brand chapters have been added - the first -Chapter 11 - describes RF power amplifiers with dynamic power supplies. It details the improvement of the efficiency of nearly linear RF power amplifiers (Class A and AB) by the application of a variable supply voltage of RF power amplifiers, as opposed to fixed voltage power supplies, where a variable envelope signals are amplified, such as AM signals. This chapter also covers the applications of variable voltage supply as an AM modulator for RF power amplifiers, where the transistors are operated as switches. The second brand new chapter (Chapter 12) describes RF LC oscillators; an integral part of RF transmitters and also RF receivers. Chapter 8 (Class F RF Power Amplifiers) has been completely revised to cover the latest research results in this area. Old examples are replaced by new examples based on the new equations. Chapter 9 (Linearization and Efficiency Improvements of RF Power Amplifiers) has been extended to include new research results. In the author's experience, some students who take classes based on the first edition do not have sufficient background in electronics. To resolve this, he has added descriptions of operation of transistors as dependent-current sources and as switches. The author has added coverage of transistor current and voltage stresses, and information on the long-term average efficiency of RF transmitters.
Industrial Electrical Troubleshooting demonstrates the efficient use of certain electrical meters to troubleshoot relay-logic circuits with a single setting. Today, a generation of electronic meters is available to test voltage and continuity without changing the setting of the meter or de-energizing the circuit. Careful attention has been given to safety procedures throughout the book. Traditional troubleshooting techniques have not kept pace with this equipment though. Instructors and students will find comprehensive and up-to-date information for safely and efficiently locating problems and then troubleshooting online. Multimeters, clamp-on meters, ammeters, megohmmeters, proximity voltage meters, hand-held oscilloscopes and other meters are thoroughly discussed as plant electrical troubleshooting tools.
This textbook describes in detail the fundamental information about the 8051 microcontroller and it carefully teaches readers how to use the microcontroller to make both electronics hardware and software. In addition to discussion of the 8051 internals, this text includes numerous, solved examples, end-of-chapter exercises, laboratory and practical projects.
This book investigates the susceptibility of intrinsic physically unclonable function (PUF) implementations on reconfigurable hardware to optical semi-invasive attacks from the chip backside. It explores different classes of optical attacks, particularly photonic emission analysis, laser fault injection, and optical contactless probing. By applying these techniques, the book demonstrates that the secrets generated by a PUF can be predicted, manipulated or directly probed without affecting the behavior of the PUF. It subsequently discusses the cost and feasibility of launching such attacks against the very latest hardware technologies in a real scenario. The author discusses why PUFs are not tamper-evident in their current configuration, and therefore, PUFs alone cannot raise the security level of key storage. The author then reviews the potential and already implemented countermeasures, which can remedy PUFs' security-related shortcomings and make them resistant to optical side-channel and optical fault attacks. Lastly, by making selected modifications to the functionality of an existing PUF architecture, the book presents a prototype tamper-evident sensor for detecting optical contactless probing attempts.
This book addresses the issue of Machine Learning (ML) attacks on Integrated Circuits through Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). It provides the mathematical proofs of the vulnerability of various PUF families, including Arbiter, XOR Arbiter, ring-oscillator, and bistable ring PUFs, to ML attacks. To achieve this goal, it develops a generic framework for the assessment of these PUFs based on two main approaches. First, with regard to the inherent physical characteristics, it establishes fit-for-purpose mathematical representations of the PUFs mentioned above, which adequately reflect the physical behavior of these primitives. To this end, notions and formalizations that are already familiar to the ML theory world are reintroduced in order to give a better understanding of why, how, and to what extent ML attacks against PUFs can be feasible in practice. Second, the book explores polynomial time ML algorithms, which can learn the PUFs under the appropriate representation. More importantly, in contrast to previous ML approaches, the framework presented here ensures not only the accuracy of the model mimicking the behavior of the PUF, but also the delivery of such a model. Besides off-the-shelf ML algorithms, the book applies a set of algorithms hailing from the field of property testing, which can help to evaluate the security of PUFs. They serve as a "toolbox", from which PUF designers and manufacturers can choose the indicators most relevant for their requirements. Last but not least, on the basis of learning theory concepts, the book explicitly states that the PUF families cannot be considered as an ultimate solution to the problem of insecure ICs. As such, it provides essential insights into both academic research on and the design and manufacturing of PUFs.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Here's the sure cure for CIRCUIT PARALYSIS! Need to learn circuit analysis but experiencing some resistance in your brain waves? No stress! Circuit Analysis Demystified will give you the jolt you need to understand this complex subject--without getting your circuits crossed. In the first part of the book, you'll learn the fundamentals such as voltage and current theorems, Thevenin and Norton's theorems, op amp circuits, capacitance and inductance, and phasor analysis of circuits. Then you'll move on to more advanced topics including Laplace transforms, three-phase circuits, filters, Bode plots, and characterization of circuit stability. Featuring end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam, this book will have you in a steady state when it comes to circuit analysis in no time at all. This fast and easy guide offers: Numerous figures to illustrate key concepts Sample equations with worked solutions Coverage of Kirchhoff's laws, the superposition theorem, Millman's theorem, and delta-wye transformations Quizzes at the end of each chapter to reinforce learning A time-saving approach to performing better on an exam or at work Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Circuit Analysis Demystified will transform you into a master of this essential engineering subject.
