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The days of "revolutionary" campaign strategies are gone. The extraordinary has become ordinary, and campaigns at all levels, from the federal to the municipal, have realized the necessity of incorporating digital media technologies into their communications strategies. Still, little is understood about how these practices have been taken up and routinized on a wide scale, or the ways in which the use of these technologies is tied to new norms and understandings of political participation and citizenship in the digital age. The vocabulary that we do possess for speaking about what counts as citizenship in a digital age is limited. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a federal-level election, interviews with communications and digital media consultants, and textual analysis of campaign materials, this book traces the emergence and solidification of campaign strategies that reflect what it means to be a citizen in the digital era. It identifies shifting norms and emerging trends to build new theories of citizenship in contemporary democracy. Baldwin-Philippi argues that these campaign practices foster engaged and skeptical citizens. But, rather than assess the quality or level of participation and citizenship due to the use of technologies, this book delves into the way that digital strategies depict what "good" citizenship ought to be and the goals and values behind the tactics.
This casebook provides the most complete treatment available of constitutional tort actions under 42 U.S.C. 1983 and Bivens. The elaborate doctrines of official immunity are examined in detail, as is the possibility of direct governmental liability under Monell v. Dept. of Social Services. The Third Edition also explores the relation of 1983 to the Eleventh Amendment, qualified immunity, and the award of attorney's fees. It also provides an introduction to actions under other Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts ( 1981, 1982, and 1985), under modern statutes such as Title VII and Title IX (which add sex discrimination to previously prohibited grounds of discrimination), and to structural reform litigation (usually undertaken in the form of class actions).
Can reading make us better citizens? In Crossing borders and queering citizenship, Feghali crafts a sophisticated theoretical framework to theorise how the act of reading can contribute to the queering of contemporary citizenship in North America. Providing sensitive and convincing readings of work by both popular and niche authors, including Gloria Anzaldua, Dorothy Allison, Gregory Scofield, Guillermo Gomez-Pena, Erin Moure, Junot Diaz, and Yann Martel, this book is the first to not only read these authors together, but also to discuss how each powerfully resists the exclusionary work of state-sanctioned citizenship in the U.S. and Canada. This book convincingly draws connections between queer theory, citizenship studies, and border studies and sheds light on how these connections can reframe our understanding of American Studies. -- .
Since launching her professional matchmaking business in 1986, Barbara Summers has engineered the match for hundreds of married couples. In Next! A Matchmaker's Guide to Finding Mr. Right, Ditching Mr. Wrong, and Everything In Between, Barbara extends her expertise to all women who want to findaand keepathe right guy. In her high-spirited guide to finding love, Barabara claims there are many "someones" for everyone. In a world of rich possibilities no woman should ever buy into the mentality that she's unworthy of love, or feel she must settle for less than she wants, or stay in a relationship when the love is gone. Readers are invited to begin their search by creating a "Dream Match List" of Must-Haves, Nice-to-Haves, and Deal Breakers. While exploring the do's and don'ts of dating, Barbara shares stories of her experiences with clients and her own (many) marriages. We learn the red flags of potential disasters and ways to recover from heart-wrenching breakups. And if we suddenly feel ready to make the leap into marriage, she recommends turning to the Marriage Practicality Checklist to help us decide if we've really found a good match. From what to expect on a first date to when to call it quits, Barbara delivers thoughtful instruction with humor and generosity. Most of all, she never wants a woman to be "stuck." This won't happen if we follow her advice: be fearless and know when to say "Next!"
