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This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.
This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The latest power amp design methodsFully updated to address cutting-edge technologies, the new edition of this practical guide provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave power amplifier design. The book describes both existing and new schematic configurations, theoretical approaches, circuit simulation results, and implementation techniques. New chapters discuss linearization and efficiency enhancement and high-efficiency Doherty power amplifiers. Featuring a systematic approach, this comprehensive resource bridges the theory and practice of RF and microwave engineering. RF and Microwave Power Amplifier Design, Second Edition, covers: Two-port network parameters and passive elements Nonlinear circuit design methods Nonlinear active device modeling Impedance matching Power transformers, combiners, and couplers Power amplifier design fundamentals High-efficiency power amplifier design Broadband power amplifiers Linearization and efficiency enhancement techniques High-efficiency Doherty power amplifiers
This book offers readers a set of new approaches and tools a set of tools and techniques for facing challenges in parallelization with design of embedded systems. It provides an advanced parallel simulation infrastructure for efficient and effective system-level model validation and development so as to build better products in less time. Since parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has the potential to exploit the underlying parallel computational capability in today's multi-core simulation hosts, the author begins by reviewing the parallelization of discrete event simulation, identifying problems and solutions. She then describes out-of-order parallel discrete event simulation (OoO PDES), a novel approach for efficient validation of system-level designs by aggressively exploiting the parallel capabilities of todays' multi-core PCs. This approach enables readers to design simulators that can fully exploit the parallel processing capability of the multi-core system to achieve fast speed simulation, without loss of simulation and timing accuracy. Based on this parallel simulation infrastructure, the author further describes automatic approaches that help the designer quickly to narrow down the debugging targets in faulty ESL models with parallelism.
This book describes fault tolerance techniques based on software and hardware to create hybrid techniques. They are able to reduce overall performance degradation and increase error detection when associated with applications implemented in embedded processors. Coverage begins with an extensive discussion of the current state-of-the-art in fault tolerance techniques. The authors then discuss the best trade-off between software-based and hardware-based techniques and introduce novel hybrid techniques. Proposed techniques increase existing fault detection rates up to 100%, while maintaining low performance overheads in area and application execution time."
Hands-On Introduction to LaVIEW for Scientists and Engineers provides a learn-by-doing approach to acquiring the computer-based skills used daily in experimental work. The book is not the typical manual-like presentation of LabVIEW. Rather, Hands-On Introduction to LabVIEW guides students through using this powerful laboratory tool to carry out interesting and relevant projects. Readers, who are assumed to have no prior computer programming or LabVIEW experience, begin writing meaningful programs in the first few pages. After learning through experience, readers can master the skills needed to carry out effective experiments.
Covers all your testing and inspection needs to help you pass your exams on City & Guilds 2391 and EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 and Part P courses. Entirely up to date with the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations Step-by-step descriptions and photographs of the tests show exactly how to carry them out Completion of inspection and test certification and periodic reporting Fault finding techniques Testing 3 phase and single phase motors Supporting video footage of the tests contained in this book are available on the companion website This book covers everything you need to learn about inspection and testing, with clear reference to the latest updates to the legal requirements and wiring regulations. It answers all of your questions on the basics of inspection and testing, using clear and easy to remember language, along with sample questions and scenarios as they will be encountered in the exams. Christopher Kitcher tells you what tests are needed and describes them in a step-by-step manner with the help of colour photographs and the accompanying website. All of the theory required for passing the inspecting and testing element of all electrical installation qualifications along with the AM2, City & Guilds 2391 certificate and the EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 qualifications is contained within this easy-to-follow guide - along with some top tips to help you pass the exam itself. With a strong focus on the practical element of inspection and testing for NVQs or apprenticeships, this is also an ideal reference tool for experienced electricians and those working in allied industries on domestic and industrial installations. www.routledge.com/cw/kitcher provides a large bank of helpful video demonstrations, multiple choice questions to test your learning, and further supporting materials.
"Optimal Design of Distributed Control and Embedded Systems "focuses on the design of special control and scheduling algorithms based on system structural properties as well as on analysis of the influence of induced time-delay on systems performances. It treats the optimal design of distributed and embedded control systems (DCESs) with respect to communication and calculation-resource constraints, quantization aspects, and potential time-delays induced by the associated communication and calculation model.
Particular emphasis is put on optimal control signal scheduling based on the system state. In order to render this complex optimization problem feasible in real time, a time decomposition is based on periodicity induced by the static scheduling is operated. The authors present a co-design approach which subsumes the synthesis of the optimal control laws and the generation of an optimal schedule of control signals on real-time networks as well as the execution of control tasks on a single processor. The authors also operate a control structure modification or a control switching based on a thorough analysis of the influence of the induced time-delay system influence on stability and system performance in order to optimize DCES performance in case of calculation and communication resource limitations. Although the richness and variety of classes of DCES preclude a completely comprehensive treatment or a single best method of approaching them all, this co-design approach has the best chance of rendering this problem feasible and finding the optimal or some sub-optimal solution. The text is rounded out with references to such applications as car suspension and unmanned vehicles.
