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This book is a collection of tutorial-like chapters on all core topics of signals and systems and the electronic circuits. All the topics dealt with in the book are parts of the core syllabi of standard programs in Electrical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering domains. This book is intended to serve as a secondary reader or supplementary text for core courses in the area of signals and systems, electronic circuits, and analog and digital signal processing. When studying or teaching a particular topic, the students and instructors of such courses would find it interesting and worthwhile to study the related tutorial chapter in this book in order to enhance their understanding of the fundamentals, simplification of procedures, alternative approaches and relation to other associated topics. In addition, the book can also be used as a primary or secondary text in short-term or refresher courses, and as a self-study guide for professionals wishing to gain a comprehensive review of the signals and systems domain.
This book is addressed to newcomers to error control coding (ECC), making the subject easy to understand and to apply in a variety of cases. The book begins by presenting in a detailed, step-by-step manner the plethora of parts an ECC system has and the way they interact to achieve the performance required. Contrary to the more abstract and formal approach followed in most books on this topic, this book is unique in that all of the concepts, methods, techniques and algorithms are introduced by way of examples. Thus, the book is almost a workbook, and therefore very suitable for self-study. Readers are encouraged to take an active role while reading, performing calculations as chapters' progress. Moreover, to reinforce the learning process, many of the topics introduced in the book (Galois fields, Extended Hamming codes, Reed-Solomon codes, interleaving, erasure correction, etc.) are presented in various parts of the book in different ways or contexts. Offers a practical guide to error control coding, accessible to readers with varying backgrounds; Provides newcomers with a sound foundation in error control coding, using a select few topics considered by the author fundamental from an engineering point of view; Presents material with minimal mathematics; Motivates carefully concepts, methods and algorithms making clear the idea behind the conditions for the code to work.
This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size. The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.
Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies delivers a modern treatise on mixed-signal integrated circuit design for power management. Comprised of chapters authored by leading researchers from industry and academia, this definitive text: Describes circuit- and architectural-level innovations that meet advanced power and speed capabilities Explores hybrid inductive-capacitive converters for wide-range dynamic voltage scaling Presents innovative control techniques for single inductor dual output (SIDO) and single inductor multiple output (SIMO) converters Discusses cutting-edge design techniques including switching converters for analog/RF loads Compares the use of GaAs pHEMTs to CMOS devices for efficient high-frequency switching converters Thus, Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of this exciting and emerging field of engineering.
The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the MLGNR while taking into account the edge roughness.
What if you could use software to design hardware? Not just any hardware--imagine specifying the behavior of a complex parallel computer, sending it to a chip, and having it run on that chip--all without any manufacturing? With Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), you can design such a machine with your mouse and keyboard. When you deploy it to the FPGA, it immediately takes on the behavior that you defined. Want to create something that behaves like a display driver integrated circuit? How about a CPU with an instruction set you dreamed up? Or your very own Bitcoin miner You can do all this with FPGAs. Because you're not writing programs--rather, you're designing a chip whose sole purpose is to do what you tell it--it's faster than anything you can do in code. With Make: FPGAs, you'll learn how to break down problems into something that can be solved on an FPGA, design the logic that will run on your FPGA, and hook up electronic components to create finished projects
This book enables readers to achieve ultra-low energy digital system performance. The author's main focus is the energy consumption of microcontroller architectures in digital (sub)-systems. The book covers a broad range of topics extensively: from circuits through design strategy to system architectures. The result is a set of techniques and a context to realize minimum energy digital systems. Several prototype silicon implementations are discussed, which put the proposed techniques to the test. The achieved results demonstrate an extraordinary combination of variation-resilience, high speed performance and ultra-low energy.
This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system's safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system's architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.
This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains. A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis. Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm CMOS processes, together with the block and system-level measurement results. Readers will benefit from the techniques presented, which are highly competitive, both in terms of cost and RF performance, while drastically reducing power consumption.
This books discusses the design, electrical simulation and layout of a 2nd-order analog-to-digital converter (ADC), using oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) technology. The authors provide a unified view of materials science and electronics engineering, in order to guide readers from both fields through key topics. To accomplish this goal, background regarding materials, device physics, characterization techniques, circuit design and layout is given together with a detailed discussion of experimental data. The final simulation results clearly demonstrate the potential of the proposed circuit-level techniques, which enables the implementation of robust and energy efficient ADCs based on oxide TFTs, for moderate resolutions and conversion-rates.