Bridges of Reform uncovers the early years of civil rights and the sophisticated ways it played out on the West Coast, a situation that radically differed from civil rights in the South and North. In this book, Shana Bernstein uses World War II and Cold War Los Angeles as a locus of civil rights activity and explores its roots in multiracial organizing. There, activists built multiracial collaborations, bringing together the Mexican-, Jewish-, African-, and Japanese-American populations. Later national civil rights legislation and Supreme Court rulings, as well as ethnic-specific community movements, emerged in part from these interracial efforts in Los Angeles. Detailed archival research reveals that significant domestic activism for racial equality persisted during the Cold War in the form of multiracial, anti-communist civil rights collaboration. The United States' global interests during World War II encouraged activists of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds to join forces. The Cold War facilitated further coalition-building and the pursuit of ongoing racial equality goals as activists sought protection and legitimacy from each other in this conservative era. From a city that incubated civil rights activism, Bernstein broadly connects West Coast activism with the domestic home front, the wars in Europe and Asia, and the onset of the Cold War, creating a unique study of comparative race, ethnicity, and civil rights.
The saga of the Freedom Rides is an improbable, almost unbelievable story. In the course of six months in 1961, four hundred and fifty Freedom Riders expanded the realm of the possible in American politics, redefining the limits of dissent and setting the stage for the civil rights movement. In this new version of his encyclopedic Freedom Riders, Raymond Arsenault offers a significantly condensed and tautly written account. With characters and plot lines rivaling those of the most imaginative fiction, this is a tale of heroic sacrifice and unexpected triumph. Arsenault recounts how a group of volunteers-blacks and whites-came together to travel from Washington DC through the Deep South, defying Jim Crow laws in buses and terminals and putting their lives on the line for racial justice. News photographers captured the violence in Montgomery, shocking the nation and sparking a crisis in the Kennedy administration. Here are the key players-their fears and courage, their determination and second thoughts, and the agonizing choices they faced as they took on Jim Crow-and triumphed. Winner of the Owsley Prize Publication is timed to coincide with the airing of the American Experience miniseries documenting the Freedom Rides "Arsenault brings vividly to life a defining moment in modern American history." -Eric Foner, The New York Times Book Review "Authoritative, compelling history." -William Grimes, The New York Times "For those interested in understanding 20th-century America, this is an essential book." -Roger Wilkins, Washington Post Book World "Arsenault's record of strategy sessions, church vigils, bloody assaults, mass arrests, political maneuverings and personal anguish captures the mood and the turmoil, the excitement and the confusion of the movement and the time." -Michael Kenney, The Boston Globe
In "Womanpower Unlimited and the Black Freedom Struggle in
Mississippi," Tiyi M. Morris provides the first comprehensive
examination of the Jackson, Mississippi-based women's organization
Womanpower Unlimited. Founded in 1961 by Clarie Collins Harvey, the
organization was created initially to provide aid to the Freedom
Riders who were unjustly arrested and then tortured in Mississippi
jails. Womanpower Unlimited expanded its activism to include
programs such as voter registration drives, youth education, and
participation in Women Strike for Peace. Womanpower Unlimited
proved to be not only a significant organization with regard to
civil rights activism in Mississippi but also a spearhead movement
for revitalizing black women's social and political activism in the
The two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of W. E. B. Du Bois from renowned scholar David Levering Lewis, now in one condensed and updated volume
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois--the premier architect of the civil rights movement in America--was a towering and controversial personality, a fiercely proud individual blessed with the language of the poet and the impatience of the agitator. Now, David Levering Lewis has carved one volume out of his superlative two-volume biography of this monumental figure that set the standard for historical scholarship on this era. In his magisterial prose, Lewis chronicles Du Bois's long and storied career, detailing the momentous contributions to our national character that still echo today.
Citizenship is generally viewed as the most desired legal status an individual can attain, invoking the belief that citizens hold full inclusion in a society, and can exercise and be protected by the Constitution. Yet this membership has historically been exclusive and illusive for many, and in Citizenship and Its Exclusions, Ediberto Roman offers a sweeping, interdisciplinary analysis of citizenship's contradictions. Roman offers an exploration of citizenship that spans from antiquity to the present, and crosses disciplines from history to political philosophy to law, including constitutional and critical race theories. Beginning with Greek and Roman writings on citizenship, he moves on to late-medieval and Renaissance Europe, then early Modern Western law, and culminates his analysis with an explanation of how past precedents have influenced U.S. law and policy regulating the citizenship status of indigenous and territorial island people, as well as how different levels of membership have created a de facto subordinate citizenship status for many members of American society, often lumped together as the "underclass."
