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This book is designed both for FPGA users interested in developing new, specific components - generally for reducing execution times -and IP core designers interested in extending their catalog of specific components. The main focus is circuit synthesis and the discussion shows, for example, how a given algorithm executing some complex function can be translated to a synthesizable circuit description, as well as which are the best choices the designer can make to reduce the circuit cost, latency, or power consumption. This is not a book on algorithms. It is a book that shows how to translate efficiently an algorithm to a circuit, using techniques such as parallelism, pipeline, loop unrolling, and others. Numerous examples of FPGA implementation are described throughout this book and the circuits are modeled in VHDL. Complete and synthesizable source files are available for download."
This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems - the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) - and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce "analogue" electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator/derivator is a new one for electronic circuit designers. The book shows how specific non-integer-order impedance elements can be created using materials with specific structural properties. EIS measures the electrical impedance of a specimen across a given range of frequencies, producing a spectrum that represents the variation of the impedance versus frequency - a technique that has the advantage of avoiding aggressive examinations. Biological tissues are complex systems characterized by dynamic processes that occur at different lengths and time scales; this book proposes a model for vegetable tissues that describes the behavior of such materials by considering the interactions among various relaxing phenomena and memory effects.
This book analyzes the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications that work in continuous high dynamic operation. It also provides practical insights into maximizing the energy efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. It introduces an energy-management control structure, which considers all the physical powertrain constraints and uses novel methodologies to predict the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of the entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short-term loads as well as cycle detection methodology for an entire load cycle. In this way, the energy efficiency can be maximized, and fuel consumption and exhaust emissions simultaneously reduced. Readers gain deep insights into the topics that need to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles. It also becomes clear that only a combination of management systems can significantly increase the performance of a controller.
Modeling and Design of Electromagnetic Compatibility for High-Speed Printed Circuit Boards and Packaging presents the electromagnetic modelling and design of three major electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues related to the high-speed printed circuit board (PCB) and electronic packages: signal integrity (SI), power integrity (PI), and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The emphasis is put on two essential passive components of PCBs and packages: the power distribution network and the signal distribution network. This book includes two parts. Part one talks about the field-circuit hybrid methods used for the EMC modeling, including the modal method, the integral equation method, the cylindrical wave expansion method and the de-embedding method. Part two illustrates EMC design methods and explores the applications of novel metamaterials and two-dimensional materials on traditional EMC problems. This book is designed to enhance worthwhile electromagnetic theory and mathematical methods for practical engineers and to train students with advanced EMC applications.
This book is a single-source guide to nonlinearity and nonlinear techniques in energy harvesting, with a focus on vibration energy harvesters for micro and nanoscale applications. The authors demonstrate that whereas nonlinearity was avoided as an undesirable phenomenon in early energy harvesters, now it can be used as an essential part of these systems. Readers will benefit from an overview of nonlinear techniques and applications, as well as deeper insight into methods of analysis and modeling of energy harvesters, employing different nonlinearities. The role of nonlinearity due to different aspects of an energy harvester is discussed, including nonlinearity due to mechanical-to-electrical conversion, nonlinearity due to conditioning electronic circuits, nonlinearity due to novel materials (e.g., graphene), etc. Coverage includes tutorial introductions to MEMS and NEMS technology, as well as a wide range of applications, such as nonlinear oscillators and transducers for energy harvesters and electronic conditioning circuits for effective energy processing.
Electric circuits, and their electronic circuit extensions, are found in all electrical and electronic equipment; including: household equipment, lighting, heating, air conditioning, control systems in both homes and commercial buildings, computers, consumer electronics, and means of transportation, such as cars, buses, trains, ships, and airplanes. Electric circuit analysis is essential for designing all these systems. Electric circuit analysis is a foundation for all hardware courses taken by students in electrical engineering and allied fields, such as electronics, computer hardware, communications and control systems, and electric power. This book is intended to help students master basic electric circuit analysis, as an essential component of their professional education. Furthermore, the objective of this book is to approach circuit analysis by developing a sound understanding of fundamentals and a problem-solving methodology that encourages critical thinking.
More and more information, audio and video but also a range of other information type, is generated, processed and used by machines today, even though the end user may be a human. The result over the past 15 years has been a substantial increase in the type of information and change in the way humans generate, classify, store, search, access and consume information. Conversion of information to digital form is a prerequisite for this enhanced machine role, but must be done having in mind requirements such as compactness, fidelity, interpretability etc. This book presents new ways of dealing with digital information and new types of digital information underpinning the evolution of society and business.
