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The quality of physical models is decisive for the understanding of the physical processes in semiconductor devices and for a reliable prediction of the behavior of a new generation of devices. The first part of the book contains a critical review on models for silicon device simulators, which rely on moments of the Boltzmann equation. With reference to fundamental experimental and theoretical work, an extensive collection of widely used models is discussed in terms of physical accuracy and application results. The second part outlines the derivation of physics-based models for bulk mobility, band-to-band tunneling, defect-assisted tunneling, thermal recombination, non-ideal metal-semiconductor contact, and direct and multiphonon-assisted tunneling through insulating layers, all from a microscopic level. The models are compared with experimental data and applied to a number of simulation examples. This part also describes some new approaches of "taylored quantum mechanics for deriving device models from "first principles and the fundamental problems therein."
Reuse Techniques for VLSI Design is a reflection on the current state of the art in design reuse for microelectronic systems. To that end, it is the first book to garner the input of leading experts from both research and application areas. These experts document herein not only their more mature approaches, but also their latest research results. Firstly, it sets out the background and support from international organisations that enforce System-on-a-Chip (SoC) design by reuse- oriented methodologies. This overview is followed by a number of technical presentations covering different requirements of the reuse domain. These are presented from different points of view, i.e., IP provider, IP user, designer, isolated reuse, intra-company or inter-company reuse. More general systems or case studies, e.g., metrics, are followed by comprehensive reuse systems, e.g., reuse management systems partly including business models. Since design reuse must not be restricted to digital components, mixed- signal and analog reuse approaches are also presented. In parallel to the digital domain, this area covers research in reuse database design. Design verification and legal aspects are two important topics that are closely related to the realization of design reuse. These hot topics are covered by presentations that finalize the survey of outstanding research, development and application of design reuse for SoC design. Reuse Techniques for VLSI Design is an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers involved in VLSI/ASIC design.
This book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in optical contactless probing approaches, in order to fill a gap in the literature on VLSI Testing. The author highlights the inherent difficulties encountered with the mechanical probe and testability design approaches for functional and internal fault testing and shows how contactless testing might resolve many of the challenges associated with conventional mechanical wafer testing. The techniques described in this book address the increasing demands for internal access of the logic state of a node within a chip under test.
This book addresses the need for models and techniques to predict stability boundaries, given trends toward miniaturization of switching power supplies in battery-operated portable devices, which lead to the exhibition of fast-scale chaotic instabilities. The authors describe a method to predict stability boundaries from a design-oriented perspective, which captures the effect of the different parameters of the system upon the particular boundary. Unlike previous methods involving complex analysis based on the discrete-time mathematical model, the method introduced here allows for prediction of the overall stability boundaries within the complete design space and is based upon a simple design-oriented index."
This book provides anyone needing a primer on random signals and processes with a highly accessible introduction to these topics. It assumes a minimal amount of mathematical background and focuses on concepts, related terms and interesting applications to a variety of fields. All of this is motivated by numerous examples implemented with MATLAB, as well as a variety of exercises at the end of each chapter."
This book describes new and effective methodologies for modeling, analyzing and mitigating cell-internal signal electromigration in nanoCMOS, with significant circuit lifetime improvements and no impact on performance, area and power. The authors are the first to analyze and propose a solution for the electromigration effects inside logic cells of a circuit. They show in this book that an interconnect inside a cell can fail reducing considerably the circuit lifetime and they demonstrate a methodology to optimize the lifetime of circuits, by placing the output, Vdd and Vss pin of the cells in the less critical regions, where the electromigration effects are reduced. Readers will be enabled to apply this methodology only for the critical cells in the circuit, avoiding impact in the circuit delay, area and performance, thus increasing the lifetime of the circuit without loss in other characteristics.
In our abundant computing infrastructure, performance improvements across most all application spaces are now severely limited by the energy dissipation involved in processing, storing, and moving data. The exponential increase in the volume of data to be handled by our computational infrastructure is driven in large part by unstructured data from countless sources. This book explores revolutionary device concepts, associated circuits, and architectures that will greatly extend the practical engineering limits of energy-efficient computation from device to circuit to system level. With chapters written by international experts in their corresponding field, the text investigates new approaches to lower energy requirements in computing. Features * Has a comprehensive coverage of various technologies * Written by international experts in their corresponding field * Covers revolutionary concepts at the device, circuit, and system levels
The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.
The book is an authoritative collection of contributions by leading experts on the topics of fuzzy logic, multi-valued logic and neural network. Originally written as an homage to Claudio Moraga, seen by his colleagues as an example of concentration, discipline and passion for science, the book also represents a timely reference guide for advance students and researchers in the field of soft computing, and multiple-valued logic.
Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems closely examines the Distributed Intelligent Managed Element (DIME) Computing Model, a new model for distributed systems, and provides a guide to implementing Distributed Managed Workflows with High Reliability, Availability, Performance and Security. The book also explores the viability of self-optimizing, self-monitoring autonomous DIME-based computing systems. Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for innovative distributed systems design. Researchers working in a related field will also find this book valuable.