Jeff Merkley couldn't believe his eyes. He never dreamed the United States could treat vulnerable young families like caged animals. No outsider had witnessed what Merkley discovered just by showing up at the border and demanding to see what was going on behind closed doors. Behind the official stories and soothing videos, he found mothers and children, new-born babies and infants, locked into ice-cold cages in makeshift prisons, or camping in blistering heat at the border. There were internment camps with no running water. There were disused supermarkets overflowing with more than a thousand young boys, locked up with nothing to keep them sane or active each day. This was how the Trump administration treated the victims of the unspeakable violence that had driven them from their homes: as dangerous criminals whose spirits needed to be broken. It was Merkley's visits -- captured live on viral video -- that triggered worldwide outrage at the forced separation of children from their parents. Just by taking an interest -- by caring about the people legally claiming asylum at America's borders -- Merkley helped expose the Trump administration's war on migrant families. Along the way, he helped turn the tide against some of its worst excesses. FREE THEM! tells the inside story of how a junior senator, with no background of being an immigration activist, became one of the leading advocates for reform of the brutal policies that have created a new humanitarian crisis on the southern US border. It represents the heartfelt and candid voice of a concerned American who believes his country stands for something far bigger and better than the punishment of immigrants who are no different from so many of the people who built the United States.
Multiculturalism in the South is more than black and white, as this collection of essays shows. "Cultural Diversity in the U.S. South" examines the often overlooked histories of various immigrants who settled in the South, their relations with one another, and their enormous impact on the region.
From Native Americans to Latinos, from Indochinese to Jews, this volume follows minority immigration from its early history into the current era of globalization of the South. "Cultural Diversity in the U.S. South" provides the most in-depth analysis yet written about the political, social, and economic conditions of the many different ethnic groups and offers fresh explanations to the questions concerning why some have become powerful voices in southern society more quickly than others.
The lawyers and legal commentators who contribute to We Dissent unanimously agree that during Chief Justice William Rehnquist's nineteen-year tenure, the Supreme Court failed to adequately protect civil liberties and civil rights. This is evident in majority opinions written for numerous cases heard by the Rehnquist Court, and eight of those cases are re-examined here, with contributors offering dissents to the Court's decisions. The Supreme Court opinions criticized in We Dissent suggest that the Rehnquist Court placed the interests of government above the people, and as the dissents in this book demonstrate, the Court strayed far from our constitutional ideals when it abandoned its commitment to the protection of the individual rights of Americans.
Each chapter focuses on a different case--ranging from torture to search and seizure, and from racial profiling to the freedom of political expression--with contributors summarizing the case and the decision, and then offering their own dissent to the majority opinion. For some cases featured in the book, the Court's majority decisions were unanimous, so readers can see here for the first time what a dissent might have looked like. In other cases, contributors offer alternative dissents to the minority opinion, thereby widening the scope of opposition to key civil liberties decision made by the Rehnquist Court.
Taken together, the dissents in this unique book address the pressing issue of Constitutional protection of individual freedom, and present a vision of constitutional law in the United States that differs considerably from the recent jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court.
Contributors: Michael Avery, Erwin Chemerinsky, Marjorie Cohn, Tracey Maclin, Eva Paterson, Jamin Raskin, David Rudovsky, Susan Kiyomi Serrano, and Abbe Smith.
Donald L. Hollowell was Georgia's chief civil rights attorney
during the 1950s and 1960s. In this role he defended African
American men accused or convicted of capital crimes in a racially
hostile legal system, represented movement activists arrested for
their civil rights work, and fought to undermine the laws that
maintained state-sanctioned racial discrimination. In "Saving the
Soul of Georgia," Maurice C. Daniels tells the story of this
behindthe- scenes yet highly influential civil rights lawyer who
defended the rights of blacks and advanced the cause of social
justice in the United States.