The book includes high-quality papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Smart Learning Ecosystems and Regional Development at Universita Roma Tor Vergata, Italy, from 22 to 24 May, 2019. Providing insights into the relevance of smart learning ecosystems (schools, campuses, the workplace, informal learning contexts, etc.) for regional development and social innovation, it also discusses how citizens' involvement with smart ecosystems can be increased and made more effective.
Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today s demanding designs.
Cryptography is now ubiquitous - moving beyond the traditional environments, such as government communications and banking systems, we see cryptographic techniques realized in Web browsers, e-mail programs, cell phones, manufacturing systems, embedded software, smart buildings, cars, and even medical implants. Today's designers need a comprehensive understanding of applied cryptography. After an introduction to cryptography and data security, the authors explain the main techniques in modern cryptography, with chapters addressing stream ciphers, the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and 3DES, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), block ciphers, the RSA cryptosystem, public-key cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem, elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC), digital signatures, hash functions, Message Authentication Codes (MACs), and methods for key establishment, including certificates and public-key infrastructure (PKI). Throughout the book, the authors focus on communicating the essentials and keeping the mathematics to a minimum, and they move quickly from explaining the foundations to describing practical implementations, including recent topics such as lightweight ciphers for RFIDs and mobile devices, and current key-length recommendations. The authors have considerable experience teaching applied cryptography to engineering and computer science students and to professionals, and they make extensive use of examples, problems, and chapter reviews, while the book's website offers slides, projects and links to further resources. This is a suitable textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses and also for self-study by engineers.
This book describes in detail all required technologies and methodologies needed to create a comprehensive, functional design verification strategy and environment to tackle the toughest job of guaranteeing first-pass working silicon. The author first outlines all of the verification sub-fields at a high level, with just enough depth to allow an engineer to grasp the field before delving into its detail. He then describes in detail industry standard technologies such as UVM (Universal Verification Methodology), SVA (SystemVerilog Assertions), SFC (SystemVerilog Functional Coverage), CDV (Coverage Driven Verification), Low Power Verification (Unified Power Format UPF), AMS (Analog Mixed Signal) verification, Virtual Platform TLM2.0/ESL (Electronic System Level) methodology, Static Formal Verification, Logic Equivalency Check (LEC), Hardware Acceleration, Hardware Emulation, Hardware/Software Co-verification, Power Performance Area (PPA) analysis on a virtual platform, Reuse Methodology from Algorithm/ESL to RTL, and other overall methodologies.
To ensure the security and economy of future power system operation in the context of a high degree of renewable energy penetration, this thesis proposes a new distributed algorithm called generalized master-slave-splitting (G-MSS) theory and a new transmission-distribution coordinated energy management (TDCEM) method that is based on the G-MSS theory. The thesis studies the mathematical properties of the G-MSS theory in detail. Based on the G-MSS theory, a distributed TDCEM method - which involves distributed security analysis, distributed voltage stability analysis, distributed economic dispatch and distributed optimal power flow for an integrated transmission-distribution system - is then developed for the first time. The thesis demonstrates that the proposed TDCEM method significantly contributes to more reliable and optimal operation in power systems. The book will benefit researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of power system operation and optimization.
This book provides readers with the necessary background information and advanced concepts in the field of circuits, at the crossroads between physics, mathematics and system theory. It covers various engineering subfields, such as electrical devices and circuits, and their electronic counterparts. Based on the idea that a modern university course should provide students with conceptual tools to understand the behavior of both linear and nonlinear circuits, to approach current problems posed by new, cutting-edge devices and to address future developments and challenges, the book places equal emphasis on linear and nonlinear, two-terminal and multi-terminal, as well as active and passive circuit components. The theory is developed systematically, starting with the simplest circuits (linear, time-invariant and resistive) and providing food for thought on nonlinear circuits, potential functions, linear algebra and geometrical interpretations of selected results. Contents are organized into a set of first-level and a set of advanced-level topics. The book is rich in examples and includes numerous solved problems. Further topics, such as signal processing and modeling of non-electric physical phenomena (e.g., hysteresis or biological oscillators) will be discussed in volume 2.