ASCE 7 is the US standard for identifying minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. ASCE 7 covers many load types, of which wind is one. The purpose of this book is to provide structural and architectural engineers with the practical state-of-the-art knowledge and tools needed for designing and retrofitting buildings for wind loads. The book will also cover wind-induced loss estimation. This new edition include a guide to the thoroughly revised, 2010 version of the ASCE 7 Standard provisions for wind loads; incorporate major advances achieved in recent years in the design of tall buildings for wind; present material on retrofitting and loss estimation; and improve the presentation of the material to increase its usefulness to structural engineers. Key features: * New focus on tall buildings helps make the analysis and design guidance easier and less complex. * Covers the new simplified design methods of ASCE 7-10, guiding designers to clearly understand the spirit and letter of the provisions and use the design methods with confidence and ease. * Includes new coverage of retrofitting for wind load resistance and loss estimation from hurricane winds. * Thoroughly revised and updated to conform with current practice and research.
In this book, three different methods are presented to enhance the capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular networks. The scope involves the evaluation of the effect of the RN location in terms of capacity and the determination of the optimum location of the relay that provides maximum achievable data rate for users with limited interference at the cell boundaries. This book presents a new model to enhance both capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular network by determining the optimum location for the RN with limited interference. The new model is designed to enhance the capacity of the relay link by employing two antennas in RN. This design enables the relay link to absorb more users at cell edge regions. An algorithm called the Balance Power Algorithm (BPA) is developed to reduce MR power consumption. The book pertains to postgraduate students and researchers in wireless & mobile communications.
This book covers the complete spectrum of the fundamentals of clocked, regenerative comparators, their state-of-the-art, advanced CMOS technologies, innovative comparators inclusive circuit aspects, their characterization and properties. Starting from the basics of comparators and the transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS, seven high-performance comparators developed by the authors in 120nm and 65nm CMOS are described extensively. Methods and measurement circuits for the characterization of advanced comparators are introduced. A synthesis of the largely differing aspects of demands on modern comparators and the properties of devices being available in nanometer CMOS, which are posed by the so-called nanometer hell of physics, is accomplished. The book summarizes the state of the art in integrated comparators. Advanced measurement circuits for characterization will be introduced as well as the method of characterization by bit-error analysis usually being used for characterization of optical receivers. The book is compact, and the graphical quality of the illustrations is outstanding. This book is written for engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. It is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics and microelectronics or circuit design.
The book will cover the past, present and future developments of field theory and computational electromagnetics. The first two chapters will give an overview of the historical developments and the present the state-of-the-art in computational electromagnetics. These two chapters will set the stage for discussing recent progress, new developments, challenges, trends and major directions in computational electromagnetics with three main emphases: a. Modeling of ever larger structures with multi-scale dimensions and multi-level descriptions (behavioral, circuit, network and field levels) and transient behaviours b. Inclusions of physical effects other than electromagnetic: quantum effects, thermal effects, mechanical effects and nano scale features c. New developments in available computer hardware, programming paradigms (MPI, Open MP, CUDA and Open CL) and the associated new modeling approaches These are the current emerging topics in the area of computational electromagnetics and may provide readers a comprehensive overview of future trends and directions in the area. The book is written for students, research scientists, professors, design engineers and consultants who engaged in the fields of design, analysis and research of the emerging technologies related to computational electromagnetics, RF/microwave, optimization, new numerical methods, as well as accelerator simulator, dispersive materials, nano-antennas, nano-waveguide, nano-electronics, terahertz applications, bio-medical and material sciences. The book may also be used for those involved in commercializing electromagnetic and related emerging technologies, sensors and the semiconductor industry. The book can be used as a reference book for graduates and post graduates. It can also be used as a text book for workshops and continuing education for researchers and design engineers.
This brief describes how non-volatile change of the resistance , due to the application of electric voltage allows for fabrication of novel digital memory devices. The author explains the physics of the devices and provides a concrete description of the materials involved as well as the fundamental properties of the technology. He details how charge trapping, charge transfer and conductive filament formation effect resistive switching memory devices.
Takes a fresh look at basic digital design. From definition, to example, to graphic illustration, to simulation result, the book progresses through the main themes of digital design. Technically up-to-date, this book covers all the latest topics: Field programmable gate arrays, PALs and ROMs. The latest memory chips for SRAM and DRAM are shown. Software for creating the excitation equations of FSM are covered, as well as LogicWorks and Beige Bag PC and more.
This book describes how to design circuits in power electronics systems using a reliability approach in three-level topologies, which have many advantages in terms of the current total harmonic distortion and efficiency. Such converter types are increasingly used in large power applications and photovoltaics (PV), therefore research on improvements in the reliability of such systems using multi-level topologies has become important. Four studies for reliability improvement are contained in this book: an open-circuited switch fault detection scheme, tolerance control for an open-circuited switch fault, neutral-point voltage ripple reduction, and leakage current reduction. This book treats not only the topology, but also the fault tolerance and the reduction of the ripples and leakage. This book is aimed at advanced students of electrical engineering and power electronics specialists.