"Optimal Design of Distributed Control and Embedded Systems" will be of most interest to academic researchers working on the mathematical theory of DCES but the wide range of environments in which they are used also promotes the relevance of the text for control practitioners working in the avionics, automotive, energy-production, space exploration and many other industries."
Everything needed to pass the first part of the City & Guilds 2365 Diploma in Electrical Installations. Basic Electrical Installation Work will be of value to students taking the first year course of an electrical installation apprenticeship, as well as lecturers teaching it. The book provides answers to all of the 2365 syllabus learning outcomes, and one chapter is dedicated to each of the five units in the City & Guilds course. This edition is brought up to date and in line with the 18th Edition of the IET Regulations: It can be used to support independent learning or a college based course of study Full-colour diagrams and photographs explain difficult concepts and clear definitions of technical terms make the book a quick and easy reference Extensive online material on the companion website www.routledge.com/cw/linsley helps both students and lecturers
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: * Properties of non-parabolic energy bands * Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations * Critical thickness of strained materials * Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities * Density matrix transport modelling * Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is presented in a lucid style with easy to follow steps, illustrative examples and questions and computational problems in each chapter to help the reader build solid foundations of understanding to a level where they can initiate their own theoretical investigations. Suitable for postgraduate students of semiconductor and condensed matter physics, the book is essential to all those researching in academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. Instructors can contact the authors directly (email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org) for Solutions to the problems.
Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems
"Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of
EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability
to communicate that knowledge to others."
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reductionand their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems.
While maintaining and updating the core information--such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD--that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of:
Switching power supplies and variable-speed motor drives
Digital circuit power distribution and decoupling
PCB layout and stack-up
Mixed-signal PCB layout
RF and transient immunity
Power line disturbances
Precompliance EMC measurements
New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems
The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost-effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum.
Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and compliant with national and international EMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.
Unique in focusing on both organic and inorganic materials from a system point of view, this text offers a complete overview of printed electronics integrated with classical silicon electronics. Following an introduction to the topic, the book discusses the materials and processes required for printed electronics, covering conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials, as well as various substrates, such as paper and plastics. Subsequent chapters describe the various building blocks for printed electronics, while the final part describes the resulting novel applications and technologies, including wearable electronics, RFID tags and flexible circuit boards. Suitable for a broad target group, both industrial and academic, ranging from mechanical engineers to ink developers, and from chemists to engineers.
The first encompassing treatise of this new and very important field puts the known physical limitations for classic 2D microelectronics into perspective with the requirements for further microelectronics developments and market necessities. This two-volume handbook presents 3D solutions to the feature density problem, addressing all important issues, such as wafer processing, die bonding, packaging technology, and thermal aspects. It begins with an introductory part, which defines necessary goals, existing issues and relates 3D integration to the semiconductor roadmap of the industry. Before going on to cover processing technology and 3D structure fabrication strategies in detail. This is followed by fields of application and a look at the future of 3D integration. The editors have assembled contributions from key academic and industrial players in the field, including Intel, Micron, IBM, Infineon, Qimonda, NXP, Philips, Toshiba, Semitool, EVG, Tezzaron, Lincoln Labs, Fraunhofer, RPI, IMEC, CEA-LETI and many others.
GaN and ZnO nanowires can by grown using a wide variety of methods from physical vapor deposition to wet chemistry for optical devices. This book starts by presenting the similarities and differences between GaN and ZnO materials, as well as the assets and current limitations of nanowires for their use in optical devices, including feasibility and perspectives. It then focuses on the nucleation and growth mechanisms of ZnO and GaN nanowires, grown by various chemical and physical methods. Finally, it describes the formation of nanowire heterostructures applied to optical devices.
This book provides its readers with the means to implement energy-efficient video systems, by using different optimization approaches at multiple abstraction levels. The authors evaluate the complete video system with a motive to optimize its different software and hardware components in synergy, increase the throughput-per-watt, and address reliability issues. Subsequently, this book provides algorithmic and architectural enhancements, best practices and deployment models for new video systems, while considering new implementation paradigms of hardware accelerators, parallelism for heterogeneous multi- and many-core systems, and systems with long life-cycles. Particular emphasis is given to the current video encoding industry standard H.264/AVC, and one of the latest video encoders (High Efficiency Video Coding, HEVC).
Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chapter will aid readers to make an informed design choice. The book will address the various driving techniques related to LCDs. Due to the non-linear response of the liquid crystal to external voltages, different driving methods such as passive and active matrix driving can be utilized. The associated theoretical basis of these driving techniques is introduced, and this theoretical analysis is supplemented by information on the implementation of drivers and controllers to link the theory to practice. * Written by an experienced research scientist with over 30 years in R&D in this field. * Acts as an exhaustive review and comparison of techniques developed for passive-matrix addressing of twisted nematic and super-twisted nematic (STN) LCDs. * Discusses the trend towards "High Definition" displays and that a hybrid approach to drive matrix LCDs (combination of active and passive matrix addressing) will be the future of LCD addressing. * Contains the author s recent work on Bit-Slice Addressing that is useful for fast responding LCDs, as well as a chapter on driving ferroelectric LCDs * Provides an objective comparison that will enable designers to make an informed choice of an addressing technique for a specific application. * Includes examples of the practical applications of addressing techniques. * Organised in a way that each chapter can be read independently; with the basic knowledge and historical background gained from the introductory chapters, adequate for understanding the techniques that are presented in the remaining chapters making it a self-contained reference.
A practical guide to the effects of radiation on semiconductor components of electronic systems, and techniques for the designing, laying out, and testing of hardened integrated circuits This book teaches the fundamentals of radiation environments and their effects on electronic components, as well as how to design, lay out, and test cost-effective hardened semiconductor chips not only for today's space systems but for commercial terrestrial applications as well. It provides a historical perspective, the fundamental science of radiation, and the basics of semiconductors, as well as radiation-induced failure mechanisms in semiconductor chips. Integrated Circuits Design for Radiation Environments starts by introducing readers to semiconductors and radiation environments (including space, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments) followed by circuit design and layout. The book introduces radiation effects phenomena including single-event effects, total ionizing dose damage and displacement damage) and shows how technological solutions can address both phenomena. Describes the fundamentals of radiation environments and their effects on electronic components Teaches readers how to design, lay out and test cost-effective hardened semiconductor chips for space systems and commercial terrestrial applications Covers natural and man-made radiation environments, space systems and commercial terrestrial applications Provides up-to-date coverage of state-of-the-art of radiation hardening technology in one concise volume Includes questions and answers for the reader to test their knowledge Integrated Circuits Design for Radiation Environments will appeal to researchers and product developers in the semiconductor, space, and defense industries, as well as electronic engineers in the medical field. The book is also helpful for system, layout, process, device, reliability, applications, ESD, latchup and circuit design semiconductor engineers, along with anyone involved in micro-electronics used in harsh environments.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Cutting-edge techniques for designing analog filters and circuitsWith an emphasis on using operational amplifiers as key building blocks, Analog Filter and Circuit Design Handbook shows how to create working circuits that perform a variety of analog functions. Numerous circuit examples provide mathematical functions on analog signals in both a linear and nonlinear manner. The highly efficient elliptic-function filter response is featured throughout the book. Audio applications, such as audio power amplifiers and cross-over networks, are discussed, and both voltage and current feedback amplifiers are covered. This practical guide also analyzes the impact of nonideal amplifiers and addresses waveform shaping and generation. ANALOG FILTER AND CIRCUIT DESIGN HANDBOOK COVERS: Introduction to modern network theory Selecting the response characteristic Low-pass filter design High-pass filter design Bandpass filters Band reject filters Networks for the time domain Refinements in LC filter design and the use of resistive networks Component selection for LC and active filters Normalized filter design tables Switched capacitor filters Adjustable, fixed delay, and amplitude equalizers Voltage feedback operational amplifiers Linear amplifier applications Nonlinear circuits Waveform shaping Waveform generation Current feedback amplifiers Large signal amplifiers INCLUDES FREE DOWNLOADS: Filter Solutions from Nuhertz Technologies ELI 1.0 Elliptic function filter design program Fltrform--an Excel spreadsheet with essential formulas
This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.
Advanced concepts for wireless communications offer a vision of technology that is embedded in our surroundings and practically invisible, but present whenever required. Although the use of deep submicron CMOS processes allows for an unprecedented degree of scaling in digital circuitry, it complicates the implementation and integration of traditional RF circuits. The requirement for long operating life under limited energy supply also poses severe design constraints, particularly in critical applications in commerce, healthcare, and security. These challenges call for innovative design solutions at the circuit and system levels. Low Power Emerging Wireless Technologies addresses the crucial scientific and technological challenges for the realization of fully integrated, highly efficient, and cost-effective solutions for emerging wireless applications. Get Insights from the Experts on Wireless Circuit Design The book features contributions by top international experts in wireless circuit design representing both industry and academia. They explore the state of the art in wireless communication for 3G and 4G cellular networks, millimeter-wave applications, wireless sensor networks, and wireless medical technologies. The emphasis is on low-power wireless applications, RF building blocks for wireless applications, and short-distance and beam steering. Topics covered include new opportunities in body area networks, medical implants, satellite communications, automobile radar detection, and wearable electronics. Exploit the Potential behind Emerging Green Wireless Technologies A must for anyone serious about future wireless technologies, this multidisciplinary book discusses the challenges of emerging power-efficient applications. Written for practicing engineers in the wireless communication field who have some experience in integrated circuits, it is also a valuable resource for graduate students.
Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement, and Applications provides a modern and much-needed overview of electrical impedance measurement science and its application in metrology, sensor reading, device and material characterizations. It presents up-to-date coverage of the theory, practical methods, and modeling. The author covers the main impedance measurement techniques, stressing their practical application. The book includes a large set of measurement setup schematics, and diagrams and photos of standards and devices. It also offers an extensive list of references to both historical and recent papers on devices, methods, and traceability issues. Reviews the main definitions of the quantities related to impedance, some theorems of particular interest, the issue of impedance representation, and introduces the problem of impedance definition Lists devices, appliances, circuits, and instruments employed as building blocks of impedance measurement setups Classifies the main impedance measurement methods, including details on their implementation when a specific impedance definition is chosen Discusses the increasing use of mixed-signal electronics in impedance measurement setups Covers applications including details on the measurement of electromagnetic properties of materials Introduces impedance metrology, including artifact impedance standards, and the realization and reproduction of SI impedance units
In this second edition of "Liquid Crystal Displays," Ernst Lueder provides a timely update to his successful text. His unique combination of theory and practice presents all the information required for the development and manufacture of modern high performance and energy saving LCDs. The author also strives for an easy to understand description of complex facts.
The second edition focuses on a variety of liquid crystal cells and their electronic addressing, and outlines new developments including: High performance VA cells, especially for TV, due to two subpixels with excellent γ-correction also at oblique viewing Short optical response times in the range of 1 ms also for inter-gray transitions due to novel addressing waveforms Fringe field switching for acceleration of rise and decay of luminance eliminating frame memories Reduction of motion blur by scanning backlights, high frequency frames, edge enhancement and motion blur modeling Very thin LCDs with power saving LED backlights exhibiting unmatched color purity and larger than NTSC color gamut Printed layers on hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas replacing photolithography
Practicing electrical engineers, physicists, chemists and display specialists will find this a valuable resource. Researchers will appreciate the practical guidance given for the design of improved LCDs, whilst students are provided with a useful overview of the field.
The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics
While battery capacity is often insufficient to keep up with the power-demanding features of the latest mobile devices, powering the functional advancement of wireless devices requires a revolution in the concept of battery life and recharge capability. Future handheld devices and wireless networks should be able to recharge themselves automatically from the environment and optimize their energy consumption.
Green Mobile Devices and Networks: Energy Optimization and Scavenging Techniques provides insights into the principles and technical challenges behind both automatic optimization of energy consumption and energy gathering from alternative environmental sources. It introduces the basic background, motivation, and principles of various technologies, supplying detailed and integrated coverage of different optimization and energy scavenging techniques. In particular, the book:
Striking a balance between theory and implementation, the book links different concepts with applications of corresponding schemes and connects them to various standards. It discusses the continuous monitoring of battery life and the automatic adjustment of different functionalities including data reception, processing and display, complexity of software modules, and perceived video quality to provide you with a clear understanding of the technical challenges, measurement of energy gain, limitations, and future opportunities.
Analog design is one of the more difficult aspects of electrical
engineering. The main reason is the apparently vague decisions an
experienced designer makes in optimizing his circuit. To enable
fresh designers, like students electrical engineering, to become
acquainted with analog circuit design, structuring the analog
design process is of utmost importance.
This thesis proposes a reliable and repeatable method for implementing Spoof Surface Plasmon (SSP) modes in the design of various circuit components. It also presents the first equivalent circuit model for plasmonic structures, which serves as an insightful guide to designing SSP-based circuits. Today, electronic circuits and systems are developing rapidly and becoming an indispensable part of our daily life; however the issue of compactness in integrated circuits remains a formidable challenge. Recently, the Spoof Surface Plasmon (SSP) modes have been proposed as a novel platform for highly compact electronic circuits. Despite extensive research efforts in this area, there is still an urgent need for a systematic design method for plasmonic circuits. In this thesis, different SSP-based transmission lines, antenna feeding networks and antennas are designed and experimentally evaluated. With their high field confinement, the SSPs do not suffer from the compactness limitations of traditional circuits and are capable of providing an alternative platform for the future generation of electronic circuits and electromagnetic systems.
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