This book is all you need to inspire students' success.It is written by experienced examiners and teachers and is tailored to the new Edexcel specification. It features an active, engaging approach that brings History alive in the classroom! Exam tips, activities and sources in every chapter give students the confidence to tackle all the questions that come up in the exam. Carefully written material ensures the right level of support at AS or A2. Our Exam Zone feature provides students with a motivating way to prepare for their exams.
For many years, the far right has sown public distrust in the media as a political strategy, weaponizing libel law in an effort to stifle free speech and silence African American dissent. In Sullivan's Shadow demonstrates that this strategy was pursued throughout the civil rights era and beyond, as southern officials continued to bring lawsuits in their attempts to intimidate journalists who published accounts of police brutality against protestors. Taking the Supreme Court's famous 1964 case New York Times v. Sullivan as her starting point, Aimee Edmondson illuminates a series of fascinating and often astounding cases that preceded and followed this historic ruling. Drawing on archival research and scholarship in journalism, legal history, and African American studies, Edmondson offers a new narrative of brave activists, bold journalists and publishers, and hard-headed southern officials. These little-known courtroom dramas at the intersection of race, libel, and journalism go beyond the activism of the 1960s and span much of the country's history, beginning with lawsuits filed against abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and concluding with a suit spawned by the 1988 film Mississippi Burning.
When Freedom Would Triumph recalls the most significant and inspiring legislative battle of the twentieth century -- the two decades of struggle in the halls of Congress that resulted in civil rights for the descendants of American slaves. Robert Mann's comprehensive analysis shows how political leaders in Washington -- Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, John F. Kennedy, and others -- transformed the ardent passion for freedom -- the protests, marches, and creative nonviolence of the civil rights movement -- into concrete progress for justice. A story of heroism and cowardice, statesmanship and political calculation, vision and blindness, When Freedom Would Triumph, an abridged and updated version of Mann's The Walls of Jericho: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Russell, and the Struggle for Civil Rights, is a captivating, thought-provoking reminder of the need for more effective government.
Mann argues that the passage of civil rights laws is one of the finest examples of what good is possible when political leaders transcend partisan political differences and focus not only on the immediate judgment of the voters, but also on the ultimate judgment of history. As Mann explains, despite the opposition of a powerful, determined band of southern politicians led by Georgia senator Richard Russell, the political environment of the 1950s and 1960s enabled a remarkable amount of compromise and progress in Congress. When Freedom Would Triumph recalls a time when statesmanship was possible and progress was achieved in ways that united the country and appealed to our highest principles, not our basest instincts. Although the era was far from perfect, and its leaders were deeply flawed in many ways, Mann shows that the mid-twentieth century was an age of bipartisan cooperation and willingness to set aside party differences in the pursuit of significant social reform. Such a political stance, Mann argues, is worthy of study and emulation today.
View the Table of Contents.
aIt addresses a powerful topic. It is a conceptually creative
piece of scholarship, forged from a sophisticated interdisciplinary
"A rich and exceptionally clear account of the meaning-making
context and constitution of citizenship."
"Mark Weiner provides a rare and radical insight into the racial
structures of American law. Reading this racial history through the
rhetoric of case law decisions--juridical racialism--provides a
dramatic sense of the anthropological scope of what law has done
and potentially continues to do."
"An enthralling mixture of personages and cases that reveals
much about the intimate combining of law and 'American'
imperialism, including the complicities of scholarship."
"Juridical racialism is legal rhetoric infused with Anglo-Saxon
racial superiority and Weiner shows how it operated from the Gilded
Age to the decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Reading the
news, one wonders if it is not still operating today."
Americans Without Law shows how the racial boundaries of civic life are based on widespread perceptions about the relative capacity of minority groups for legal behavior, which Mark S. Weiner calls "juridical racialism." The book follows the history of this civic discourse by examining the legal status of four minority groups in four successive historical periods: American Indiansin the 1880s, Filipinos after the Spanish-American War, Japanese immigrants in the 1920s, and African Americans in the 1940s and 1950s.