This book systematically describes the design options for micro systems as well as the equations needed for calculating the behavior of their basic elements. The fundamental equations needed to calculate the effects and forces that are important in micro systems are also provided. Readers do not require previous knowledge of fabrication processes. This second edition of the volume is a thoroughly revised and extended update. The target audience primarily comprises experts in the field of micro systems and the book is also suitable for graduate engineering students. For quick reference, equations are presented in tables that can be found in an index at the end of the book.
This book discusses topics related to power electronics, especially electromagnetic transient analysis and control of high-power electronics conversion. It focuses on the re-evaluation of power electronics, transient analysis and modeling, device-based system-safe operating area, and energy balance-based control methods, and presenting, for the first time, numerous experimental results for the transient process of various real-world converters. The book systematically presents both theoretical analysis and practical applications. The first chapter discusses the structure and attributes of power electronics systems, highlighting the analysis and synthesis, while the second chapter explores the transient process and modeling for power electronics systems. The transient features of power devices at switching-on/off, transient conversion circuit with stray parameters and device-based system-safe operating area are described in the subsequent three chapters. The book also examines the measurement of transient processes, electromagnetic pulses and their series, as well as high-performance, closed-loop control, and expounds the basic principles and method of the energy-balanced control strategy. Lastly, it introduces the applications of transient analysis of typical power electronics systems. The book is valuable as a textbook for college students, and as a reference resource for electrical engineers as well as anyone working in the field of high-power electronics system.
This book provides readers with an up-to-date account of the use of machine learning frameworks, methodologies, algorithms and techniques in the context of computer-aided design (CAD) for very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI). Coverage includes the various machine learning methods used in lithography, physical design, yield prediction, post-silicon performance analysis, reliability and failure analysis, power and thermal analysis, analog design, logic synthesis, verification, and neuromorphic design. Provides up-to-date information on machine learning in VLSI CAD for device modeling, layout verifications, yield prediction, post-silicon validation, and reliability; Discusses the use of machine learning techniques in the context of analog and digital synthesis; Demonstrates how to formulate VLSI CAD objectives as machine learning problems and provides a comprehensive treatment of their efficient solutions; Discusses the tradeoff between the cost of collecting data and prediction accuracy and provides a methodology for using prior data to reduce cost of data collection in the design, testing and validation of both analog and digital VLSI designs. From the Foreword As the semiconductor industry embraces the rising swell of cognitive systems and edge intelligence, this book could serve as a harbinger and example of the osmosis that will exist between our cognitive structures and methods, on the one hand, and the hardware architectures and technologies that will support them, on the other....As we transition from the computing era to the cognitive one, it behooves us to remember the success story of VLSI CAD and to earnestly seek the help of the invisible hand so that our future cognitive systems are used to design more powerful cognitive systems. This book is very much aligned with this on-going transition from computing to cognition, and it is with deep pleasure that I recommend it to all those who are actively engaged in this exciting transformation. Dr. Ruchir Puri, IBM Fellow, IBM Watson CTO & Chief Architect, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Integrated Circuit and System Design, PATMOS 2010, held in Grenoble, France, in September 2010. The 24 revised full papers presented and the 9 extended abstracts were carefully reviewed and are organized in topical sections on design flows; circuit techniques; low power circuits; self-timed circuits; process variation; high-level modeling of poweraware heterogeneous designs in SystemC-AMS; and minalogic.
This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD protection design is demonstrated with representative case studies which are analyzed with various numerical simulations and ESD testing. The overall methodology for IC-system ESD co-design is presented as a step-by-step procedure that involves both ESD testing and numerical simulations."
This book discusses control units represented by the model of a finite state machine (FSM). It contains various original methods and takes into account the peculiarities of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) chips and a FSM model. It shows that one of the peculiarities of FPGA chips is the existence of embedded memory blocks (EMB). The book is devoted to the solution of problems of logic synthesis and reduction of hardware amount in control units. The book will be interesting and useful for researchers and PhD students in the area of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, as well as for designers of modern digital systems.
