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Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) is the state-of-the-art method for designing digital and computer systems. Ideally suited to describe both combinational and clocked sequential arithmetic circuits, Verilog facilitates a clear relationship between the language syntax and the physical hardware. It provides a very easy-to-learn and practical means to model a digital system at many levels of abstraction.
Computer Arithmetic and Verilog HDL Fundamentals details the steps needed to master computer arithmetic for fixed-point, decimal, and floating-point number representations for all primary operations. Silvaco International s SILOS, the Verilog simulator used in these pages, is simple to understand, yet powerful enough for any application. It encourages users to quickly prototype and de-bug any logic function and enables single-stepping through the Verilog source code. It also presents drag-and-drop abilities.
Introducing the three main modeling methods dataflow, behavioral, and structural this self-contained tutorial
Designed for electrical and computer engineers and computer scientists, this book leaves nothing unfinished, carrying design examples through to completion. The goal is practical proficiency. To this end, each chapter includes problems of varying complexity to be designed by the reader.
This book describes the technology of charge-trapping non-volatile memories and their uses. The authors explain the device physics of each device architecture and provide a concrete description of the materials involved and the fundamental properties of the technology. Modern material properties, used as charge-trapping layers, for new applications are introduced. Provides a comprehensive overview of the technology for charge-trapping non-volatile memories; Details new architectures and current modeling concepts for non-volatile memory devices; Focuses on conduction through multi-layer gate dielectrics stacks.
The failures of electronic controls, which can cause loss of life and property, are discussed from the perspective of both the design and manufacturing functions and clarified for the responsible forensic team. Many pitfalls of the fast-paced product introduction environment for industrial and consumer products are discussed to help minimize the number of electronic control fires and other menacing events of today. The author clearly links the design, manufacturing and forensic technical communities in the development of electronic control devices, which include a wide array of products, from auto key fobs to furnace electronic control boards. The information included ensures a final product that will not end up in litigation (or at least not be found guilty during litigation), putting into plain words how to determine if a suspect electronic appliance control is the cause of a fire or the result of a fire. Containing invaluable data learned through many years of new product designs, development and production cycles, this brief features illustrated bench experiments conducted by the author. Professionals and researchers working in fire protection, electrical engineering, or building safety will find this brief an essential resource.
The CMOS technology are has quickly grown, calling for a new text---and here it is, covering the analysis and design of CMOS integrated circuits that practicing engineers need to master to succeed. Filled with many examples and chapter-ending problems, the book not only describes the thought process behind each circuit topology, but also considers the rationale behind each modification. The analysis and design techniques focus on CMOS circuits but also apply to other IC technologies. Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits deals with the analysis and design of analog CMOS integrated circuits, emphasizing recent technological developments and design paradigms that students and practicing engineers need to master to succeed in today's industry. Based on the author's teaching and research experience in the past ten years, the text follows three general principles: (1) Motivate the reader by describing the significance and application of each idea with real-world problems; (2) Force the reader to look at concepts from an intuitive point of view, preparing him/her for more complex problems; (3) Complement the intuition by rigorous analysis, confirming the results obtained by the intuitive, yet rough approach.
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the dependability challenges in today's advanced computing systems. It is an in-depth discussion of all the technological and design-level techniques that may be used to overcome these issues and analyzes various dependability-assessment methods. The impact of individual application scenarios on the definition of challenges and solutions is considered so that the designer can clearly assess the problems and adjust the solution based on the specifications in question. The book is composed of three sections, beginning with an introduction to current dependability challenges arising in complex computing systems implemented with nanoscale technologies, and of the effect of the application scenario. The second section details all the fault-tolerance techniques that are applicable in the manufacture of reliable advanced computing devices. Different levels, from technology-level fault avoidance to the use of error correcting codes and system-level checkpointing are introduced and explained as applicable to the different application scenario requirements. Finally the third section proposes a roadmap of future trends in and perspectives on the dependability and manufacturability of advanced computing systems from the special point of view of industrial stakeholders. Dependable Multicore Architectures at Nanoscale showcases the original ideas and concepts introduced into the field of nanoscale manufacturing and systems reliability over nearly four years of work within COST Action IC1103 MEDIAN, a think-tank with participants from 27 countries. Academic researchers and graduate students working in multi-core computer systems and their manufacture will find this book of interest as will industrial design and manufacturing engineers working in VLSI companies.