Weiner reveals the significance of juridical racialism for each group--and, in turn, Americans as a whole--by examining the work of anthropological social scientists who developed distinctive ways of understanding racial and legal identity, and through decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that put these ethno-legal views into practice. Combining history, anthropology, and legal analysis, the book argues that the story of juridical racialism shows how race and citizenship served as a nexus for the professionalization of the social sciences, the growth of national state power, economic modernization, and modern practices of the self.
From the late nineteenth century to the dawn of the civil rights era, the Churches of Christ operated outside of conventional racial customs. Many of their congregations, even deep in the South, counted whites and blacks among their numbers. As the civil rights movement began to challenge pervasive social views about race, Church of Christ leaders and congregants found themselves in the midst of turmoil. In Race and Restoration: Churches of Christ and the Black Freedom Struggle, Barclay Key focuses on how these churches managed race relations during the Jim Crow era and how they adapted to the dramatic changes of the 1960s. Although most religious organisations grappled with changing attitudes toward race, the Churches of Christ had singular struggles. Fundamentally ""restorationist,"" these exclusionary churches perceived themselves as the only authentic expression of Christianity, compelling them to embrace peoples of different races, even as they succumbed to prevailing racial attitudes. The Churches of Christ thus offer a unique perspective for observing how Christian fellowship and human equality intersected during the civil rights era. Key reveals how racial attitudes and practices within individual congregations elude the simple categorizations often employed by historians. Public forums, designed by churches to bridge racial divides, offered insight into the minds of members while revealing the limited progress made by individual churches. Although the Churches of Christ did have a more racially diverse composition than many other denominations in the Jim Crow era, Key shows that their members were subject to many of the same aversions, prejudices, and fears of other churches of the time. Ironically, the tentative biracial relationships that had formed within and between congregations prior to World War II began to dissolve as leading voices of the civil rights movement prioritised desegregation.
From Syrian asylum seekers to super-rich foreign investors, immigration is one of the most controversial issues facing Britain today. Politicians kick the subject from one election to the next with energetic but ineffectual promises to 'crack down', while newspaper editors plaster it across front pages.But few know the truth behind the headlines; indeed, the almost daily changes to our complex immigration laws pile up so quickly that even the officials in charge struggle to keep up.In this clear, concise guide, Thom Brooks, one of the UK's leading experts on British citizenship - and a newly initiated British citizen himself - deftly navigates the perennially thorny path, exploding myths and exposing absurdities along the way. Ranging from how to test for 'Britishness' to how to tackle EU 'free movement', Becoming British explores how UK immigration really works - and sparks a long-overdue debate about how it should work.Combining expert analysis with a blistering critique of the failings of successive governments, this is the definitive guide to one of the most hotly disputed issues in the UK today.Wherever you stand on the immigration debate, Brooks's wryly observed account is the essential road map.
At the nexus of political science, development studies, and public policy, Developing States, Shaping Citizenship analyzes an overlooked driver of political behavior: citizens' past experience with the government through service provision. Using evidence from Zambia, this book demonstrates that the quality of citizens' interactions with the government through service provision sends them important signals about what they can hope to gain from political action. These interactions influence not only formal political behaviors like voting, but also collective behavior, political engagement, and subversive behaviors like tax evasion. Lack of capacity for service delivery not only undermines economic growth and human development, but also citizens' confidence in the responsiveness of the political system. Absent this confidence, citizens are much less likely to participate in democratic processes, express their preferences, or comply with state revenue collection. Economic development and political development in low-capacity states, Hern argues, are concurrent processes. Erin Accampo Hern draws on original data from an original large-N survey, interviews, Afrobarometer data, and archival materials collected over 12 months in Zambia. The theory underlying this book's framework is that of policy feedback, which argues that policies, once in place, influence the subsequent political participation of the affected population. This theory has predominantly been applied to advanced industrial democracies, and this book is the first explicit effort to adapt the theory to the developing country context.