This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hulsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred images, most of which are original and have been accessed by detailed searches in the archives.
This book explains the application of recent advances in computational intelligence - algorithms, design methodologies, and synthesis techniques - to the design of integrated circuits and systems. It highlights new biasing and sizing approaches and optimization techniques and their application to the design of high-performance digital, VLSI, radio-frequency, and mixed-signal circuits and systems. This first of two related volumes addresses the design of analog and mixed-signal (AMS) and radio-frequency (RF) circuits, with 17 chapters grouped into parts on analog and mixed-signal applications, and radio-frequency design. It will be of interest to practitioners and researchers in computer science and electronics engineering engaged with the design of electronic circuits.
The increasing interest in the bio-impedance analysis in various fields has increased the demand for portable and low-cost impedance analyzers that can be used in the field. Simplifying the hardware is crucial to maintaining low-cost and portability, but this is not an easy task due to the need for accurate phase and magnitude measurements. This book discusses different portable impedance analyzers design techniques. Additionally, complete designs using two different approaches are reported. The first approach utilizes a commercially available single chip solution while the second one is based on a new measurement technique that eliminates the need to measure the phase by using a software algorithm to extract it from the magnitude information. Applications to the measurement of fruit bio-impedance are emphasized and compared with measurements from professional stand-alone impedance analyzers.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems. The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models. New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis. Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.
This book provides a comprehensive set of optimization and prediction techniques for an enterprise information system. Readers with a background in operations research, system engineering, statistics, or data analytics can use this book as a reference to derive insight from data and use this knowledge as guidance for production management. The authors identify the key challenges in enterprise information management and present results that have emerged from leading-edge research in this domain. Coverage includes topics ranging from task scheduling and resource allocation, to workflow optimization, process time and status prediction, order admission policies optimization, and enterprise service-level performance analysis and prediction. With its emphasis on the above topics, this book provides an in-depth look at enterprise information management solutions that are needed for greater automation and reconfigurability-based fault tolerance, as well as to obtain data-driven recommendations for effective decision-making.
Liquid Crystal Devices are crucial and ubiquitous components of an ever-increasing number of technologies. They are used in everything from cellular phones, eBook readers, GPS devices, computer monitors and automotive displays to projectors and TVs, to name but a few. This second edition continues to serve as an introductory guide to the fundamental properties of liquid crystals and their technical application, while explicating the recent advancements within LCD technology. This edition includes important new chapters on blue-phase display technology, advancements in LCD research significantly contributed to by the authors themselves. This title is of particular interest to engineers and researchers involved in display technology and graduate students involved in display technology research. * Key features: Updated throughout to reflect the latest technical state-of-the-art in LCD research and development, including new chapters and material on topics such as the properties of blue-phase liquid crystal displays and 3D liquid crystal displays; * Explains the link between the fundamental scientific principles behind liquid crystal technology and their application to photonic devices and displays, providing a thorough understanding of the physics, optics, electro-optics and material aspects of Liquid Crystal Devices; * Revised material reflecting developments in LCD technology, including updates on optical modelling methods, transmissive LCDs and tunable liquid crystal photonic devices; * Chapters conclude with detailed homework problems to further cement an understanding of the topic.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to spintronics-based computing for the next generation of ultra-low power/highly reliable logic. It will cover aspects from device to system-level, including magnetic memory cells, device modeling, hybrid circuit structure, design methodology, CAD tools, and technological integration methods. This book is accessible to a variety of readers and little or no background in magnetism and spin electronics are required to understand its content. The multidisciplinary team of expert authors from circuits, devices, computer architecture, CAD and system design reveal to readers the potential of spintronics nanodevices to reduce power consumption, improve reliability and enable new functionality.
The book provides a comprehensive coverage of different aspects of low power circuit synthesis at various levels of design hierarchy; starting from the layout level to the system level. For a seamless understanding of the subject, basics of MOS circuits has been introduced at transistor, gate and circuit level; followed by various low-power design methodologies, such as supply voltage scaling, switched capacitance minimization techniques and leakage power minimization approaches. The content of this book will prove useful to students, researchers, as well as practicing engineers.
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