Presenting a methodology for using domino logic in an ASIC design flow developed over several years in an industrial context, this text covers practical issues related to the use of domino logic in an automated framework, and brings together all the knowledge needed to apply these design techniques in practice. Beginning with a discussion of how to achieve high speed in ASIC designs, subsequent chapters detail the design and characterization of standard cell compatible domino logic libraries and an advanced domino logic synthesis flow. The results achieved by using automated domino logic design techniques, including silicon measurements, are used to validate the presented solution. With design examples including the implementation of the execution unit of a microprocessor and a Viterbi decoder, this text is ideal for graduate students and researchers in electrical and computer engineering and also for circuit designers in industry.
Recent improvements in LED technology have made them as ubiquitous as cell phones. In fact, LEDs light up almost all cell phones screens. The technology's myriad applications and low energy use have made it nearly impossible to get through daily chores without coming in contact with LEDs. Probable advances include increased ability of the technology to support more efficient lighting and enhanced communications. With balanced coverage of the basics and future developments, Introduction to Light Emitting Diode Technology and Applications takes you on a tour of the LED evolution. The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications. As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.
This practically-oriented, all-inclusive guide covers the essential concepts of power electronics through MATLAB (R) examples and simulations. In-depth explanation of important topics including digital control, power electronic applications, and electrical drives make it a valuable reference for readers. The experiments and applications based on MATLAB (R) models using fuzzy logic and neural networks are included for better understanding. Engrossing discussion of concepts such as diac, light-emitting diode, thyristors, power MOSFET and static induction transistor, offers an enlightening experience to readers. With numerous solved examples, exercises, review questions, and GATE questions, the undergraduate and graduate students of electrical and electronics engineering will find this text useful.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the science, technology, and applications of Tantalum and Niobium-based capacitors. The author discusses fundamentals, focusing on thermodynamic stability, major degradation processes and conduction mechanisms in the basic structure of Me-Me2O5-cathode (Me: Ta, Nb). Technology-related coverage includes chapters technology chapters on the major manufacturing steps from capacitor grade powder to the testing of finished capacitors. Applications discussed include high reliability, high charge and energy efficiency, high working voltages, high temperatures, etc. The links between the scientific foundation, breakthrough technologies and outstanding performance and reliability of the capacitors are demonstrated. The theoretical models discussed include the thermodynamics of the amorphous dielectrics, conduction mechanisms in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures, band diagrams of the organic semiconductors, etc.
This book puts in focus various techniques for checking modeling fidelity of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), with respect to the physical world they represent. The authors' present modeling and analysis techniques representing different communities, from very different angles, discuss their possible interactions, and discuss the commonalities and differences between their practices. Coverage includes model driven development, resource-driven development, statistical analysis, proofs of simulator implementation, compiler construction, power/temperature modeling of digital devices, high-level performance analysis, and code/device certification. Several industrial contexts are covered, including modeling of computing and communication, proof architectures models and statistical based validation techniques.
This book presents original studies describing the latest research and developments in the area of reliability and systems engineering. It helps the reader identifying gaps in the current knowledge and presents fruitful areas for further research in the field. Among others, this book covers reliability measures, reliability assessment of multi-state systems, optimization of multi-state systems, continuous multi-state systems, new computational techniques applied to multi-state systems and probabilistic and non-probabilistic safety assessment.
Research and development on liquid crystal display (LCD) backlight technologies are becoming increasingly important due to the fast growth of the LCD business. Backlight technologies contribute to functional improvements of LCDs in terms of wide colour reproduction, uniformity improvements of luminance and colour temperature, high luminance, long life, less power consumption, thinner backlight unit, as well as cost. As LCD panel technology progresses, the lighting technology that provides the illumination for the panel must similarly evolve.