This textbook is written for junior/senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students in the electrical and computer engineering departments.
Using PSoC mixed-signal array design, the authors define the characteristics of embedd design, embedded mixed-signal architectures, and top-down design. Optimized implementations of these designs are included to illustrate the theory. Exercises are provided at the end of each chapter for practice. Topics covered include the hardware and software used to implement analog and digital interfaces, various filter structures, amplifiers and other signal-conditioning circuits, pulse-width modulators, timers, and data structures for handling multiple similar peripheral devices.
The practical exercises contained in the companion laboratory manual, which was co-authored by Cypress Staff Applications Engineer Dave Van Ess, are also based on PSoC. PSoC's integrated microcontroller, highly configurable analog/digital peripherals, and a full set of development tools make it an ideal learning tool for developing mixed-signal embedded design skills.
This book describes novel software concepts to increase reliability under user-defined constraints. The authors' approach bridges, for the first time, the reliability gap between hardware and software. Readers will learn how to achieve increased soft error resilience on unreliable hardware, while exploiting the inherent error masking characteristics and error (stemming from soft errors, aging, and process variations) mitigations potential at different software layers.
This revised and expanded edition emphasizes the basic concepts underlying the analysis and design of all discrete and integrated circuits. Contains an extensive treatment of semiconductor fundamentals; new material on power supplies and Schottky barrier diodes including useful models for diodes in avalanche breakdown and cutoff; a more accurate linear model for the biopolar transistor; the concept of the Early voltage; and an improved account of frequency response. Features two new chapters devoted to the operational amplifier and its specifications and the use of the op-amp, with a number of its important applications such as voltage references, comparators, differentiators and intergrators. Many of the examples and all of the problems are new.
"There are three words that characterize this work: thoroughness, completeness and clarity. The authors are congratulated for taking the time to write an excellent linear systems textbook! a ]The authors have used their mastery of the subject to produce a textbook that very effectively presents the theory of linear systems as it has evolved over the last thirty years. The result is a comprehensive, complete and clear exposition that serves as an excellent foundation for more advanced topics in system theory and control." a "IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
"In assessing the present book as a potential textbook for our first graduate linear systems course, I find...[that] Antsaklis and Michel have contributed an expertly written and high quality textbook to the field and are to be congratulateda ]. Because of its mathematical sophistication and completeness the present book is highly recommended for use, both as a textbook as well as a reference." a "Automatica
Linear systems theory plays a broad and fundamental role in electrical, mechanical, chemical and aerospace engineering, communications, and signal processing. A thorough introduction to systems theory with emphasis on control is presented in this self-contained textbook.
The book examines the fundamental properties that govern the behavior of systems by developing their mathematical descriptions. Linear time-invariant, time-varying, continuous-time, and discrete-time systems are covered. Rigorous development of classic and contemporary topics in linear systems, as well as extensive coverage of stability and polynomial matrix/fractional representation, provide the necessary foundation for further study of systemsand control.
Linear Systems is written as a textbook for a challenging one-semester graduate course; a solutions manual is available to instructors upon adoption of the text. The booka (TM)s flexible coverage and self-contained presentation also make it an excellent reference guide or self-study manual.
For a treatment of linear systems that focuses primarily on the time-invariant case using streamlined presentation of the material with less formal and more intuitive proofs, see the authorsa (TM) companion book entitled A Linear Systems Primer.
Extremely easy-to-follow due to its natural progression tutorial approach on how to advance from the solution of typical electrical and electronic circuit examples by hand, followed by a SPICE verification through the discussion of simulation results. The first part contains relevant data about SPICE in order to analyze both linear passive and electronic circuits. The latter half provides more detail on such topics as distortion models and analysis, basic algorithms in SPICE, analysis option parameters and how to direct SPICE to find a solution when it fails.
Handbook of Filter Synthesis, originally published in 1967 is the classic reference for continuous time filter design. The plots of filter behaviour for different designs, such as ripple and group delay, make this book invaluable. The discussion of how to synthesize a bandpass, bandpass, or bandstop filter from a lowpass prototype is also very useful.
This book is designed both for FPGA users interested in developing new, specific components - generally for reducing execution times -and IP core designers interested in extending their catalog of specific components. The main focus is circuit synthesis and the discussion shows, for example, how a given algorithm executing some complex function can be translated to a synthesizable circuit description, as well as which are the best choices the designer can make to reduce the circuit cost, latency, or power consumption. This is not a book on algorithms. It is a book that shows how to translate efficiently an algorithm to a circuit, using techniques such as parallelism, pipeline, loop unrolling, and others. Numerous examples of FPGA implementation are described throughout this book and the circuits are modeled in VHDL. Complete and synthesizable source files are available for download."
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