This open access book presents findings from 15 European countries participating in the second cycle of the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2016). The study investigates the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a range of countries in the second decade of the 21st century. It responds to new and persisting challenges in the area of civic and citizenship education. The main results presented in this book are based on data collected using a European student questionnaire and provide insights into lower-secondary students' views on European identity (such as whether they identify as European, or have opportunities to learn about Europe in school), perceptions of freedom of movement and immigration (such as attitudes toward immigration, restriction of freedom of movement, and the freedom of European citizens to live and work across Europe), and perceptions of Europe and its future (such as views on European cooperation, expectations regarding Europe's future, and attitudes toward the European Union). For the 12 countries that participated in the previous cycle (ICCS 2009), ICCS 2016 reveals changes in young people's perceptions of immigration and European identity between 2009 and 2016. Test and questionnaire data from the international core study are used to review the extent to which region-specific perceptions are related to other factors, such as students' level of civic knowledge and social or educational contexts.
This book presents the first detailed history of the modern passport and why it became so important for controlling movement in the modern world. It explores the history of passport laws, the parliamentary debates about those laws, and the social responses to their implementation. The author argues that modern nation-states and the international state system have 'monopolized the 'legitimate means of movement',' rendering persons dependent on states' authority to move about - especially, though not exclusively, across international boundaries. This new edition reviews other scholarship, much of which was stimulated by the first edition, addressing the place of identification documents in contemporary life. It also updates the story of passport regulations from the publication of the first edition, which appeared just before the terrorist attacks of 9/11, to the present day.
Congressman John Lewis, an American icon and one of the key figures of the civil rights movement, continues his award-winning graphic novel trilogy with co-writer Andrew Aydin and artist Nate Powell, inspired by a 1950s comic book that helped prepare his own generation to join the struggle. Now, March brings the lessons of history to vivid life for a new generation, urgently relevant for today's world. After the success of the Nashville sit-in campaign, John Lewis is more committed than ever to changing the world through nonviolence - but as he and his fellow Freedom Riders board a bus into the vicious heart of the deep south, they will be tested like never before. Faced with beatings, police brutality, imprisonment, arson, and even murder, the movement's young activists place their lives on the line while internal conflicts threaten to tear them apart. But their courage will attract the notice of powerful allies, from Martin Luther King, Jr. to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy... and once Lewis is elected chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, this 23-year-old will be thrust into the national spotlight, becoming one of the "Big Six" leaders of the civil rights movement and a central figure in the landmark 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Betty Bobo Pearson (b. 1922), a seventh-generation, plantation-born Mississippian, defied her cultural heritage - and caused great personal pain for her parents and herself - when she became an activist in the civil rights movement. Never fearing to break the mold in her search for the ""best,"" she, in her ninety-third year, remains a strong, effective leader with a fun-loving, generous spirit. When Betty was eighteen months old, a train smashed into the car her mother was driving, killing Betty's beloved grandfather and severely injuring her grandmother. Thrown onto the engine's cow catcher, Betty lived and did not remember the accident. She did, however, grow up to fulfill her grandmother's prediction: ""Betty, God reached down and plucked you from in front of that train because he has something very special he wants you to do with your life.""In 1943, twenty-one-year-old Betty, soon to graduate from the University of Mississippi, received a full tuition scholarship to Columbia Graduate School in New York City. Ecstatic, she rushed home to tell her parents. ""ABSOLUTELY NOT. There is no way I'll allow my daughter to live in Yankee Land,"" her father replied. After fierce argument and much door slamming, Betty could not defy her father. But she had to show him she was her own person. Her nation was at war - so Betty joined the Marines. After the war, Betty married Bill Pearson and became mistress of Rainbow Plantation in the Delta. In 1955, she attended the Emmett Till trial (accompanied by her close friend and budding civil rights activist Florence Mars) and was shocked by the virulent degree of racism she witnessed there. Seeing her world in a new way, she became a courageous and dedicated supporter of the civil rights movement. Her activities severely fractured her close relationship with her parents. Yet, as a warm friend and bold, persuasive leader, Betty made an indelible mark in her church, in the Delta communities, in the lives of the people she employed, and in her beautiful garden at Rainbow.
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