"LCD Backlights" is written by a global panel of leading researchers and practitioners in this field from both academia and industry. The first part of "LCD Backlights" details the variety of applications of backlights including those in LCD-TV, PC monitors and mobile devices. The second part is a full examination of the different light sources that are used including the latest technological trends in amongst others, cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), mercury-free fluorescent lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The final part of the book analyses the optical component of backlights such as diffusers and brightness enhancement films.
Provides a comprehensive analysis of the latest status of LCD backlight research and development. Discusses the design considerations and technical requirements for the multiple applications of LCD backlights. Considers techniques used for power saving and picture quality improvement. Examines the requirements for backlight units used for TVs, PC monitors and mobile phones.
"LCD Backlights" is of significant interest to practising electronics and display engineers as well as scientists working on the development of liquid crystal displays. This book is also of value to graduate students and researchers involved in display technologies.
The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics
Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies delivers a modern treatise on mixed-signal integrated circuit design for power management. Comprised of chapters authored by leading researchers from industry and academia, this definitive text: Describes circuit- and architectural-level innovations that meet advanced power and speed capabilities Explores hybrid inductive-capacitive converters for wide-range dynamic voltage scaling Presents innovative control techniques for single inductor dual output (SIDO) and single inductor multiple output (SIMO) converters Discusses cutting-edge design techniques including switching converters for analog/RF loads Compares the use of GaAs pHEMTs to CMOS devices for efficient high-frequency switching converters Thus, Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of this exciting and emerging field of engineering.
This book is addressed to newcomers to error control coding (ECC), making the subject easy to understand and to apply in a variety of cases. The book begins by presenting in a detailed, step-by-step manner the plethora of parts an ECC system has and the way they interact to achieve the performance required. Contrary to the more abstract and formal approach followed in most books on this topic, this book is unique in that all of the concepts, methods, techniques and algorithms are introduced by way of examples. Thus, the book is almost a workbook, and therefore very suitable for self-study. Readers are encouraged to take an active role while reading, performing calculations as chapters' progress. Moreover, to reinforce the learning process, many of the topics introduced in the book (Galois fields, Extended Hamming codes, Reed-Solomon codes, interleaving, erasure correction, etc.) are presented in various parts of the book in different ways or contexts. Offers a practical guide to error control coding, accessible to readers with varying backgrounds; Provides newcomers with a sound foundation in error control coding, using a select few topics considered by the author fundamental from an engineering point of view; Presents material with minimal mathematics; Motivates carefully concepts, methods and algorithms making clear the idea behind the conditions for the code to work.
This book focuses on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the time-dependent breakdown of advanced dielectric films used in gigascale electronics. Coverage includes the most important failure mechanisms for thin low-k films, new and established experimental techniques, recent advances in the area of dielectric failure, and advanced simulations/models to resolve and predict dielectric breakdown, all of which are of considerable importance for engineers and scientists working on developing and integrating present and future chip architectures. The book is specifically designed to aid scientists in assessing the reliability and robustness of electronic systems employing low-k dielectric materials such as nano-porous films. Similarly, the models presented here will help to improve current methodologies for estimating the failure of gigascale electronics at device operating conditions from accelerated lab test conditions. Numerous graphs, tables, and illustrations are included to facilitate understanding of the topics. Readers will be able to understand dielectric breakdown in thin films along with the main failure modes and characterization techniques. In addition, they will gain expertise on conventional as well as new field acceleration test models for predicting long term dielectric degradation.
This book introduces readers to the potential of charge-sharing (CS) successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), while providing extensive analysis of the factors that limit the performance of the CS topology. The authors present guidelines and useful techniques for mitigating the limitations of the architecture, while focusing on the implementation under restricted power budgets and voltage supplies.