Dynamic Offset-Compensated CMOS Amplifiers describes the theory,
design and realization of dynamic offset compensated CMOS
amplifiers. It focuses on the design of general-purpose wide-band
operational amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers.
Offers a complete grounding in the principles and techniques of modern electronics. Designed to provide even beginning students with the knowledge and skills necessary for building useful and interesting circuits either in a laboratory situation or on their own. Concentrates on techniques and devices currently used in modern equipment and special attention is paid to the basic ideas and techniques used with important types of circuits. A substantial portion of the book is devoted to explaining the vocabulary and information presented in data sheets for these circuits. By instructing students in these techniques and familiarizing them with the ins-and-outs of electronic literature, it provides a sound introduction to the field and a means of keeping up with its extremely rapid changes.
This book deals with nonlinear dynamics of electronic circuits, which could be used in robot control, secure communications, sensors and synchronized networks. The genesis of the content is related to a course on complex adaptive systems that has been held at the University of Catania since 2005. The efforts are devoted in order to emulate with nonlinear electronic circuits nonlinear dynamics. Step-by-step methods show the essential concepts of complex systems by using the Varela diagrams and accompanying MATLAB (R) exercises to reinforce new information. Special attention has been devoted to chaotic systems and networks of chaotic circuits by exploring the fundamentals, such as synchronization and control. The aim of the book is to give to readers a comprehensive view of the main concepts of nonlinear dynamics to help them better understand complex systems and their control through the use of electronics devices.
This book explores near-threshold computing (NTC), a design-space using techniques to run digital chips (processors) near the lowest possible voltage. Readers will be enabled with specific techniques to design chips that are extremely robust; tolerating variability and resilient against errors. Variability-aware voltage and frequency allocation schemes will be presented that will provide performance guarantees, when moving toward near-threshold manycore chips. * Provides an introduction to near-threshold computing, enabling reader with a variety of tools to face the challenges of the power/utilization wall; * Demonstrates how to design efficient voltage regulation, so that each region of the chip can operate at the most efficient voltage and frequency point; * Investigates how performance guarantees can be ensured when moving towards NTC manycores through variability-aware voltage and frequency allocation schemes.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks, CROWNCOM 2015, held in Doha, Qatar, in April 2015. The 66 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 110 submissions and cover the evolution of cognitive radio technology pertaining to 5G networks. The papers are clustered to topics on dynamic spectrum access/management, networking protocols for CR, modeling and theory, HW architecture and implementations, next generation of cognitive networks, standards and business models, and emerging applications for cognitive networks.
This book presents the state-of-the-art and breakthrough innovations in design automation for cyber-physical systems.The authors discuss various aspects of cyber-physical systems design, including modeling, co-design, optimization, tools, formal methods, validation, verification, and case studies. Coverage includes a survey of the various existing cyber-physical systems functional design methodologies and related tools will provide the reader unique insights into the conceptual design of cyber-physical systems.
CMOS DC-DC Converters aims to provide a comprehensive dissertation on the matter of monolithic inductive Direct-Current to Direct-Current (DC-DC) converters. For this purpose seven chapters are defined which will allow the designer to gain specific knowledge on the design and implementation of monolithic inductive DC-DC converters, starting from the very basics.
This self-contained book addresses the need for analysis, characterization, estimation, and optimization of the various forms of power dissipation in the presence of process variations of nano-CMOS technologies. The authors show very large-scale integration (VLSI) researchers and engineers how to minimize the different types of power consumption of digital circuits. The material deals primarily with high-level (architectural or behavioral) energy dissipation.
This book describes the optimized implementations of several arithmetic datapath, controlpath and pseudorandom sequence generator circuits for realization of high performance arithmetic circuits targeted towards a specific family of the high-end Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). It explores regular, modular, cascadable and bit-sliced architectures of these circuits, by directly instantiating the target FPGA-specific primitives in the HDL. Every proposed architecture is justified with detailed mathematical analyses. Simultaneously, constrained placement of the circuit building blocks is performed, by placing the logically related hardware primitives in close proximity to one another by supplying relevant placement constraints in the Xilinx proprietary "User Constraints File". The book covers the implementation of a GUI-based CAD tool named FlexiCore integrated with the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) for design automation of platform-specific high-performance arithmetic circuits from user-level specifications. This tool has been used to implement the proposed circuits, as well as hardware implementations of integer arithmetic algorithms where several of the proposed circuits are used as building blocks. Implementation results demonstrate higher performance and superior operand-width scalability for the proposed circuits, with respect to implementations derived through other existing approaches. This book will prove useful to researchers, students and professionals engaged in the domain of FPGA circuit optimization and implementation.