The CMOS technology are has quickly grown, calling for a new text---and here it is, covering the analysis and design of CMOS integrated circuits that practicing engineers need to master to succeed. Filled with many examples and chapter-ending problems, the book not only describes the thought process behind each circuit topology, but also considers the rationale behind each modification. The analysis and design techniques focus on CMOS circuits but also apply to other IC technologies. Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits deals with the analysis and design of analog CMOS integrated circuits, emphasizing recent technological developments and design paradigms that students and practicing engineers need to master to succeed in today's industry. Based on the author's teaching and research experience in the past ten years, the text follows three general principles: (1) Motivate the reader by describing the significance and application of each idea with real-world problems; (2) Force the reader to look at concepts from an intuitive point of view, preparing him/her for more complex problems; (3) Complement the intuition by rigorous analysis, confirming the results obtained by the intuitive, yet rough approach.
This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: The design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. "This unique book provides fundamental, complete, and indispensable information regarding the design of electronic systems. This topic has not been addressed as complete and thorough anywhere before. Since the authors are world-renown experts, it is a foundational reference for today's design professionals, as well as for the next generation of engineering students." Dr. Patrick Groeneveld, Synopsys Inc.
This book uses motivating examples and real-life attack scenarios to introduce readers to the general concept of fault attacks in cryptography. It offers insights into how the fault tolerance theories developed in the book can actually be implemented, with a particular focus on a wide spectrum of fault models and practical fault injection techniques, ranging from simple, low-cost techniques to high-end equipment-based methods. It then individually examines fault attack vulnerabilities in symmetric, asymmetric and authenticated encryption systems. This is followed by extensive coverage of countermeasure techniques and fault tolerant architectures that attempt to thwart such vulnerabilities. Lastly, it presents a case study of a comprehensive FPGA-based fault tolerant architecture for AES-128, which brings together of a number of the fault tolerance techniques presented. It concludes with a discussion on how fault tolerance can be combined with side channel security to achieve protection against implementation-based attacks. The text is supported by illustrative diagrams, algorithms, tables and diagrams presenting real-world experimental results.
This open access book presents theoretical framework and sample applications of variant construction. The first part includes the components variant logic, variant measurements, and variant maps, while the second part covers sample applications such as variation with functions, variant stream ciphers, quantum interference, classical/quantum random sequences, whole DNA sequences, and multiple-valued pulse sequences. Addressing topics ranging from logic and measuring foundation to typical applications and including various illustrated maps, it is a valuable guide for theoretical researchers in discrete mathematics; computing-, quantum- and communication scientists; big data engineers; as well as graduate and upper undergraduate students.
Carbon nanotubes possess unusual fascinating properties which have attracted the scientific world. This book covers a very wide domain of research and development where the synthesis and properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed. This book describes the carbon nanotube general introduction, various synthesis procedures and properties. This book is going to be beneficial to the researchers who are working for their postgraduate degree in nanomaterials and nanotechnology. This book also provides a platform for all the academics and researchers as it covers a vast background for the recent literature, abbreviations, and summaries. This book will be worth reading for the researchers who are more interested in the general overview of carbon nanotubes, fundamentals concepts and various synthetic procedures in the multidisciplinary areas. This book contains the fundamental knowledge with the recent advancements for the research and development in the field of nanomaterials and nanotechnology.
This book focuses primarily on the atomic force microscope and serves as a reference for students, postdocs, and researchers using atomic force microscopes for the first time. In addition, this book can serve as the primary text for a semester-long introductory course in atomic force microscopy. There are a few algebra-based mathematical relationships included in the book that describe the mechanical properties, behaviors, and intermolecular forces associated with probes used in atomic force microscopy. Relevant figures, tables, and illustrations also appear in each chapter in an effort to provide additional information and points of interest. This book includes suggested laboratory investigations that provide opportunities to explore the versatility of the atomic force microscope. These laboratory exercises include opportunities for experimenters to explore force curves, surface roughness, friction loops, conductivity imaging, and phase imaging.
This book shares the knowledge of active and prestigious worldwide researchers and scholars in the field of healthcare monitoring as authors investigate historical developments, summarize latest advancements, and envision future prospects on wearable, attachable, and invisible devices that monitor diverse physiological information. The coverage of the book spans multiple disciplines, from biomechanics, to bioelectricity, biochemistry, biophysics and biomaterials. There is also wide coverage of various physical and chemical quantities such as electricity, pressure, flow, motion, force, temperature, gases, and biomarkers. Each chapter explores the background of a specific monitoring device, as well as its physical and chemical principles and instrumentation, signal processing and data analysis, achieved outcomes and application scenarios, and future research topics. There are chapters on: Electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, and electromyograms Measurement of flow phenomenon Latest wearable technologies for the quantification of human motion Various forms of wearable thermometers Monitoring of gases and chemical substances produced during metabolism...and more! This book is appropriate and accessible for students and scientists, as well as researchers in biomedical engineering, computer engineers, healthcare entrepreneurs, administrative officers, policy makers, market vendors, and healthcare personnel. It helps to provide us with insights into future endeavors, formulate innovative businesses and services, and will help improve people's health and quality of life.
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