A unique feature of this textbook is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the fundamental knowledge in embedded systems, with applications in cyber-physical systems and the Internet of things. It starts with an introduction to the field and a survey of specification models and languages for embedded and cyber-physical systems. It provides a brief overview of hardware devices used for such systems and presents the essentials of system software for embedded systems, including real-time operating systems. The author also discusses evaluation and validation techniques for embedded systems and provides an overview of techniques for mapping applications to execution platforms, including multi-core platforms. Embedded systems have to operate under tight constraints and, hence, the book also contains a selected set of optimization techniques, including software optimization techniques. The book closes with a brief survey on testing. This third edition has been updated and revised to reflect new trends and technologies, such as the importance of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of things, the evolution of single-core processors to multi-core processors, and the increased importance of energy efficiency and thermal issues.
This book is a collection of tutorial-like chapters on all core topics of signals and systems and the electronic circuits. All the topics dealt with in the book are parts of the core syllabi of standard programs in Electrical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering domains. This book is intended to serve as a secondary reader or supplementary text for core courses in the area of signals and systems, electronic circuits, and analog and digital signal processing. When studying or teaching a particular topic, the students and instructors of such courses would find it interesting and worthwhile to study the related tutorial chapter in this book in order to enhance their understanding of the fundamentals, simplification of procedures, alternative approaches and relation to other associated topics. In addition, the book can also be used as a primary or secondary text in short-term or refresher courses, and as a self-study guide for professionals wishing to gain a comprehensive review of the signals and systems domain.
This book focuses on the design of a 3rd Order CT- M where the integrator stages of the filter are implemented with Bipolar-Junction Transistors (BJT) differential pairs. These circuits are fully analyzed and the design method is carefully explained. The design method is validated through experimental measurements of several prototype circuits.
This book enables readers to achieve ultra-low energy digital system performance. The author's main focus is the energy consumption of microcontroller architectures in digital (sub)-systems. The book covers a broad range of topics extensively: from circuits through design strategy to system architectures. The result is a set of techniques and a context to realize minimum energy digital systems. Several prototype silicon implementations are discussed, which put the proposed techniques to the test. The achieved results demonstrate an extraordinary combination of variation-resilience, high speed performance and ultra-low energy.
This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer's point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavioural synthesis, domain-specific compilation, and FPGA overlays. Introduces FPGA technology to software developers by giving an overview of FPGA programming models and design tools, as well as various application examples; Provides a holistic analysis of the topic and enables developers to tackle the architectural needs for Big Data processing with FPGAs; Explains the reasons for the energy efficiency and performance benefits of FPGA processing; Provides a user-oriented approach and a sense for where and how to apply FPGA technology.
This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size. The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.
This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.
The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the MLGNR while taking into account the edge roughness.
This book provides readers with an up-to-date account of the use of machine learning frameworks, methodologies, algorithms and techniques in the context of computer-aided design (CAD) for very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI). Coverage includes the various machine learning methods used in lithography, physical design, yield prediction, post-silicon performance analysis, reliability and failure analysis, power and thermal analysis, analog design, logic synthesis, verification, and neuromorphic design. Provides up-to-date information on machine learning in VLSI CAD for device modeling, layout verifications, yield prediction, post-silicon validation, and reliability; Discusses the use of machine learning techniques in the context of analog and digital synthesis; Demonstrates how to formulate VLSI CAD objectives as machine learning problems and provides a comprehensive treatment of their efficient solutions; Discusses the tradeoff between the cost of collecting data and prediction accuracy and provides a methodology for using prior data to reduce cost of data collection in the design, testing and validation of both analog and digital VLSI designs. From the Foreword As the semiconductor industry embraces the rising swell of cognitive systems and edge intelligence, this book could serve as a harbinger and example of the osmosis that will exist between our cognitive structures and methods, on the one hand, and the hardware architectures and technologies that will support them, on the other....As we transition from the computing era to the cognitive one, it behooves us to remember the success story of VLSI CAD and to earnestly seek the help of the invisible hand so that our future cognitive systems are used to design more powerful cognitive systems. This book is very much aligned with this on-going transition from computing to cognition, and it is with deep pleasure that I recommend it to all those who are actively engaged in this exciting transformation. Dr. Ruchir Puri, IBM Fellow, IBM Watson CTO & Chief Architect, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
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