This textbook is designed for graduate-level courses, and for self-study, in analog and sampled-data, including switched-capacitor, circuit theory and design for ongoing, or active electrical engineers, needing to become proficient in analog circuit design on a system, rather than on a device, level. After decades of experience in industry and teaching this material in academic settings, the author has extracted many of the most important and useful features of analog circuit theory and design and presented them in a manner that is easy to digest and utilize. The methodology and analysis techniques presented can be applied to areas well beyond those specifically addressed in this book. This book is meant to enable readers to gain a 'general knowledge' of one aspect of analog engineering (e.g., that of network theory, filter design, system theory and sampled-data signal processing). The presentation is self-contained and should be accessible to anyone with a first degree in electrical engineering.
Latest edition of a popular text presents a modern introduction to electronics. Revisions include increased coverage of FETs Clampers, doping effects, Op amp, new material on CMOS devices and AC circuits, and the addition of analog electronics. Integrates circuits, semiconductors, logic elements, digital devices, and the microprocessor. Takes beginning students to the point where they can make effective use of modern ICs in the design of simple digital and analog systems. Features clear, understandable technical presentations and unique two-color illustrations. Includes worked-out examples, practice problems, helpful chapter summaries and review questions.
This book introduces the basic fundamentals, models, emulators and analyses of mem-elements in the circuit theory with applications. The book starts reviewing the literature on mem-elements, models and their recent applications. It presents mathematical models, numerical results, circuit simulations, and experimental results for double-loop hysteresis behavior of mem-elements. The authors introduce a generalized memristor model in the fractional-order domain under different input and different designs for emulator-based mem-elements, with circuit and experimental results. The basic concept of memristive-based relaxation-oscillators in the circuit theory is also covered. The reader will moreover find in this book information on memristor-based multi-level digital circuits, memristor-based multi-level multiplier and memcapacitor-based oscillators and synaptic circuits.
Michael Schenk evaluates new technologies and methods, such as cryogenic read-out electronics and a UV laser system, developed to optimise the performance of large liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPC). Amongst others, the author studies the uniformity of the electric field produced by a Greinacher high-voltage generator operating at cryogenic temperatures, measures the linear energy transfer (LET) of muons and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient of electrons in liquid argon. The results are obtained by analysing events induced by cosmic-ray muons and UV laser beams. The studies are carried out with ARGONTUBE, a prototype LArTPC in operation at the University of Bern, Switzerland, designed to investigate the feasibility of drift distances of up to five metres for electrons in liquid argon.
This book is a reference for researchers who want to learn about resonant periodic structures for applications in microstrip circuits. The readers can learn simple methods to analyze these structures using commercially available software and equivalent circuit modelling. The application examples demonstrated in the book will open up new research ideas in this field.
This book provides readers with invaluable overviews and updates of the most important topics in the radiation-effects field, enabling them to face significant challenges in the quest for the insertion of ever-higher density and higher performance electronic components in satellite systems. Readers will benefit from the up-to-date coverage of the various primary (classical) sub-areas of radiation effects, including the space and terrestrial radiation environments, basic mechanisms of total ionizing dose, digital and analog single-event transients, basic mechanisms of single-event effects, system-level SEE analysis, device-level, circuit-level and system-level hardening approaches, and radiation hardness assurance. Additionally, this book includes in-depth discussions of several newer areas of investigation, and current challenges to the radiation effects community, such as radiation hardening by design, the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components in space missions, CubeSats and SmallSats, the use of recent generation FPGA's in space, and new approaches for radiation testing and validation. The authors provide essential background and fundamentals, in addition to information on the most recent advances and challenges in the sub-areas of radiation effects. Provides a concise introduction to the fundamentals of radiation effects, latest research results, and new test methods and procedures; Discusses the radiation effects and mitigation solutions for advanced integrated circuits and systems designed to operate in harsh radiation environments; Includes coverage of the impact of Small Satellites in the space industry.
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